Phylogenetic comparison of exonic US4, US7 and UL44 regions of clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates showed lack of association between their anatomic sites of infection and genotypic/sub genotypic classification.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HSV-1 genome is a mosaic of recombinants. Clinical Herpes simplex virus -1 (HSV1) isolates were already genotyped as A, B and C types based on nucleotide variations at Unique Short (US) 4 (gG) and US 7 (gI) regions through phylogeny. Analysis of Glycoprotein C (gC) exon present on the Unique Long (UL) region had also revealed the existence of different genotypes. Glycoprotein C is mainly involved in initial viral attachment to heparan sulphate on host cell surface facilitating the virus's binding and penetration into cell. As the amount of heparan sulphate on the host cell surface varies according to the cell type, it is plausible that different genotypes bind differentially to cell types. Hence, this study was framed to determine the existence of novel genotypes/sub genotypes in the US or UL regions which could associate with clinical entities. RESULTS: All the twenty five isolates analyzed in this study were of genotype A as per their gG gene sequences. In case of gI gene, 16 out of 25 were found to be type A and the remaining nine were type B putative intergenic recombinants. Intragenic recombinations were also encountered in both the US genes, with gG possessing novel subgenotypes, arbitrarily designated A1 and A2. The 9 type B isolates of gI genes also branched out into 2 clades due to genetic variations. Glycoprotein C of UL region had two distinct genotypic clades ? and ?, whose topological distribution was significantly different from that of the US region. Neither the US nor UL regions, however, showed any preference among the genotypes to a specific anatomic site of infection. Even the non synonymous variations identified in the functional domain of gC, were not confined to a particular genotype/clinical entity. CONCLUSION: The analyses of the US and UL regions of the HSV-1 genome showed the existence of variegated genotypes in these two regions. In contrary to the documented literature, in which Asian strains were concluded as more conserved than European ones, our study showed the existence of a higher degree of variability among Indian strains. However, the identified novel genotypes and subgenotypes were not found associated with clinical entities.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) most commonly causes recrudescent labial ulcers; however, it is also the leading cause of infectious blindness in developed countries. Previous research in animal models has demonstrated that the severity of HSV-1 ocular disease is influenced by three main factors: host innate immunity, host immune response, and viral strain. We have previously shown that mixed infection with two avirulent HSV-1 strains (OD4 and CJ994) results in recombinants with a wide range of ocular disease phenotype severity. Recently, we developed a quantitative trait locus (QTL)-based computational approach (vQTLmap) to identify viral single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predicted to influence the severity of the ocular disease phenotypes. We have now applied vQTLmap to identify HSV-1 SNPs associated with corneal neovascularization and mean peak percentage weight loss (MPWL) using 65 HSV-1 OD4-CJ994 recombinants. The vQTLmap analysis using Random Forest for neovascularization identified phenotypically meaningful nonsynonymous SNPs in the ICP4, UL41 (VHS), UL42, UL46 (VP11/12), UL47 (VP13/14), UL48 (VP22), US3, US4 (gG), US6 (gD), and US7 (gI) coding regions. The ICP4 gene was previously identified as a corneal neovascularization determinant, validating the vQTLmap method. Further analysis detected an epistatic interaction for neovascularization between a segment of the unique long (UL) region and a segment of the inverted repeat short (IRS)/unique short (US) region. Ridge regression was used to identify MPWL-associated nonsynonymous SNPs in the UL1 (gL), UL2, UL4, UL49 (VP22), UL50, and ICP4 coding regions. The data provide additional insights into virulence gene and epistatic interaction discovery in HSV-1.Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) typically causes recurrent cold sores; however, it is also the leading source of infectious blindness in developed countries. Corneal neovascularization is critical for the progression of blinding ocular disease, and weight loss is a measure of infection severity. Previous HSV-1 animal virulence studies have shown that the severity of ocular disease is partially due to the viral strain. In the current study, we used a recently described computational quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach in conjunction with 65 HSV-1 recombinants to identify viral single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neovascularization and weight loss. Neovascularization SNPs were identified in the ICP4, VHS, UL42, VP11/12, VP13/14, VP22, gG, US3, gD, and gI genes. Further analysis revealed an epistatic interaction between the UL and US regions. MPWL-associated SNPs were detected in the UL1 (gL), UL2, UL4, VP22, UL50, and ICP4 genes. This approach will facilitate future HSV virulence studies.
Project description:To investigate uterine leiomyomata (UL) incidence in relation to polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and skin pigmentation. Rates of UL are 2-3 times higher in African Americans than in European Americans. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of UL.Nested case-control study.Not applicable.Two thousand two hundred thirty-two premenopausal women first diagnosed with UL confirmed by ultrasound or surgery during 1997-2011 (cases) and 2,432 premenopausal women never diagnosed with UL through 2011 (controls).None.Self-reported UL. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each polymorphism and UL, controlling for age, geographic region, and ancestry.Three of 12 polymorphisms were associated with UL at the nominal significance level: rs4944957 and rs12800438 near DHCR7 and rs6058017 in ASIP. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, two single nucleotide polymorphisms remained significantly associated with UL (rs12800438 and rs6058017). Compared with the AA genotype for rs12800438 (correlated with higher serum 25[OH]D levels), ORs were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.92, 1.29) and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.03, 1.47) for the GA and GG genotypes, respectively. Compared with the AA genotype for rs6058017 (correlated with lighter skin pigmentation), ORs were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.83, 1.22) and 1.18 (95% CI, 0.97, 1.44) for the GA and GG genotypes, respectively.Our data support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency is involved in UL etiology.
Project description:Phylogenetic analysis of a collection of 103 E1 gene sequences from rubella viruses isolated from 17 countries from 1961 to 2000 confirmed the existence of at least two genotypes. Rubella genotype I (RGI) isolates, predominant in Europe, Japan, and the Western Hemisphere, segregated into discrete subgenotypes; international subgenotypes present in the 1960s and 1970s were replaced by geographically restricted subgenotypes after approximately 1980. Recently, active subgenotypes include one in the United States and Latin America, one in China, and a third that apparently originated in Asia and spread to Europe and North America, starting in 1997, indicating the recent emergence of an international subgenotype. A virus that potentially arose as a recombinant between two RGI subgenotypes was discovered. Rubella genotype II (RGII) showed greater genetic diversity than did RGI and may actually consist of multiple genotypes. RGII viruses were limited to Asia and Europe; RGI viruses were also present in most of the countries where RGII viruses were isolated.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen which establishes lifelong infections. In the present study, we determined the sequence diversity of the complete genes coding for glycoproteins G (gG), I (gI), and E (gE), comprising 2.3% of the HSV-1 genome and located within the unique short (US) region, for 28 clinical HSV-1 isolates inducing oral lesions, genital lesions, or encephalitis. Laboratory strains F and KOS321 were sequenced in parallel. Phylogenetic analysis, including analysis of laboratory strain 17 (GenBank), revealed that the sequences were separated into three genetic groups. The identification of different genogroups facilitated the detection of recombinant viruses by using specific nucleotide substitutions as recombination markers. Seven of the isolates and strain 17 displayed sequences consistent with intergenic recombination, and at least four isolates were intragenic recombinants. The observed frequency of recombination based on an analysis of a short stretch of the US region suggests that most full-length HSV-1 genomes consist of a mosaic of segments from different genetic groups. Polymorphic tandem repeat regions, consisting of two to eight blocks of 21 nucleotides in the gI gene and seven to eight repeats of 3 nucleotides in the gG gene, were also detected. Laboratory strain KOS321 displayed a frameshift mutation in the gI gene with a subsequent alteration of the deduced intracellular portion of the protein. The presence of polymorphic tandem repeat regions and the different genogroup identities can be used for molecular epidemiology studies and for further detection of recombination in the HSV-1 genome.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), family Circoviridae, genus Circovirus infection in domestic pig has been associated with several pathological conditions being the most important of them the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of three PCV2 genotypes (a, b, and c) and recently PCV3. Until now, these genotypes or subgenotypes have not been described in Mexico. We found genetic changes in ORF2 from nine strains of PCV2 obtained from samples of Jalisco, Veracruz, Estado de México, Hidalgo and Sonora states of Mexico. Our results shown the presence of two genotypes (PCV2a and PCV2b) as well as, the presence and differences between the reported subgenotypes. The subgenotype PCV2b (1A/1B, 1A) has a higher prevalence (87.5%) in comparison with PCV2a (2C) (12.5%).
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and subgenotypes may vary in geographical distribution and virological features. Previous investigations, including ours, showed that HBV genotypes B and C were respectively predominant in South and North China, while genotypes A and D were infrequently detected and genotype G was not found. In this study, a novel A/C/G intergenotype was identified in patients with chronic HBV infection in Guilin, a city in southern China. Initial phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene suggested the HBV recombinant to be genotype G. However, extended genotyping based on the entire HBV genome indicated it to be an A/C/G intergenotype with a closer relation to genotype C. Breakpoint analysis using the SIMPLOT program revealed that the recombinant had a recombination with a arrangement of genotypes A, G, A and C fragments. Compared with the HBV recombinants harboring one or two genotype G fragments found in Asian countries, this Guilin recombinant was highly similar to the Vietnam (98-99%) and Long An recombinants (96-99%), but had a relatively low similarity to the Thailand one (89%). Unlike those with the typical genotype G of HBV, the patients with the Guilin recombinant were seropositive for HBeAg. Moreover, a relatively high HBV DNA viral load (>2 × 10(6) IU/ml) was detected in the patients, and the analysis of viral replication capacity showed that the Guilin recombinant strains had a competent replication capacity similar to genotypes B and C strains. These findings can aid in not only the clarification of the phylogenetic origin of the HBV recombinants with the genotype G fragment found in Asian countries, but also the understanding of the virological properties of these complicated HBV recombinants.
Project description:Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemics have affected various countries in the past 40 years. EV71 commonly causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, but can result in neurological and cardiorespiratory complications in severe cases. Genotypic changes of EV71 have been observed in different places over time, with the emergence of novel genotypes or subgenotypes giving rise to serious outbreaks. Since the late 1990s, intra- and inter-typic recombination events in EV71 have been increasingly reported in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, 'double-recombinant' EV71 strains belonging to a novel genotype D have been predominant in mainland China and Hong Kong over the last decade, though co-circulating with a minority of other EV71 subgenotypes and coxsackie A viruses. Continuous surveillance and genome studies are important to detect potential novel mutants or recombinants in the near future. Rapid and sensitive molecular detection of EV71 is of paramount importance in anticipating and combating EV71 outbreaks.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a lack of vital information in the genetic makeup of Cryptosporidium especially in developing countries. The present study aimed at determining the genotypes and subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium in hospitalized Malaysian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 346 faecal samples collected from Malaysian HIV positive patients were genetically analysed via PCR targeting the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Eighteen (5.2% of 346) isolates were determined as Cryptosporidium positive with 72.2% (of 18) identified as Cryptosporidium parvum whilst 27.7% as Cryptosporidium hominis. Further gp60 analysis revealed C. parvum belonging to subgenotypes IIaA13G1R1 (2 isolates), IIaA13G2R1 (2 isolates), IIaA14G2R1 (3 isolates), IIaA15G2R1 (5 isolates) and IIdA15G1R1 (1 isolate). C. hominis was represented by subgenotypes IaA14R1 (2 isolates), IaA18R1 (1 isolate) and IbA10G2R2 (2 isolates). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings highlighted the presence of high diversity of Cryptosporidium subgenotypes among Malaysian HIV infected individuals. The predominance of the C. parvum subgenotypes signified the possibility of zoonotic as well as anthroponotic transmissions of cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected individuals.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes 11 envelope glycoproteins, of which glycoprotein G-1 (gG-1) induces a type-specific antibody response. Variability of the gG-1 gene among wild-type strains may be a factor of importance for a reliable serodiagnosis and typing of HSV-1 isolates. Here, we used a gG-1 type-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) to screen for mutations in the immunodominant region of this protein in 108 clinical HSV-1 isolates. Of these, 42 isolates showed no reactivity to the anti-gG-1 MAb. One hundred five strains were further examined by DNA sequencing of the middle part of the gG-1 gene, encompassing 106 amino acids including the immunodominant region and epitope of the anti-gG-1 MAb. By phylogenetic comparisons based on the sequence data, we observed two (main) genetic variants of the gG-1 gene among the clinical isolates corresponding to reactivity or nonreactivity to the anti-gG-1 MAb. Furthermore, four strains appeared to be recombinants of the two gG-1 variants. In addition, one strain displayed a gG-1-negative phenotype due to a frameshift mutation, in the form of insertion of a cytosine nucleotide. When immunoglobulin G reactivity to HSV-1 in sera from patients infected with either of the two variants was investigated, no significant differences were found between the two groups, either in a type-common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or in a type-specific gG-1 antigen-based ELISA. Despite the here-documented existence of two variants of the gG-1 gene affecting the immunodominant region of the protein, other circumstances, such as early phase of infection, might be sought for explaining the seronegativity to gG-1 commonly found in a proportion of the HSV-1-infected patients.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including an increased risk of developing more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals. In Brazil, there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of HSV-1 infection, especially in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to perform the genotypic characterization of HSV-1 among HIV-infected patients. A total of 214 serum samples from HIV-positive patients without HSV infection symptoms were enrolled in one of two reference hospitals for HIV infection managing in Rio de Janeiro. The gG and gI genes were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and full nucleotide sequencing of the US8 (1601 bp), UL44 (1996 bp), and UL23 (1244 bp) regions was performed. A total of 38.3% (82/214) and 32.7% (70/214) of the serum samples tested positive for gG and gI genes, respectively. RFLP analysis classified the HSV-1 as belonging to genotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the Brazilian samples for the US8, UL44, and UL23 regions demonstrated that the nucleotide identity between Brazilian samples was higher than 97% for all genes. No acyclovir mutation was detected in the patients. The shedding of HSV in the serum samples from HIV-positive patients who were asymptomatic for HSV infection was detected in this work. This is the first report of molecular characterization of HSV-1 in Brazilian samples since there is no previous data available in the literature concerning the genotypic classification and stable distribution of Brazilian strains of HSV-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.