Caloric restriction suppresses microglial activation and prevents neuroapoptosis following cortical injury in rats.
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a widespread cause of death and a major source of adult disability. Subsequent pathological events occurring in the brain after TBI, referred to as secondary injury, continue to damage surrounding tissue resulting in substantial neuronal loss. One of the hallmarks of the secondary injury process is microglial activation resulting in increased cytokine production. Notwithstanding that recent studies demonstrated that caloric restriction (CR) lasting several months prior to an acute TBI exhibits neuroprotective properties, understanding how exactly CR influences secondary injury is still unclear. The goal of the present study was to examine whether CR (50% of daily food intake for 3 months) alleviates the effects of secondary injury on neuronal loss following cortical stab injury (CSI). To this end, we examined the effects of CR on the microglial activation, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and caspase-3 expression in the ipsilateral (injured) cortex of the adult rats during the recovery period (from 2 to 28 days) after injury. Our results demonstrate that CR prior to CSI suppresses microglial activation, induction of TNF-? and caspase-3, as well as neurodegeneration following injury. These results indicate that CR strongly attenuates the effects of secondary injury, thus suggesting that CR may increase the successful outcome following TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of morbidity and disability worldwide and a healthcare burden. TBI is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases hallmarked by exacerbated neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation in the cerebral cortex plays a critical role in secondary injury progression following TBI. The NOD-like receptors (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key player in initiating the inflammatory response in various central nervous system disorders entailing TBI. This current study aims to investigate the role of NLRP3 in repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) and identify the potential neuroprotective effect of saffron extract in regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome. 24 hours following the final injury, rmTBI causes an upregulation in mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin-1Beta (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1). Protein levels of NLRP3, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), and neuronal nuclei (Neu N) also increased after rmTBI. Administration of saffron alleviated the degree of TBI, as evidenced by reducing the neuronal damage, astrocyte, and microglial activation. Pretreatment with saffron inhibited the activation of NLRP3, caspase-1, and ASC concurrent to reduced production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Additionally, saffron extract enhanced SIRT1 expression, NRF2, and HMOX1 upregulation. These results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the subsequent inflammatory response in the mice cortex are involved in the process of rmTBI. Saffron blocked the inflammatory response and relieved TBI by activating detoxifying genes and inhibiting NLRP3 activation. The effect of saffron on the NLRP3 inflammasome may be SIRT1 and NF-κB dependent in the rmTBI model. Thus, brain injury biomarkers will help in identifying a potential therapeutic target in treating TBI-induced neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury is among the leading causes of death in individuals under 45 years of age. However, since trauma mechanisms and survival times differ enormously, the exact mechanisms leading to the primary and secondary injury and eventually to death after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain unclear. Several studies showed the versatile functions of microglia, the innate macrophages of the brain, following a TBI. Earlier being characterized as rather neurotoxic, neuroprotective capacities were recently demonstrated, therefore, making microglia one of the key players following TBI. Especially in cases with only short survival times, immediate microglial reactions are of great forensic interest in questions of wound age estimation. Using standardized immunohistochemical methods, we examined 8 cases which died causatively of TBI with survival times between minutes and 7 days and 5 control cases with cardiovascular failure as the cause of death to determine acute changes in microglial morphology and antigen expression after TBI. In this pilot study, we detected highly localized changes in microglial morphology already early after traumatic damage, e.g., activated microglia and phagocyted erythrocytes in the contusion areas in cases with minute survival. Furthermore, an altered antigen expression was observed with increasing trauma wound age, showing similar effects like earlier transcriptomic studies. There is minute data on the direct impact of shear forces on microglial morphology. We were able to show localization-depending effects on microglial morphology causing localized dystrophy and adjacent activation. While rodent studies are widespread, they fail to mimic the exact mechanisms in human TBI response. Therefore, more studies focusing on cadaveric samples need to follow to thoroughly define the mechanisms leading to cell destruction and eventually evaluate their forensic value.
Project description:Despite increasing appreciation of the critical role that neuroinflammatory pathways play in brain injury and neurodegeneration, little is known about acute microglial reactivity following diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) - the most common clinical presentation that includes all concussions. Therefore, we investigated acute microglial reactivity using a porcine model of closed-head rotational velocity/acceleration-induced TBI that closely mimics the biomechanical etiology of inertial TBI in humans. We observed rapid microglial reactivity within 15min of both mild and severe TBI. Strikingly, microglial activation was restrained to regions proximal to individual injured neurons - as denoted by trauma-induced plasma membrane disruption - which served as epicenters of acute reactivity. Single-cell quantitative analysis showed that in areas free of traumatically permeabilized neurons, microglial density and morphology were similar between sham or following mild or severe TBI. However, microglia density increased and morphology shifted to become more reactive in proximity to injured neurons. Microglial reactivity around injured neurons was exacerbated following repetitive TBI, suggesting further amplification of acute neuroinflammatory responses. These results indicate that neuronal trauma rapidly activates microglia in a highly localized manner, and suggest that activated microglia may rapidly influence neuronal stability and/or pathophysiology after diffuse TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by physical damage to the brain and it induces blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammation. To diminish the sequelae of TBI, it is important to decrease haemorrhage and alleviate inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of 2-carba-cyclic phosphatidic acid (2ccPA) on the repair mechanisms after a stab wound injury as a murine TBI model. The administration of 2ccPA suppressed serum immunoglobulin extravasation after the injury. To elucidate the effects of 2ccPA on inflammation resulting from TBI, we analysed the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines. We found that 2ccPA prevents a TBI-induced increase in the mRNA expression of Il-1?, Il-6, Tnf-? and Tgf-?1. In addition, 2ccPA reduces the elevation of Iba1 levels. These data suggest that 2ccPA attenuates the inflammation after a stab wound injury via the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines release from microglial cells. Therefore, we focused on the function of 2ccPA in microglial polarisation towards M1 or M2 phenotypes. The administration of 2ccPA decreased the number of M1 and increased the number of M2 type microglial cells, indicating that 2ccPA modulates the microglial polarisation and shifts them towards M2 phenotype. These data suggest that 2ccPA treatment suppresses the extent of BBB breakdown and inflammation after TBI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Microglial/macrophage activation and neuroinflammation are key cellular events following TBI, but the regulatory and functional mechanisms are still not well understood. Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive tyrosine kinase (Mer), a member of the Tyro-Axl-Mer (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, regulates multiple features of microglial/macrophage physiology. However, its function in regulating the innate immune response and microglial/macrophage M1/M2 polarization in TBI has not been addressed. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of Mer in regulating microglial/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and neuroinflammation following TBI.<h4>Methods</h4>The controlled cortical impact (CCI) mouse model was employed. Mer siRNA was intracerebroventricularly administered, and recombinant protein S (PS) was intravenously applied for intervention. The neurobehavioral assessments, RT-PCR, Western blot, magnetic-activated cell sorting, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy analysis, Nissl and Fluoro-Jade B staining, brain water content measurement, and contusion volume assessment were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Mer is upregulated and regulates microglial/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and neuroinflammation in the acute stage of TBI. Mechanistically, Mer activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)/suppressor of cytokine signaling 1/3 (SOCS1/3) pathway. Inhibition of Mer markedly decreases microglial/macrophage M2-like polarization while increases M1-like polarization, which exacerbates the secondary brain damage and sensorimotor deficits after TBI. Recombinant PS exerts beneficial effects in TBI mice through Mer activation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Mer is an important regulator of microglial/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and neuroinflammation, and may be considered as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in TBI.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has complex effects on the gastrointestinal tract that are associated with TBI-related morbidity and mortality. We examined changes in mucosal barrier properties and enteric glial cell response in the gut after experimental TBI in mice, as well as effects of the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) on both gut and brain after injury. METHODS:Moderate-level TBI was induced in C57BL/6mice by controlled cortical impact (CCI). Mucosal barrier function was assessed by transepithelial resistance, fluorescent-labelled dextran flux, and quantification of tight junction proteins. Enteric glial cell number and activation were measured by Sox10 expression and GFAP reactivity, respectively. Separate groups of mice were challenged with Cr infection during the chronic phase of TBI, and host immune response, barrier integrity, enteric glial cell reactivity, and progression of brain injury and inflammation were assessed. RESULTS:Chronic CCI induced changes in colon morphology, including increased mucosal depth and smooth muscle thickening. At day 28 post-CCI, increased paracellular permeability and decreased claudin-1 mRNA and protein expression were observed in the absence of inflammation in the colon. Colonic glial cell GFAP and Sox10 expression were significantly increased 28days after brain injury. Clearance of Cr and upregulation of Th1/Th17 cytokines in the colon were unaffected by CCI; however, colonic paracellular flux and enteric glial cell GFAP expression were significantly increased. Importantly, Cr infection in chronically-injured mice worsened the brain lesion injury and increased astrocyte- and microglial-mediated inflammation. CONCLUSION:These experimental studies demonstrate chronic and bidirectional brain-gut interactions after TBI, which may negatively impact late outcomes after brain injury.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Following the initial insult, severe TBI progresses to a secondary injury phase associated with biochemical and cellular changes. The secondary injury is thought to be responsible for the development of many of the neurological deficits observed after TBI and also provides a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 or gelatinase B) expression is elevated in neurological diseases and its activation is an important factor in detrimental outcomes including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, and increases in inflammatory responses and astrogliosis. In this study, we used an experimental mouse model of TBI to examine the role of MMP-9 and the therapeutic potential of SB-3CT, a mechanism-based gelatinase selective inhibitor, in ameliorating the secondary injury. We observed that activation of MMP-9 occurred within one day following TBI, and remained elevated for 7 days after the initial insult. SB-3CT effectively attenuated MMP-9 activity, reduced brain lesion volumes and prevented neuronal loss and dendritic degeneration. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that SB-3CT and its active metabolite, p-OH SB-3CT, were rapidly absorbed and distributed to the brain. Moreover, SB-3CT treatment mitigated microglial activation and astrogliosis after TBI. Importantly, SB-3CT treatment improved long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, including sensorimotor function, and hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory. These results demonstrate that MMP-9 is a key target for therapy to attenuate secondary injury cascades and that this class of mechanism-based gelatinase inhibitor-with such desirable pharmacokinetic properties-holds considerable promise as a potential pharmacological treatment of TBI.
Project description:Recent clinical studies indicate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces chronic and progressive neurodegenerative changes leading to late neurologic dysfunction, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying such changes. Microglial-mediated neuroinflammationis an important secondary injury mechanism after TBI. In human studies, microglial activation has been found to persist for many years after the initial brain trauma, particularly after moderate to severe TBI. In the present study, adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to single moderate-level controlled cortical impact and were followed up by longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in combination with stereologic histologic assessment of lesion volume expansion, neuronal loss, and microglial activation for up to 1 year after TBI. Persistent microglial activation was observed in the injured cortex through 1 year after injury and was associated with progressive lesion expansion, hippocampal neurodegeneration, and loss of myelin. Notably, highly activated microglia that expressed major histocompatibility complex class II (CR3/43), CD68, and NADPH oxidase (NOX2) were detected at the margins of the expanding lesion at 1 year after injury; biochemical markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were significantly elevated at this time point. These data support emerging clinical TBI findings and provide a mechanistic link between TBI-induced chronic microglial activation and progressive neurodegeneration.
Project description:Growing evidence has demonstrated that the nucleotide?binding oligomerization domain?like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP?3) inflammasome?mediated inflammatory pathways have been involved in the secondary injury of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on the NLRP?3 inflammasome pathway following TBI. Following the evaluation of motor deficits and brain edema, the therapeutic effects of HBO on interleukin (IL)?1? and IL?18 expression were assessed, as well as NLRP?3 inflammasome activation following TBI. HBO may improve motor score and reduce brain edema, accompanied with the reduction of IL?1? and IL?18 during the 7?day observation period. Furthermore, HBO suppressed mRNA and protein expression of NLRP?3?inflammasome components, especially reducing NLRP?3 expression in microglia. Thus, these results suggested that HBO alleviates the inflammatory response in experimental TBI via modulating microglial NLRP?3?inflammasome signaling.
Project description:Interactions between microglia and neuronal components are important for normal CNS function. They are also associated with neuroinflammation and many pathological processes and several studies have explored these interactions in terms of phagocytic engulfment. Much progress has also been made in understanding the consequences of chronic neuroinflammatory changes following trauma. However, little is known about acute alterations to these physical non-phagocytic microglial-neuronal interactions following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and particularly to what degree these post-injury interactions may be influenced by the animal species utilized in pre-clinical models of TBI. To investigate these problems, we evaluated the physical interactions between microglia and injured axons acutely (6 h and 1 day) following central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) in both rats and micro pigs. The physical interactions between Iba-1+ microglia and either normal MBP+ myelinated fibers or APP+ injured axonal swellings in the thalamus were assessed following injury or sham via quantitative image analysis of 3D confocal micrographs. The results indicated that the physical interactions between microglia and injured axonal swellings decreased by nearly half in rats 6 h following cFPI but was consistent with sham control at 1 day post-cFPI. This reduction was also observed in non-injured intact fibers at both timepoints following TBI in the rat. Microglial process interactions with injured axons in the micro pig, however, increased nearly 2-fold compared to interactions with intact axonal segments 1 day post-cFPI. This study shows that the species utilized for <i>in vivo</i> pre-clinical studies influences the manner in which microglial-axonal interactions change following TBI. These species differences can be leveraged to further our understanding of the mechanisms involved in microglial process convergence and how these neuro-immune interactions alter the progression of axonal injury following TBI.