Homeostatic regulation of Salmonella-induced mucosal inflammation and injury by IL-23.
ABSTRACT: IL-12 and IL-23 regulate innate and adaptive immunity to microbial pathogens through influencing the expression of IFN-?, IL-17, and IL-22. Herein we define the roles of IL-12 and IL-23 in regulating host resistance and intestinal inflammation during acute Salmonella infection. We find that IL-23 alone is dispensable for protection against systemic spread of bacteria, but synergizes with IL-12 for optimal protection. IL-12 promotes the production of IFN-? by NK cells, which is required for resistance against Salmonella and also for induction of intestinal inflammation and epithelial injury. In contrast, IL-23 controls the severity of inflammation by inhibiting IL-12A expression, reducing IFN-? and preventing excessive mucosal injury. Our studies demonstrate that IL-23 is a homeostatic regulator of IL-12-dependent, IFN-?-mediated intestinal inflammation.
Project description:The IL-23/IL-17 and IL-12/IFN-gamma cytokine pathways have a role in chronic autoimmunity, which is considered mainly a dysfunction of adaptive immunity. The extent to which they contribute to innate immunity is, however, unknown. We used a mouse model of acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to test the hypothesis that early production of IL-23 and IL-12 following IRI activates downstream IL-17 and IFN-gamma signaling pathways and promotes kidney inflammation. Deficiency in IL-23, IL-17A, or IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and mAb neutralization of CXCR2, the p19 subunit of IL-23, or IL-17A attenuated neutrophil infiltration in acute kidney IRI in mice. We further demonstrate that IL-17A produced by GR-1+ neutrophils was critical for kidney IRI in mice. Activation of the IL-12/IFN-gamma pathway and NKT cells by administering alpha-galactosylceramide-primed bone marrow-derived DCs increased IFN-gamma production following moderate IRI in WT mice but did not exacerbate injury or enhance IFN-gamma production in either Il17a-/- or Il17r-/- mice, which suggested that IL-17 signaling was proximal to IFN-gamma signaling. This was confirmed by the finding that IFN-gamma administration reversed the protection seen in Il17a-/- mice subjected to IRI, whereas IL-17A failed to reverse protection in Ifng-/- mice. These results demonstrate that the innate immune component of kidney IRI requires dual activation of the IL-12/IFN-gamma and IL-23/IL-17 signaling pathways and that neutrophil production of IL-17A is upstream of IL-12/IFN-gamma. These mechanisms might contribute to reperfusion injury in other organs.
Project description:IL-12-mediated type 1 inflammation confers host protection against the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. However, production of IFN-?, another type 1 inflammatory cytokine, also drives lethality from excessive injury to the intestinal epithelium. As mechanisms that restore epithelial barrier function following infection remain poorly understood, this study investigated the role of trefoil factor 2 (TFF2), a well-established regulator of mucosal tissue repair. Paradoxically, TFF2 antagonized IL-12 release from dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, which protected TFF2-deficient (TFF2(-/-)) mice from T. gondii pathogenesis. Dysregulated intestinal homeostasis in naive TFF2(-/-) mice correlated with increased IL-12/23p40 levels and enhanced T cell recruitment at baseline. Infected TFF2(-/-) mice displayed low rates of parasite replication and reduced gut immunopathology, whereas wild-type (WT) mice experienced disseminated infection and lethal ileitis. p38 MAPK activation and IL-12p70 production was more robust from TFF2(-/-)CD8+ DC compared with WT CD8+ DC and treatment of WT DC with rTFF2 suppressed TLR-induced IL-12/23p40 production. Neutralization of IFN-? and IL-12 in TFF2(-/-) animals abrogated resistance shown by enhanced parasite replication and infection-induced morbidity. Hence, TFF2 regulated intestinal barrier function and type 1 cytokine release from myeloid phagocytes, which dictated the outcome of oral T. gondii infection in mice.
Project description:Inappropriate activation of the IL-23 signaling pathway causes chronic inflammation through the induction of immunopathological Th17 cells in several tissues including the intestine, whereas adequate Th17 responses are essential for host defense against harmful organisms. In the intestinal lamina propria, IL-23 is primarily produced by innate myeloid cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mϕs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of IL-23 production by these cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BATF2 regulates intestinal homeostasis by inhibiting IL-23-driven T-cell responses. Batf2 was highly expressed in intestinal innate myeloid subsets, such as monocytes, CD11b+ CD64+ Mϕs and CD103+ DCs. Batf2-/- mice spontaneously developed colitis and ileitis with altered microbiota composition. In this context, IL-23, but not TNF-α and IL-10, was produced in high quantities by intestinal CD11b+ CD64+ Mϕs from Batf2-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, increased numbers of IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+ IL-17+ CD4+ T cells, but not IL-10+ CD4+ T cells, accumulated in the colons and small intestines of Batf2-/- mice. In addition, RORγt-expressing innate lymphoid cells were increased in Batf2-/- mice. Batf2-/-Rag2-/- mice showed a reduction in intestinal inflammation present in Batf2-/- mice. Furthermore, the high numbers of intestinal IL-17+ and IFN-γ+ IL-17+ CD4+ T cells were markedly reduced in Batf2-/- mice when introducing Il23a deficiency, which was associated with the abrogation of intestinal inflammation. These results indicated that BATF2 in innate myeloid cells is a key molecule for the suppression of IL-23/IL-17 pathway-mediated adaptive intestinal pathology.
Project description:We have demonstrated previously that IFN-? plays a protective role in the initiation of chronic intestinal inflammation through attenuation of Toll-like receptor-mediated IL-23 induction in macrophages. Here, an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) is identified in a region of conserved nucleotide sequences in the Il23a promoter. This ISRE mediated, in part, Il23a promoter induction by LPS and inhibition of LPS-induced activity by IFN-?. LPS and IFN-? recruit interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) to the Il23a ISRE in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Functionally, IRF-1 is a negative regulator of Il23a in LPS-stimulated BMMs. IRF-1(-/-) BMMs demonstrated enhanced LPS-induced Il23a expression compared with WT BMMs. Moreover, IRF-1 deficiency resulted in prolonged occupancy of RelA on the Il23a promoter. Consequently, IRF-1(-/-) mice were more susceptible to colonic injury by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, and IL-10/IRF-1 double-deficient (IL-10/IRF-1(-/-)) mice demonstrated more severe colonic inflammation compared with IL-10(-/-) mice. The severity of colitis in both models correlated with increased colonic IL-23. CD11b(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells, comprising predominantly macrophages, were identified as the major source of IL-23 in colitis-prone mice. Basal and heat-killed Escherichia coli-stimulated levels of Il23a were increased in IL-10/IRF-1(-/-) compared with WT and IL-10(-/-) colonic CD11b(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells. In conclusion, these experiments characterize IRF-ISRE interactions on the Il23a promoter, which have in vivo relevance as a homeostatic checkpoint in chronic intestinal inflammation.
Project description:The microbiota stimulates inflammation, but the signaling pathways and the members of the microbiota involved remain poorly understood. We found that the microbiota induces interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release upon intestinal injury and that this is mediated via the NLRP3 inflammasome. Enterobacteriaceae and in particular the pathobiont Proteus mirabilis, induced robust IL-1? release that was comparable to that induced by the pathogen Salmonella. Upon epithelial injury, production of IL-1? in the intestine was largely mediated by intestinal Ly6C(high) monocytes, required chemokine receptor CCR2 and was abolished by deletion of IL-1? in CCR2(+) blood monocytes. Furthermore, colonization with P. mirabilis promoted intestinal inflammation upon intestinal injury via the production of hemolysin, which required NLRP3 and IL-1 receptor signaling in vivo. Thus, upon intestinal injury, selective members of the microbiota stimulate newly recruited monocytes to induce NLRP3-dependent IL-1? release, which promotes inflammation in the intestine.
Project description:Whether interleukin-17A (IL-17A) has pathogenic and/or protective roles in the gut mucosa is controversial and few studies have analyzed specific cell populations for protective functions within the inflamed colonic tissue. Here we have provided evidence for IL-17A-dependent regulation of the tight junction protein occludin during epithelial injury that limits excessive permeability and maintains barrier integrity. Analysis of epithelial cells showed that in the absence of signaling via the IL-17 receptor adaptor protein Act-1, the protective effect of IL-17A was abrogated and inflammation was enhanced. We have demonstrated that after acute intestinal injury, IL-23R(+) ?? T cells in the colonic lamina propria were the primary producers of early, gut-protective IL-17A, and this production of IL-17A was IL-23 independent, leaving protective IL-17 intact in the absence of IL-23. These results suggest that IL-17-producing ?? T cells are important for the maintenance and protection of epithelial barriers in the intestinal mucosa.
Project description:IL-23 regulation is a central event in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma has anti-inflammatory properties in the initiation phase of IL-23-mediated experimental colitis. IFN-gamma attenuates LPS-mediated IL-23 expression in murine macrophages. Mechanistically, IFN-gamma inhibits Il23a promoter activation through altering NF-kappaB binding and histone modification. Moreover, intestinal inflammation is inhibited by IFN-gamma signaling through attenuation of Il23a gene expression. In germ-free wild-type mice colonized with enteric microbiota, inhibition of colonic Il23a temporally correlates with induction of IFN-gamma. IFN-gammaR1/IL-10 double-deficient mice demonstrate markedly increased colonic inflammation and IL23a expression compared with those of IL-10(-/-) mice. Colonic CD11b(+) cells are the primary source of IL-23 and a target for IFN-gamma. This study describes an important anti-inflammatory role for IFN-gamma through inhibition of IL-23. Converging genetic and functional findings suggest that IL-23 and IFN-gamma are important pathogenic molecules in human inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are heterogenous disorders of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a spectrum of genetic and environmental factors. In mice, overlapping regions of chromosome 3 have been associated with susceptibility to IBD-like pathology, including a locus called Hiccs. However, the specific gene that controls disease susceptibility remains unknown. Here we identify a Hiccs locus gene, Alpk1 (encoding alpha kinase 1), as a potent regulator of intestinal inflammation. In response to infection with the commensal pathobiont Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh), Alpk1-deficient mice display exacerbated interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 dependent colitis characterized by an enhanced Th1/interferon(IFN)-? response. Alpk1 controls intestinal immunity via the hematopoietic system and is highly expressed by mononuclear phagocytes. In response to Hh, Alpk1-/- macrophages produce abnormally high amounts of IL-12, but not IL-23. This study demonstrates that Alpk1 promotes intestinal homoeostasis by regulating the balance of type 1/type 17 immunity following microbial challenge.
Project description:Intestinal macrophages play a central role in regulation of immune responses against commensal bacteria. In general, intestinal macrophages lack the expression of innate-immune receptor CD14 and do not produce proinflammatory cytokines against commensal bacteria. In this study, we identified what we believe to be a unique macrophage subset in human intestine. This subset expressed both macrophage (CD14, CD33, CD68) and DC markers (CD205, CD209) and produced larger amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-23, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, than typical intestinal resident macrophages (CD14-CD33+ macrophages). In patients with Crohn disease (CD), the number of these CD14+ macrophages were significantly increased compared with normal control subjects. In addition to increased numbers of cells, these cells also produced larger amounts of IL-23 and TNF-alpha compared with those in normal controls or patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition, the CD14+ macrophages contributed to IFN-gamma production rather than IL-17 production by lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) dependent on IL-23 and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, the IFN-gamma produced by LPMCs triggered further abnormal macrophage differentiation with an IL-23-hyperproducing phenotype. Collectively, these data suggest that this IL-23/IFN-gamma-positive feedback loop induced by abnormal intestinal macrophages contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in patients with CD.
Project description:Salmonella Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes enterocolitis in humans and pigs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer leaflet of Gram-negative bacteria that provokes endotoxin shock. LPS can be synthesized completely or incompletely and creates S (smooth) or R (rough) chemotypes. Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 4, and 9 initiate an inflammatory reaction to combat bacterial infections. We associated/challenged one-week-old gnotobiotic piglets with wild-type S. Typhimurium with S chemotype or its isogenic ?rfa mutants with R chemotype LPS. The wild-type S. Typhimurium induced TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression but not TLR9 mRNA expression in the ileum and colon of one-week-old gnotobiotic piglets 24 h after challenge. The TLR2 and TLR4 stimulatory effects of the S. Typhimurium ?rfa mutants were related to the completeness of their LPS chain. The transcription of IL-12/23 p40, IFN-?, and IL-6 in the intestine and the intestinal and plasmatic levels of IL-12/23 p40 and IL-6 but not IFN-? were related to the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways. The avirulent S. Typhimurium ?rfa mutants are potentially useful for modulation of the TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways to protect the immunocompromised gnotobiotic piglets against subsequent infection with the virulent S. Typhimurium.