Congenital Central Hypothyroidism due to a Homozygous Mutation in the TSH? Subunit Gene.
ABSTRACT: Congenital central hypothyroidism (CCH) is a rare condition occurring in 1?:?20000 to 1?:?50000 newborns. As TSH plasma levels are low, CCH is usually not detected by TSH-based neonatal screening for hypothyroidism, and, as a result, diagnosis is often delayed putting affected children at risk for developmental delay and growth failure. We report on a girl with isolated central hypothyroidism due to a homozygous one-base pair deletion (T313del) in exon 3 of the TSH? subunit gene. The molecular genetic and typical radiologic findings are discussed, and a systematic diagnostic workup for congenital central hypothyroidism is proposed. Physicians need to be aware of this rare condition to avoid diagnostic delay and to install prompt replacement therapy.
Project description:Homozygous mutations in the TSH beta subunit gene (TSHB) result in severe, isolated, central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH). This entity evades diagnosis in TSH-based congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening programmes in the UK and Ireland. Accordingly, genetic diagnosis, enabling ascertainment of affected relatives in families, is critical for prompt diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.Four cases of isolated TSH deficiency from three unrelated families in the UK and Ireland were investigated for mutations or deletions in TSHB. Haplotype analysis, to investigate a founder effect, was undertaken in cases with identical mutations (c.373delT).Two siblings in kindred 1 were homozygous for a previously described TSHB mutation (c.373delT). In kindreds 2 and 3, the affected individuals were compound heterozygous for TSHB c.373delT and either a 5·4-kB TSHB deletion (kindred 2, c.1-4389_417*195delinsCTCA) or a novel TSHB missense mutation (kindred 3, c.2T>C, p.Met1?). Neurodevelopmental retardation, following delayed diagnosis and treatment, was present in 3 cases. In contrast, the younger sibling in kindred 1 developed normally following genetic diagnosis and treatment from birth.This study, including the identification of a second, novel, TSHB deletion, expands the molecular spectrum of TSHB defects and suggests that allele loss may be a commoner basis for TSH deficiency than previously suspected. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of profound central hypothyroidism in such cases result in neurodevelopmental retardation. Inclusion of thyroxine (T4) plus thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), or free thyroxine (FT4) in CH screening, together with genetic case ascertainment enabling earlier therapeutic intervention, could prevent such adverse sequelae.
Project description:Context:Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is an underdiagnosed disorder characterized by deficient production and bioactivity of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) leading to low thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRHR) defects are rare recessive disorders usually associated with incidentally identified CCH and short stature in childhood. Objectives:Clinical and genetic characterization of a consanguineous family of Roma origin with central hypothyroidism and identification of underlying molecular mechanisms. Design:All family members were phenotyped with thyroid hormone profiles, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging, TRH tests, and dynamic tests for other pituitary hormones. Candidate TRH, TRHR, TSHB, and IGSF1 genes were screened for mutations. A mutant TRHR was characterized in vitro and by molecular modeling. Results:A homozygous missense mutation in TRHR (c.392T > C; p.I131T) was identified in an 8-year-old boy with moderate hypothyroidism (TSH: 2.61 mIU/L, Normal: 0.27 to 4.2; free thyroxine: 9.52 pmol/L, Normal: 10.9 to 25.7) who was overweight (body mass index: 20.4 kg/m2, p91) but had normal stature (122 cm; -0.58 standard deviation). His mother, two brothers, and grandmother were heterozygous for the mutation with isolated hyperthyrotropinemia (TSH: 4.3 to 8 mIU/L). The I131T mutation, in TRHR intracellular loop 2, decreases TRH affinity and increases the half-maximal effective concentration for signaling. Modeling of TRHR-Gq complexes predicts that the mutation disrupts the interaction between receptor and a hydrophobic pocket formed by Gq. Conclusions:A unique missense TRHR defect identified in a consanguineous family is associated with central hypothyroidism in homozygotes and hyperthyrotropinemia in heterozygotes, suggesting compensatory elevation of TSH with reduced biopotency. The I131T mutation decreases TRH binding and TRHR-Gq coupling and signaling.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe the case of a patient with central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) due to a recurrent mutation in the TSHB gene, as well as to conduct a genetic study of his family. CASE DESCRIPTION:It is presented a case report of a 5-month-old boy with a delayed diagnosis of isolated CCH in whom the molecular analysis was performed 12 years later and detected a recurrent mutation (c.373delT) in TSHB gene. The parents and sister were carriers of the mutant allele. COMMENTS:The c.373delT mutation has previously been reported in patients from Brazil, Germany, Belgium, United States, Switzerland, Argentina, France, Portugal, United Kingdom and Ireland. In summary, our case and other ones reported in the literature support the theory that this mutation may be a common cause of isolated TSH deficiency. Isolated TSH deficiency is not detected by routine TSH-based neonatal screening, representing a clinical challenge. Therefore, when possible, molecular genetic study is indicated. Identification of affected and carriers allows the diagnosis, treatment and adequate genetic counseling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Isolated central congenital hypothyroidism (ICCH) is a rare form (1:50,000 newborns) of congenital hypothyroidism, which can present with growth and neuropsychological retardation. Unlike the more common primary CH (1:1,500-1:4,000), which presents on newborn screening with elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and low thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), ICCH presents with low TSH and low thyroid hormone levels. ICCH, therefore, may be missed in most newborn screens that are based only on elevated TSH. Most cases of ICCH have been associated with mutations in the TSH? gene. PATIENT:We present a consanguineous Sudanese family where the proband was diagnosed with "atypical" CH (serum TSH was low, not high). INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME:The propositus underwent whole-exome sequencing, and the C47W TSH? mutation was identified. Sanger sequencing confirmed the proband to be homozygous for C47W, and both parents were heterozygous for the same mutation. The mutation was predicted by several in silico methods to have a deleterious effect (SIFT 0.0, Damaging; Polyphen2_HDIV 0.973, probably damaging; MutationTaster 1, disease causing; and CADD 3.17, 16.62). C47W affects the first cysteine of the cysteine knot of the TSH? subunit. The cysteine knot region of TSH? is highly conserved across species and is critical for binding to the TSH receptor. Only two other mutations were previously reported along the cysteine knot and showed consistently low or undetectable serum TSH and low T4 and T3 levels. Other TSH? gene mutations causing ICCH have been reported in the "seatbelt" region, necessary for TSH? dimerization with the alpha subunit. CONCLUSIONS:Identification of a mutation in the TSH? gene reinforces the importance of identifying ICCH that can occur in the absence of elevated serum TSH and demonstrates the functional significance of the TSH? cysteine knot.
Project description:Deficiency in Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor, GLI-Similar 3 (GLIS3) in humans is associated with the development of congenital hypothyroidism. However, the functions of GLIS3 in the thyroid gland and by what mechanism GLIS3-dysfunction causes hypothyroidism are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that GLIS3 acts downstream of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)/TSHR and is indispensable for TSH/TSHR-mediated induction of thyroid follicular cell proliferation and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ChIP-Seq and promoter analysis revealed that GLIS3 is critical for the transcriptional activation of several genes required for thyroid hormone biosynthesis, including the iodide transporters Nis and Pds, indicating that these genes are directly regulated by GLIS3. The repression of cell proliferation regulatory genes is due to the inhibition of TSH-mediated activation of the mTORC1/RPS6 pathway as well as direct transcriptional regulation of several cell division-related genes by GLIS3. Consequently, GLIS3-deficiency prevents the development of goiter as well as the induction of inflammatory and fibrotic genes during chronic elevation of circulating TSH. Our study identifies GLIS3 as a new and key regulator of TSH/TSHR-mediated thyroid hormone biosynthesis and proliferation of thyroid follicular cells, and uncovers a mechanism by which GLIS3-deficiency causes congenital hypothyroidism and prevents goiter development. Overall design: Genome-wide mapping of endogenous GLIS3 in thyroid glands from GLIS3-EGFP mice fed a low-iodine diet (LID) for 2 weeks; RNA-Seq profiling of wild-type (WT) and Glis3KO thyroid glands from mice fed a LID.
Project description:Abstract It was recently reported that mutations in the insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) gene cause a novel form of X-linked congenital central hypothyroidism (OMIM 300904). To date, four different mutations, three frameshift and one nonsense, have been reported, with two affected male patients showing decreased basal, pulsatile, and total thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) secretion (PMID 30061370). Members of the IRS family canonically act as scaffold proteins between tyrosine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors. IRS4/Irs4 expression is enriched in the pituitary; however, its role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis has not been studied in detail. We generated novel whole-body Irs4-knockout mouse lines using CRISPR-Cas9. A specific guide RNA was used to target the Cas9 enzyme to the 5’ end of the single exon Irs4 gene. A two-nucleotide deletion was introduced into Irs4, resulting in a frameshift and premature stop codon. We hypothesized that like IRS4 deficient patients, these mice would exhibit central hypothyroidism. Given that Irs4 is X-linked, we focused our initial characterization on males. Under normal laboratory conditions, Irs4 knockout mice do not exhibit differences in pituitary expression of Tshb, which encodes one of the subunits of the TSH heterodimer. Expression of the gene encoding the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor, Trhr1, is also unperturbed in these knockout mice. Additionally, there are no differences in their serum thyroid hormones, T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). When Irs4 knockout males were placed on a low-iodine diet supplemented with propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks and rendered hypothyroid, their serum TSH increased similarly to wild-type males. Overall, Irs4 knockout males do not exhibit central hypothyroidism or phenocopy IRS4 deficient patients. Compensation by another IRS protein may explain euthyroidism in these mice.
Project description:When newborn screening (NBS) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) using thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as a primary screening test was introduced, typical TSH screening cutoffs were 20-50?U/L of whole blood. Over the years, lowering of TSH cutoffs has contributed to an increased prevalence of detected CH. However, a consensus on the benefit deriving from lowering TSH cutoffs at screening is lacking. The present paper outlines arguments both for and against the lowering of TSH cutoffs at NBS. It includes a review of recently published evidence from Australia, Belgium and Italy. A section focused on economic implications of lowering TSH cutoffs is also provided. One issue that bears further examination is the extent to which mild iodine deficiency at the population level might affect the association of neonatal TSH values with cognitive and developmental outcomes. A debate on TSH cutoffs provides the opportunity to reflect on how to make NBS for CH more effective and to guarantee optimum neurocognitive development and a good quality of life to babies with mild as well as with severe CH. All authors of this debate article agree on the need to establish optimal TSH cutoffs for screening programs in various settings and to ensure the benefits of screening and access to care for newborns worldwide.
Project description:Naturally occurring thyrotropin (TSH) mutations are rare, which is also the case for the homologous heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) follitropin (FSH), lutropin (LH), and choriogonadotropin (CG). Patients with TSH-inactivating mutations present with central congenital hypothyroidism. Here, we summarize insights into the most frequent loss-of-function β-subunit of TSH mutation C105Vfs114X, which is associated with isolated TSH deficiency. This review will address the following question. What is currently known on the molecular background of this TSH variant on a protein level? It has not yet been clarified how C105Vfs114X causes early symptoms in affected patients, which are comparably severe to those observed in newborns lacking any functional thyroid tissue (athyreosis). To better understand the mechanisms of this mutant, we have summarized published reports and complemented this information with a structural perspective on GPHs. By including the ancestral TSH receptor agonist thyrostimulin and pathogenic mutations reported for FSH, LH, and choriogonadotropin in the analysis, insightful structure function and evolutionary restrictions become apparent. However, comparisons of immunogenicity and bioactivity of different GPH variants is hindered by a lack of consensus for functional analysis and the diversity of used GPH assays. Accordingly, relevant gaps of knowledge concerning details of GPH mutation-related effects are identified and highlighted in this review. These issues are of general importance as several previous and recent studies point towards the high impact of GPH variants in differential signaling regulation at GPH receptors (GPHRs), both endogenously and under diseased conditions. Further improvement in this area is of decisive importance for the development of novel targeted therapies.
Project description:Typically, newborns with congenital hypothyroidism are asymptomatic at birth, having been exposed to euthyroid mothers. However, hypopituitarism may be associated with central hypothyroidism, preserved fertility, and autosomal dominant inheritance, requiring increased attention to thyroid management during pregnancy.A woman with a history of growth hormone deficiency and central hypothyroidism gave birth to a term male neonate appropriate for gestational age. Due to low thyrotropin (TSH) in the second trimester, the levothyroxine dose was decreased by the obstetrician, and free T4 was low throughout the latter half of pregnancy. The neonatal laboratory evaluation showed central hypothyroidism with a low T4 of 2.1 μg/dL (4.5-11.5) and an inappropriately normal TSH of 0.98 uIU/mL (0.5-4.5); undetectable growth hormone, IGF-I, and IGFBP3; a normal cortisol level; and a normal gonadotropin surge. After initiation of levothyroxine in the first week, both tone and feeding tolerance improved. However, the patient was found to have hearing loss, gross motor delay, and speech delay.In this report, we review a case of vertical transmission of a dominant negative POU1F1 mutation in which fetal abnormalities due to the hypothyroxinemic state during gestation may have been exacerbated by a decrease in the mother's levothyroxine dose based on a low TSH in early gestation. Both mother and fetus were unable to synthesize sufficient thyroid hormone, which may be responsible for the patient's clinical presentation.This case underscores several important points in the management of women with hypopituitarism. First, it is important that patients and clinicians are both aware of the differences in etiology, as well as appropriate screening and treatment, of primary versus central hypothyroidism. Second, it is necessary to monitor the thyroid hormone status closely during pregnancy to prevent fetal sequelae of maternal hypothyroidism. Third, genetic screening of patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency is necessary, so that prenatal genetic counseling may be an option for expecting parents.
Project description:Context:IGSF1 deficiency is a recently discovered syndrome consisting of congenital central hypothyroidism (CeH) and macroorchidism. Here, we report on a patient presenting with short stature, who was found to carry a pathogenic mutation in the IGSF1 gene. Case Description:A 14-year-old Israeli boy was referred to the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, for follow-up on short stature ascribed to constitutional delay of growth and puberty, and familial hypercholesterolemia. Primary hypothyroidism had previously been excluded by a normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration. However, in follow-up, plasma free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were repeatedly low, and the patient was diagnosed with CeH. Because of coexistent relative macroorchidism, IGSF1 gene analysis was performed, revealing a mutation (c.2588C>G; p.Ser863Cys). The mutant IGSF1 protein was retained mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum and reached the plasma membrane with poor efficiency compared with wild-type protein. After starting thyroxine treatment, plasma cholesterol almost normalized. Conclusions:This case illustrates the necessity of measuring both FT4 and TSH when hypothyroidism is suspected, or needs to be ruled out. In addition, this case suggests that the presence of childhood hypercholesterolemia may be an indication of undiagnosed hypothyroidism.