Stereoselective assembly of complex oligosaccharides using anomeric sulfonium ions as glycosyl donors.
ABSTRACT: The development of selectively protected monosaccharide building blocks that can reliably be glycosylated with a wide variety of acceptors is expected to make oligosaccharide synthesis a more routine operation. In particular, there is an urgent need for the development of modular building blocks that can readily be converted into glycosyl donors for glycosylations that give reliably high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity. We report here that 1,2-oxathiane ethers are stable under acidic, basic, and reductive conditions making it possible to conduct a wide range of protecting group manipulations and install selectively removable protecting groups such as levulinoyl (Lev) ester, fluorenylmethyloxy (Fmoc)- and allyloxy (Alloc)-carbonates, and 2-methyl naphthyl ethers (Nap). The 1,2-oxathiane ethers could easily be converted into bicyclic anomeric sulfonium ions by oxidization to sulfoxides and arylated with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The resulting sulfonium ions gave high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity when glycosylated with a wide variety of glycosyl acceptors including properly protected amino acids, primary and secondary sugar alcohols and partially protected thioglycosides. The selective protected 1,2-oxathianes were successfully employed in the preparation of a branched glucoside derived from a glycogen-like polysaccharide isolated form the fungus Pseudallescheria boydii , which is involved in fungal phagocytosis and activation of innate immune responses. The compound was assembled by a latent-active glycosylation strategy in which an oxathiane was employed as an acceptor in a glycosylation with a sulfoxide donor. The product of such a glycosylation was oxidized to a sulfoxide for a subsequent glycosylation. The use of Nap and Fmoc as temporary protecting groups made it possible to install branching points.
Project description:Anomeric sulfonium ions are attractive glycosyl donors for the stereoselective installation of 1,2-cis glycosides. Although these donors are receiving increasing attention, their mechanism of glycosylation remains controversial. We have investigated the reaction mechanism of glycosylation of a donor modified at C-2 with a (1S)-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfanyl)ethyl chiral auxiliary. Preactivation of this donor results in the formation of a bicyclic ?-sulfonium ion that after addition of an alcohol undergoes 1,2-cis-glycosylation. To probe the importance of the thiophenyl moiety, analogs were prepared in which this moiety was replaced by an anisoyl or benzyl moiety. Furthermore, the auxiliaries were installed as S- and R-stereoisomers. It was found that the nature of the heteroatom and chirality of the auxiliary greatly influenced the anomeric outcome and only the one containing a thiophenyl moiety and having S-configuration gave consistently ?-anomeric products. The sulfonium ions are sufficiently stable at a temperature at which glycosylations proceed indicating that they are viable glycosylation agents. Time-course NMR experiments with the latter donor showed that the initial rates of glycosylations increase with increases in acceptor concentration and the rate curves could be fitted to a second order rate equation. Collectively, these observations support a mechanism by which a sulfonium ion intermediate is formed as a trans-decalin ring system that can undergo glycosylation through a bimolecular mechanism. DFT calculations have provided further insight into the reaction path of glycosylation and indicate that initially a hydrogen-bonded complex is formed between sulfonium ion and acceptor that undergoes SN2-like glycosylation to give an ?-anomeric product.
Project description:Activation of a glycosyl donor protected with a 2-O-(S)-(phenylthiomethyl)benzyl ether chiral auxiliary results in the formation of an anomeric ?-sulfonium ion, which can be displaced with sugar alcohols to give corresponding ?-glycosides. Sufficient deactivation of such glycosyl donors by electron-withdrawing protecting groups is, however, critical to avoid glycosylation of an oxacarbenium ion intermediate. The latter type of glycosylation pathway can also be suppressed by installing additional substituents in the chiral auxiliary.
Project description:Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis offers the promise of providing libraries of oligosaccharides for glycomics research. A major stumbling block to solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis has been a lack of general methods for the stereoselective installation of 1,2-cis-glycosides, and intractable mixtures of compounds are obtained if several such glycosides need to be installed. We have prepared on-resin a biologically important glucoside containing multiple 1,2-cis-glycosidic linkages with complete anomeric control by using glycosyl donors having a participating (S)-(phenylthiomethyl)benzyl chiral auxiliary at C2. A branching point could be installed by using 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) and allyloxycarbonyl (Alloc) as a versatile set of orthogonal protecting groups. The synthetic strategy made it possible to achieve partial on-resin deprotection of the completed oligosaccharide, thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the synthesis. The combination of classical and auxiliary-mediated neighbouring-group participation for controlling anomeric selectivity is bringing the promise of routine automated solid-supported oligosaccharide synthesis closer.
Project description:4-Trifluoromethylbenzenepropargyl ethers are stable and sterically minimal alcohol protecting groups that are readily cleaved in a single step by exposure to lithium naphthalenide. In conjunction with the 4,6-O-benzylidene protecting group, glycosylation reactions of 2-O-(4-trifluoromethylbenzenepropargyl)-protected mannosyl donors are extremely beta-selective.
Project description:Metal triflates have been utilized to catalytically facilitate numerous glycosylation reactions under mild conditions. In some methods, the metal triflate system provides stereocontrol during the glycosylation, rather than the nature of protecting groups on the substrate. Despite these advances, the true activating nature of metal triflates remains unclear. Our findings indicated that the in situ generation of trace amounts of triflic acid from metal triflates can be the active catalyst species in the glycosylation. This fact has been mentioned previously in metal triflate-catalyzed glycosylation reactions; however, a thorough study on the subject and its implications on stereoselectivity has yet to be performed. Experimental evidence from control reactions and 19F NMR spectroscopy have been obtained to confirm and quantify the triflic acid released from nickel triflate, for which it is of paramount importance in achieving a stereoselective 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bond formation via a transient anomeric triflate. A putative intermediate resembling that of a glycosyl triflate has been detected using variable temperature NMR (1H and 13C) experiments. These observations, together with density functional theory calculations and a kinetic study, corroborate a mechanism involving triflic acid-catalyzed stereoselective glycosylation with N-substituted trifluoromethylbenzylideneamino protected electrophiles. Specifically, triflic acid facilitates formation of a glycosyl triflate intermediate which then undergoes isomerization from the stable ?-anomer to the more reactive ?-anomer. Subsequent SN2-like displacement of the reactive anomer by a nucleophile is highly favorable for the production of 1,2-cis-2-aminoglycosides. Although there is a previously reported work regarding glycosyl triflates, none of these reports have been confirmed to come from the counter ion of the metal center. Our work provides supporting evidence for the induction of a glycosyl triflate through the role of triflic acid in metal triflate-catalyzed glycosylation reactions.
Project description:Complementary to hydrophobic five membered ring ?-amino acids (e.g. ACPC), ?-sugar amino acids (?-SAAs) have found increasing application as hydrophilic building blocks of foldamers and ?/? chimeric peptides. Fmoc-protected ?-SAAs [e.g. Fmoc-RibAFU(ip)-OH] are indeed useful Lego elements, ready to use for SPPS. The removal of 1,2-OH isopropylidene protecting group increasing the hydrophilicity of such SAA is presented here. We first used N<sub>3</sub>-RibAFU(ip)-OH model compound to optimize mild deprotection conditions. The formation of the 1,2-OH free product N<sub>3</sub>-RibAFU-OH and its methyl glycoside methyl ester, N<sub>3</sub>-RibAFU(Me)-OMe were monitored by RP-HPLC and found that either 50% TFA or 8 eqv. Amberlite IR-120 H<sup>+</sup> resin in MeOH are optimal reagents for the effective deprotection. These conditions were then successfully applied for the synthesis of chimeric oligopeptide: -GG-X-GG- [X=RibAFU(ip)]. We found the established conditions to be effective and-at the same time-sufficiently mild to remove 1,2-O-isopropylidene protection and thus, it is proposed to be used in the synthesis of oligo- and polypeptides of complex sequence combination.
Project description:The stereoselective synthesis of saccharide thioglycosides containing 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic linkages is challenging. In addition to the difficulties associated with achieving high ?-selectivity in the formation of 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bonds, the glycosylation reaction is hampered by undesired transfer of the anomeric sulfide group from the glycosyl acceptor to the glycosyl donor. Overcoming these obstacles will pave the way for the preparation of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates bearing the 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic linkages because the saccharide thioglycosides obtained can serve as donors for another coupling iteration. This approach streamlines selective deprotection and anomeric derivatization steps prior to the subsequent coupling event. We have developed an efficient approach for the synthesis of highly yielding and ?-selective saccharide thioglycosides containing 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bonds, via cationic nickel-catalyzed glycosylation of thioglycoside acceptors bearing the 2-trifluoromethylphenyl aglycon with N-phenyl trifluoroacetimidate donors. The 2-trifluoromethylphenyl group effectively blocks transfer of the anomeric sulfide group from the glycosyl acceptor to the C(2)-benzylidene donor and can be easily installed and activated. The current method also highlights the efficacy of the nickel catalyst selectively activating the C(2)-benzylidene imidate group in the presence of the anomeric sulfide group on the glycosyl acceptors.
Project description:TMSOTf-promoted glycosylations of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucosyl trichloroacetimidates provide excellent alpha-anomeric selectivities when performed at a relatively high reaction temperature in the presence of PhSEt or thiophene. NMR and computation studies have shown that these glycosylations proceed through an equatorial anomeric sulfonium ion, which upon displacement by a sugar alcohol provides an axial glycoside. Computational studies have indicated that steric factors determine the selective formation of the beta-anomeric sulfonium ion.
Project description:The highly ?-selective and scalable synthesis of the Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine amino acid and TN antigen in gram scale (0.5-1 g) is described. The challenging 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bond is addressed through a coupling of threonine residues with C(2)-N-ortho-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidenamino trihaloacetimidate donors mediated by Ni(4-F-PhCN)4(OTf)2. The desired 1,2-cis-2-amino glycoside was obtained in 66% yield (3.77 g) with ?-only selectivity and subsequently transformed into the Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine and TN antigen. This operationally simple procedure no longer requires utilization of the commonly used C(2)-azido donors and overcomes many of the limitations associated with the synthesis of 1,2-cis linkage.
Project description:Here we present a synthetic route for solid phase synthesis of N-linked glycoconjugates containing high mannose oligosaccharides which allows the incorporation of useful functional handles on the N-terminus of asparagine. In this strategy, the C-terminus of an Fmoc protected aspartic acid residue is first attached to a solid phase support. The side chain of aspartic acid is protected by a 2-phenylisopropyl protecting group, which allows selective deprotection for the introduction of glycosylation. By using a convergent on-resin glycosylamine coupling strategy, an N-glycosidic linkage is successfully formed on the free side chain of the resin bound aspartic acid with a large high mannose oligosaccharide, Man8GlcNAc2, to yield N-linked high mannose glycosylated asparagine. The use of on-resin glycosylamine coupling provides excellent glycosylation yield, can be applied to couple other types of oligosaccharides, and also makes it possible to recover excess oligosaccharides conveniently after the on-resin coupling reaction. Useful functional handles including an alkene (p-vinylbenzoic acid), an alkyne (4-pentynoic acid), biotin, and 5-carboxyfluorescein are then conjugated onto the N-terminal amine of asparagine on-resin after the removal of the Fmoc protecting group. In this way, useful functional handles are introduced onto the glycosylated asparagine while maintaining the structural integrity of the reducing end of the oligosaccharide. The asparagine side chain also serves as a linker between the glycan and the functional group and preserves the native presentation of N-linked glycan which may aid in biochemical and structural studies. As an example of a biochemical study using functionalized high mannose glycosylated asparagine, a fluorescence polarization assay has been utilized to study the binding of the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) using 5-carboxyfluorescein labeled high mannose glycosylated asparagine.