Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue.
ABSTRACT: Aberrations in optical microscopy reduce image resolution and contrast, and can limit imaging depth when focusing into biological samples. Static correction of aberrations may be achieved through appropriate lens design, but this approach does not offer the flexibility of simultaneously correcting aberrations for all imaging depths, nor the adaptability to correct for sample-specific aberrations for high-quality tomographic optical imaging. Incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) methods have demonstrated considerable improvement in optical image contrast and resolution in noninterferometric microscopy techniques, as well as in optical coherence tomography. Here we present a method to correct aberrations in a tomogram rather than the beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on Fourier optics principles, we correct aberrations of a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials. When used in conjunction with the computed imaging method interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy, this computational AO enables object reconstruction (within the single scattering limit) with ideal focal-plane resolution at all depths. Tomographic reconstructions of tissue phantoms containing subresolution titanium-dioxide particles and of ex vivo rat lung tissue demonstrate aberration correction in datasets acquired with a highly astigmatic illumination beam. These results also demonstrate that imaging with an aberrated astigmatic beam provides the advantage of a more uniform depth-dependent signal compared to imaging with a standard gaussian beam. With further work, computational AO could enable the replacement of complicated and expensive optical hardware components with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer, making high-resolution 3D interferometric tomography accessible to a wider group of users and nonspecialists.
Project description:We have developed an adaptive optics photoacoustic microscope (AO-PAM) for high-resolution imaging of biological tissues, especially the retina. To demonstrate the feasibility of AO-PAM we first designed the AO system to correct the wavefront errors of the illuminating light of PAM. The aberrations of the optical system delivering the illuminating light to the sample in PAM was corrected with a close-loop AO system consisting of a 141-element MEMS-based deformable mirror (DM) and a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor operating at 15 Hz. The photoacoustic signal induced by the illuminating laser beam was detected by a custom-built needle ultrasonic transducer. When the wavefront errors were corrected by the AO system, the lateral resolution of PAM was measured to be better than 2.5 µm using a low NA objective lens. We tested the system on imaging ex vivo ocular samples, e.g., the ciliary body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of a pig eye. The AO-PAM images showed significant quality improvement. For the first time we were able to resolve single RPE cells with PAM.
Project description:We have built a setup for 3D single molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM) where a very high resolution is achieved by, firstly, the use of two objectives instead of one and, secondly, minimizing optical aberrations by refractive index matching with a glycerol-water mixture as immersion medium in conjunction with glycerol-immersion objectives. Multiple optical paths of the microscope allow to switch between astigmatic and interferometric localisation along the optical axis, thus enabling a direct comparison of the performance of these localisation methods.
Project description:Over the years, many computed optical interferometric techniques have been developed to perform high-resolution volumetric tomography. By utilizing the phase and amplitude information provided with interferometric detection, post-acquisition corrections for defocus and optical aberrations can be performed. The introduction of the phase, though, can dramatically increase the sensitivity to motion (most prominently along the optical axis). In this paper, we present two algorithms which, together, can correct for motion in all three dimensions with enough accuracy for defocus and aberration correction in computed optical interferometric tomography. The first algorithm utilizes phase differences within the acquired data to correct for motion along the optical axis. The second algorithm utilizes the addition of a speckle tracking system using temporally- and spatially-coherent illumination to measure motion orthogonal to the optical axis. The use of coherent illumination allows for high-contrast speckle patterns even when imaging apparently uniform samples or when highly aberrated beams cannot be avoided.
Project description:In vivo fundus imaging offers non-invasive access to neuron structures and biochemical processes in the retina. However, optical aberrations of the eye degrade the imaging resolution and prevent visualization of subcellular retinal structures. We developed an adaptive optics two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (AO-TPEFM) system to correct ocular aberrations based on a nonlinear fluorescent guide star and achieved subcellular resolution for in vivo fluorescence imaging of the mouse retina. With accurate wavefront sensing and rapid aberration correction, AO-TPEFM permits structural and functional imaging of the mouse retina with submicron resolution. Specifically, simultaneous functional calcium imaging of neuronal somas and dendrites was demonstrated. Moreover, the time-lapse morphological alteration and dynamics of microglia were characterized in a mouse model of retinal disorder. In addition, precise laser axotomy was achieved, and degeneration of retinal nerve fibres was studied. This high-resolution AO-TPEFM is a promising tool for non-invasive retinal imaging and can facilitate the understanding of a variety of eye diseases as well as neurodegenerative disorders in the central nervous system.
Project description:Optical microscopy, owing to its noninvasiveness and subcellular resolution, enables in vivo visualization of neuronal structure and function in the physiological context. Optical-sectioning structured illumination microscopy (OS-SIM) is a widefield fluorescence imaging technique that uses structured illumination patterns to encode in-focus structures and optically sections 3D samples. However, its application to in vivo imaging has been limited. In this study, we optimized OS-SIM for in vivo neural imaging. We modified OS-SIM reconstruction algorithms to improve signal-to-noise ratio and correct motion-induced artifacts in live samples. Incorporating an adaptive optics (AO) module to OS-SIM, we found that correcting sample-induced optical aberrations was essential for achieving accurate structural and functional characterizations in vivo. With AO OS-SIM, we demonstrated fast, high-resolution in vivo imaging with optical sectioning for structural imaging of mouse cortical neurons and zebrafish larval motor neurons, and functional imaging of quantal synaptic transmission at Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions.
Project description:Adaptive optics (AO) describes a set of tools to correct or control aberrations in any optical system. In the eye, AO allows for precise control of the ocular aberrations. If used to correct aberrations over a large pupil, for example, cellular level resolution in retinal images can be achieved. AO systems have been demonstrated for advanced ophthalmoscopy as well as for testing and/or improving vision. In fact, AO can be integrated to any ophthalmic instrument where the optics of the eye is involved, with a scope of applications ranging from phoropters to optical coherence tomography systems. In this article, I discuss the applications and advantages of using AO in a specific system, the AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Since the Borish award was, in part, awarded to me because of this effort, I felt it appropriate to select this as the topic for this article. Furthermore, users of AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope continue to appreciate the benefits of the technology, some of which were not anticipated at the time of development, and so it is time to revisit this topic and summarize them in a single article.
Project description:Elasto-optical refractive index modulation due to photoacoustic initial pressure transients produced significant reflection of a probe beam when the absorbing interface had an appreciable refractive index difference. This effect was harnessed in a new form of non-contact optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy called photoacoustic remote sensing microscopy. A non-interferometric system architecture with a low-coherence probe beam precludes detection of surface oscillations and other phase-modulation phenomenon. The probe beam was confocal with a scanned excitation beam to ensure detection of initial pressure-induced intensity reflections at the subsurface origin where pressures are largest. Phantom studies confirmed signal dependence on optical absorption, index contrast and excitation fluence. In vivo imaging of superficial microvasculature and melanoma tumors was demonstrated with ~2.7±0.5??m lateral resolution.
Project description:Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging methods are important for cellular-level research. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a low-coherence-based interferometry technology for cellular imaging with both high axial and lateral resolution. Using a high-numerical-aperture objective, OCM normally has a shallow depth of field and requires scanning the focus through the entire region of interest to perform volumetric imaging. With a higher-numerical-aperture objective, the image quality of OCM is affected by and more sensitive to aberrations. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) are computed imaging techniques that overcome the depth-of-field limitation and the effect of optical aberrations in optical coherence tomography (OCT), respectively. In this work we combine OCM with ISAM and CAO to achieve high-speed volumetric cellular imaging. Experimental imaging results of ex vivo human breast tissue, ex vivo mouse brain tissue, in vitro fibroblast cells in 3D scaffolds, and in vivo human skin demonstrate the significant potential of this technique for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging.
Project description:We introduce Airy-beam tomographic microscopy (ATM) for high-resolution, volumetric, inertia-free imaging of biological specimens. The work exploits the highly adjustable Airy trajectories in the three-dimensional (3D) space, transforming the conventional telecentric wide-field imaging scheme that requires sample or focal-plane scanning to acquire 3D information. The results present a consistent near-diffraction-limited 3D resolution across a tenfold extended imaging depth compared to wide-field microscopy. We anticipate the strategy to not only offer a promising paradigm for 3D optical microscopy, but also be translated to other non-optical waveforms.
Project description:We present a method for the numerical correction of optical aberrations based on indirect sensing of the scattered wavefront from point-like scatterers ("guide stars") within a three-dimensional broadband interferometric tomogram. This method enables the correction of high-order monochromatic and chromatic aberrations utilizing guide stars that are revealed after numerical compensation of defocus and low-order aberrations of the optical system. Guide-star-based aberration correction in a silicone phantom with sparse sub-resolution-sized scatterers demonstrates improvement of resolution and signal-to-noise ratio over a large isotome. Results in highly scattering muscle tissue showed improved resolution of fine structure over an extended volume. Guide-star-based computational adaptive optics expands upon the use of image metrics for numerically optimizing the aberration correction in broadband interferometric tomography, and is analogous to phase-conjugation and time-reversal methods for focusing in turbid media.