Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 null mice are sensitive to cholestatic liver injury.
ABSTRACT: Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter ?/?) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis.
Project description:Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition.
Project description:Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a known hepatotoxicant, a tissue tumor promoter, and has been implicated in colorectal cancer. Male mice are more susceptible to DCA toxicity than female mice. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1), which is known to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro, is predominantly expressed in livers of male mice. In addition, the concentrations of DCA and its taurine conjugate (TDCA) are increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null mice. To investigate whether Oatp1a1 contributes to the gender difference in DCA toxicity in mice, wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were fed a 0.3% DCA diet for 7 days. After feeding DCA, Oatp1a1-null mice had 30-fold higher concentrations of DCA in both serum and livers than WT mice. Feeding DCA caused more hepatotoxcity in Oatp1a1-null mice than WT mice. After feeding DCA, Oatp1a1-null mice expressed higher BA efflux-transporters (bile salt-export pump, organic solute transporter (Ost)?/?, and multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]2) and lower BA-synthetic enzymes (cytochrome P450 [Cyp]7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1) in livers than WT mice. Intravenous administration of DCA and TDCA showed that lack of Oatp1a1 does not decrease the plasma elimination of DCA or TDCA. After feeding DCA, the concentrations of DCA in ileum and colon tissues are higher in Oatp1a1-null than in WT mice. In addition, Oatp1a1-null mice have enhanced intestinal permeability. Taken together, the current data suggest that Oatp1a1 does not mediate the hepatic uptake of DCA or TDCA, but lack of Oatp1a1 increases intestinal permeability and thus enhances the absorption of DCA in mice.
Project description:We have recently shown that loss of ?-catenin prevents the development of cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis after bile duct ligation (BDL) due to loss of the inhibitory farnesoid X receptor (FXR)/?-catenin complex, which results in decreased hepatic bile acids (BAs) through activation of FXR. To further understand the role of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in regulating BA metabolism and cholestasis, we performed BDL on mice in which hepatocyte Wnt signaling is deficient but ?-catenin is intact (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP]5/6 knockout [DKO]) as well as mice that have enhanced hepatocyte ?-catenin expression (serine 45 mutated to aspartic acid [S45D] transgenic [TG] mice). Despite decreased biliary injury after BDL, hepatic injury, fibrosis, and inflammation were comparable in DKO and wild-type (WT) mice. Notably, the FXR/?-catenin complex was maintained in DKO livers after BDL, coincident with significantly elevated hepatic BA levels. Similarly, TG mice did not display accelerated injury or increased mortality despite overexpression of ?-catenin. There was no augmentation of FXR/?-catenin association in TG livers; this resulted in equivalent hepatic BAs in WT and TG mice after BDL. Finally, we analyzed the effect of BDL on ?-catenin activity and identified an increase in periportal cytoplasmic stabilization and association with T-cell factor 4 that correlated with increased expression of distinct downstream target genes. Conclusion: Localization of ?-catenin and expression of Wnt-regulated genes were altered in liver after BDL; however, neither elimination of Wnt/?-catenin signaling nor overexpression of ?-catenin in hepatocytes significantly impacted the phenotype or progression of BA-driven cholestatic injury.
Project description:Cholestatic liver diseases can be caused by genetic defects, drug toxicities, hepatobiliary malignancies or obstruction of the biliary tract. Cholestasis leads to accumulation of bile acids (BAs) in hepatocytes. Direct toxicity of BAs is currently the most accepted hypothesis for cholestatic liver injury. However, information on which bile acids are actually accumulating during cholestasis is limited.To assess the BA composition in liver and serum after bile duct ligation (BDL) in male C57Bl/6 mice between 6 h and 14 days and evaluate toxicity of the most abundant BAs.Bile acid concentrations increased in liver (27-fold) and serum (1400-fold) within 6 h after surgery and remained elevated up to 14 days. BAs in livers of BDL mice became more hydrophilic than sham controls, mainly because of increased 6?-hydroxylation and taurine conjugation. Among the eight unconjugated and 16 conjugated BAs identified in serum and liver, only taurocholic acid (TCA), ?-muricholic acid (?MCA) and T?MCA were substantially elevated representing >95% of these BAs over the entire time course. Although glycochenodeoxycholic acid and other conjugated BAs increased in BDL animals, the changes were several orders of magnitude lower compared with TCA, ?MCA and T?MCA. A mixture of these BAs did not cause apoptosis or necrosis, but induced inflammatory gene expression in cultured murine hepatocytes.The concentrations of cytotoxic BAs are insufficient to cause hepatocellular injury. In contrast, TCA, ?MCA and T?MCA are able to induce pro-inflammatory mediators in hepatocytes. Thus, BAs act as inflammagens and not as cytotoxic mediators after BDL in mice.
Project description:Fibrates are hypolipidemic drugs that act as activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). In both humans and rodents, females were reported to be less responsive to fibrates than males. Previous studies on fibrates and PPAR? usually involved male mice, but little has been done in females. The present study aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of clofibrate (CLOF) and PPAR? on bile acid (BA) homeostasis in female mice. Study in WT male mice showed that a 4-day CLOF treatment increased liver weight, bile flow, and biliary BA excretion, but decreased total BAs in both serum and liver. In contrast, WT female mice were less susceptible to these CLOF-mediated responses observed in males. In WT female mice, CLOF decreased total BAs in the liver, but had little effect on the mRNAs of hepatic BA-related genes. Next, a comparative analysis between WT and PPAR?-null female mice showed that lack of PPAR? in female mice decreased total BAs in serum, but had little effect on total BAs in liver or bile. However, lack of PPAR? in female mice increased mRNAs of BA synthetic enzymes (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1, and Cyp7b1) and transporters (Ntcp, Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2, and Mrp3). Furthermore, the increase of Cyp7a1 in PPAR?-null female mice was associated with an increase in liver Fxr-Shp-Lrh-1 signaling. In conclusion, female mice are resistant to CLOF-mediated effects on BA metabolism observed in males, which could be attributed to PPAR?-mediated suppression in females on genes involved in BA synthesis and transport.
Project description:Accumulation of BAs in hepatocytes has a role in liver disease and also in drug-induced liver injury. The Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) has been shown to protect against BA-induced liver injury. The polymorphism of CAR has recently been shown to modify the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of various drugs. Thus it was hypothesized that polymorphism of CAR may also influence BA homeostasis. Using CAR-null and WT mice, this study modeled the potential consequences of CAR polymorphism on BA homeostasis. Our previous study showed that chemical activation of CAR decreases the total BA concentrations in livers of mice. Surprisingly the absence of CAR also decreased the BA concentrations in livers of mice, but to a lesser extent than in CAR-activated mice. Neither CAR activation nor elimination of CAR altered the biliary excretion of total BAs, but CAR activation increased the proportion of 6-OH BAs (TMCA), whereas the lack of CAR increased the excretion of TCA, TCDCA and TDCA. Serum BA concentrations did not parallel the decrease in BA concentrations in the liver in either the mice after CAR activation or mice lacking CAR. Gene expression of BA synthesis, transporter and regulator genes were mainly similar in livers of CAR-null and WT mice. In summary, CAR activation decreases primarily the 12-OH BA concentrations in liver, whereas lack of CAR decreases the concentrations of 6-OH BAs in liver. In bile, CAR activation increases the biliary excretion of 6-OH BAs, whereas absence of CAR increases the biliary excretion of 12-OH BAs and TCDCA.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a critical role in initiating the progression of inflammatory and fibrotic liver diseases, including cholestatic hepatitis. Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a secretory antioxidase that protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both the intracellular compartments and extracellular space. In this study, we examined the in vivo net effects of PRDX4 overexpression in a murine model of cholestasis. To induce cholestatic liver injury, we subjected C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) or human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice to sham or bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery for seven days. Our results showed that the liver necrosis area was significantly suppressed in Tg BDL mice with a reduction in the severity of liver injuries. Furthermore, PRDX4 overexpression markedly reduced local and systemic oxidative stress generated by BDL. In addition, suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced proliferation of hepatocytes and intrahepatic bile ducts, and less fibrosis were also found in the liver of Tg BDL mice, along with a reduced mortality rate after BDL surgery. Interestingly, the composition of the hepatic bile acids (BAs) was more beneficial for Tg BDL mice than for WT BDL mice, suggesting that PRDX4 overexpression may affect BA metabolism during cholestasis. These features indicate that PRDX4 plays an important role in protecting against liver injury following BDL and might be a promising therapeutic modality for cholestatic diseases.
Project description:Perfluorochemicals produce hepatotoxic effects via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) nuclear receptors in animals. Bile formation is one major liver function. But it remains unknown whether perfluorochemicals alter metabolism of bile acids (BAs) in liver. The present study was designed to determine the impact of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on BA and cholesterol homeostasis in mice. A single dose of PFNA (0.1?mmol/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to adult male wild-type (WT), PPAR?-null, and CAR-null mice. PFNA caused cholestasis in the WT mice, indicated by increased serum alanine aminotransferase, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated BA concentrations in mouse serum, and appearance of bile plugs in mouse liver. In addition, PFNA decreased total and some individual BAs in mouse liver. PFNA increased the concentrations of total and taurine-conjugated, as well as some individual BAs in the serum of WT and CAR-null mice but not in PPAR?-null mice, indicating a PPAR?-dependent mechanism. PFNA decreased mRNA expression of most BA-related transporters (sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, organic anion transporting polypeptide [Oatp]1a1, Oatp1b2, and bile salt export pump) and BA biosynthetic enzymes (Cyp7a1, 7b1, 8b1, and 27a1) in mouse liver, but increased mRNA expression of some efflux transporters (breast cancer resistance protein, multidrug resistance transporter 2, multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp] 2, Mrp3, and Mrp4), primarily via a PPAR?-dependent mechanism. Moreover, PFNA increased free and total cholesterol in mouse liver but not in mouse serum. Furthermore, PFNA increased mRNA expression of sterol transporters, namely Abca1, g1, g5/g8, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein via PPAR?. In conclusion, PFNA produced cholestasis in mouse liver, and the activation of PPAR? plays a central role in regulating BA and cholesterol metabolism and transport in mouse serum and liver.
Project description:11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11?-HSD1) plays a key role in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Besides, it metabolizes some oxysterols and bile acids (BAs). The GR regulates BA homeostasis; however, the impact of impaired 11?-HSD1 activity remained unknown. We profiled plasma and liver BAs in liver-specific and global 11?-HSD1-deficient mice. 11?-HSD1-deficiency resulted in elevated circulating unconjugated BAs, an effect more pronounced in global than liver-specific knockout mice. Gene expression analyses revealed decreased expression of the BA-CoA ligase Fatp5, suggesting impaired BA amidation. Reduced organic anion-transporting polypeptide-1A1 (Oatp1a1) and enhanced organic solute-transporter-? (Ostb) mRNA expression were observed in livers from global 11?-HSD1-deficient mice. The impact of 11?-HSD1-deficiency on BA homeostasis seems to be GR-independent because intrahepatic corticosterone and GR target gene expression were not substantially decreased in livers from global knockout mice. Moreover, Fatp5 expression in livers from hepatocyte-specific GR knockout mice was unchanged. The results revealed a role for 11?-HSD1 in BA homeostasis.
Project description:Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of bile flow disruption due to abnormal canalicular transport or impaired bile acid (BA) metabolism, causing excess BA accumulation and liver failure. We previously reported an intrahepatic cholestasis mouse model based on loss of function of both farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) and a small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) [double knockout (DKO)], which has strong similarities to human PFIC5. We compared the pathogenesis of DKO livers with that of another intrahepatic cholestasis model, Bsep-/-, which represents human PFIC2. Both models exhibit severe hepatomegaly and hepatic BA accumulation, but DKO showed greater circulating BA and liver injury, and Bsep-/- had milder phenotypes. Molecular profiling of BAs uncovered specific enrichment of cholic acid (CA)-derived BAs in DKO livers but chenodeoxycholate-derived BAs in Bsep-/- livers. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed specific activation of CA synthesis and alternative basolateral BA transport in DKO but increased chenodeoxycholic acid synthesis and canalicular transport in Bsep-/-. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)/pregnane X receptor (PXR)-CYP2B/CYP2C axis is activated in DKO livers but not in other cholestasis models. Loss of this axis in Fxr:Shp:Car:Pxr quadruple knockouts blocked Cyp2b/Cyp2c gene induction, impaired bilirubin conjugation/elimination, and increased liver injury. Differential CYP2B expression in DKO and Bsep-/- was recapitulated in human PFIC5 and PFIC2 livers. In conclusion, loss of FXR/SHP results in distinct molecular pathogenesis and CAR/PXR activation, which promotes Cyp2b/Cyp2c gene transcription and bilirubin clearance. CAR/PXR activation was not observed in Bsep-/- mice or PFIC2 patients. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the heterogeneity of intrahepatic cholestasis.