A randomized controlled trial of highly active antiretroviral therapy versus highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy in therapy-naive patients with HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in South Africa.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The optimal approach to HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. With large-scale rollout of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South Africa, we hypothesized that survival in HIV-KS would improve and administration of chemotherapy in addition to HAART would be feasible and improve KS-specific outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Treatment-naive patients from King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, a public-sector tertiary referral center, with HIV-KS, but no symptomatic visceral disease or fungating lesions requiring urgent chemotherapy, were randomized to HAART alone or HAART and chemotherapy (CXT). HAART arm received stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine (Triomune; CXT arm received Triomune plus bleomycin, doxorubicin, and vincristine every 3 weeks. When bleomycin, doxorubicin, and vincristine were not available, oral etoposide (50-100 mg for 1-21 days of a 28-day cycle) was substituted. Primary outcome was overall KS response using AIDS Clinical Trial Group criteria 12 months after HAART initiation. Secondary comparisons included time to response, progression-free survival, overall survival, adverse events, HIV control, CD4 reconstitution, adherence, and quality of life. RESULTS:Fifty-nine subjects were randomized to HAART and 53 to CXT; 12-month overall KS response was 39% in the HAART arm and 66% in the CXT arm (difference, 27%; 95% confidence interval, 9%-43%; P = 0.005). At 12 months, 77% were alive (no survival difference between arms; P = 0.49), 82% had HIV viral load <50 copies per milliliter without difference between the arms (P = 0.47); CD4 counts and quality-of-life measures improved in all patients. CONCLUSIONS:HAART with chemotherapy produced higher overall KS response over 12 months, whereas HAART alone provided similar improvement in survival and select measures of morbidity. In Africa, with high prevalence of HIV and human herpes virus-8 and limited resources, HAART alone provides important benefit in patients with HIV-KS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS), a common malignancy in Kenya is associated with high morbidity and mortality. AIDS-KS is treated using bleomycin and vincristine (BV) plus or minus doxorubicin in most low resource settings, with response rates ranging from 24.8 to 87%. Survival in low resource settings has not been well documented. We report the three-year survival in a cohort of seventy patients referred to Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH).<h4>Methods</h4>Study participants are part of a randomized phase IIA trial on the use of gemcitabine compared to bleomycin plus vincristine for the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Western Kenya. All patients were followed for three years in MTRH. Survival was determined by three monthly physical examination and analysed using Kaplan-Meier method, while possible determinants of survival such as baseline characteristics, type of chemotherapy, initial CD4 counts, age at enrolment, gender and early response to chemotherapy were analysed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression.<h4>Results</h4>Participants were aged between 19 and 70?years with 56% being male. The median CD4 count was 224 cells/?l, median duration of HIV diagnosis was 12.0?months and median duration of KS lesions after histology diagnosis before initiating chemotherapy was 4.8?weeks. At three years, 60 (85.7%) patients were alive. Six of those who died were under treatment with BV while four with gemcitabine. There was no difference in the probability of survival between the patients on either treatment arm (HR?=?0.573 [95% C. I 0.143, 2.292; <i>p</i>?=?0.4311]). Additionally, the hazard ratio (HR) for response after six weeks, age at enrolment and gender indicated that they were not significant determinants of survival. Patients with normal CD4 cell counts (>?=?500/?l), had a HR of 0.401(0.05,3.23; <i>p</i>?=?0.391), suggesting better survival.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with AIDS-KS treated with combined antiretroviral drugs had excellent three-year survival regardless of whether they were treated with BV or gemcitabine as first line therapy. An initial CD4 cell count of >?=?500/?l appeared to improve survival while gender, age and early response to chemotherapy were not predictors of survival after three years.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Number PACTR201510001.
Project description:HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) is the most common cancer in Malawi. In 2008, the non-governmental organization, Partners In Health, and the Ministry of Health established the Neno Kaposi Sarcoma Clinic (NKSC) to treat HIV-KS in rural Neno district. We aimed to evaluate 12-month clinical outcomes and retention in care for HIV-KS patients in the NKSC, and to describe our implementation model, which featured protocol-guided chemotherapy, integrated antiretroviral therapy (ART) and psychosocial support delivered by community health workers.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routine clinical data from 114 adult HIV-KS patients who received ART and ?1 chemotherapy cycle in the NKSC between March 2008 and February 2012.At enrolment 97% of patients (n/N=103/106) had advanced HIV-KS (stage T1). Most patients were male (n/N=85/114, 75%) with median age 36 years (interquartile range, IQR: 29-42). Patients started ART a median of 77 days prior to chemotherapy (IQR: 36-252), with 97% (n/N=105/108) receiving nevirapine/lamivudine/stavudine. Following standardized protocols, we treated 20 patients (18%) with first-line paclitaxel and 94 patients (82%) with bleomycin plus vincristine (BV). Of the 94 BV patients, 24 (26%) failed to respond to BV requiring change to second-line paclitaxel. A Division of AIDS grade 3/4 adverse event occurred in 29% of patients (n/N=30/102). Neutropenia was the most common grade 3/4 event (n/N=17/102, 17%). Twelve months after chemotherapy initiation, 83% of patients (95% CI: 74-89%) were alive, including 88 (77%) retained in care. Overall survival (OS) at 12 months did not differ by initial chemotherapy regimen (p=0.6). Among patients with T1 disease, low body mass index (BMI) (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR=4.10, 95% CI: 1.06-15.89) and 1 g/dL decrease in baseline haemoglobin (aHR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.03-2.25) were associated with increased death or loss to follow-up at 12 months.The NKSC model resulted in infrequent adverse events, low loss to follow-up and excellent OS. Our results suggest it is safe, effective and feasible to provide standard-of-care chemotherapy regimens from the developed world, integrated with ART, to treat HIV-KS in rural Malawi. Baseline BMI and haemoglobin may represent important patient characteristics associated with HIV-KS survival in rural sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Optimal treatment regimens for AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, a frequent contributor to morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, have not been systematically evaluated in low-income and middle-income countries, where the disease is most common. In this study, we aimed to investigate optimal treatment strategies for advanced stage disease in areas of high prevalence and limited resources.<h4>Methods</h4>In this open-label, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled people with HIV and advanced stage AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma attending 11 AIDS Clinical Trials Group sites in Brazil, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a centralised computer system to receive either intravenous bleomycin and vincristine or oral etoposide (the investigational arms), or intravenous paclitaxel (the control arm), together with antiretroviral therapy (ART; combined efavirenz, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and emtricitabine). The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS) at week 48, using a 15% non-inferiority margin to compare the investigational groups against the active control group. Safety was assessed in all eligible treated study participants. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01435018.<h4>Findings</h4>334 participants were enrolled between Oct 1, 2013, and March 8, 2018, when the study was closed early due to inferiority of the bleomycin and vincristine plus ART arm, as per the recommendations of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The etoposide plus ART arm also closed due to inferiority in March, 2016, following a DSMB recommendation. Week-48 PFS rates were higher in the paclitaxel plus ART arm than in both investigational arms. The absolute differences in PFS were -30% (95% CI -52 to -8) for the comparison of paclitaxel plus ART (week 48 PFS 50%, 32 to 67; n=59) and etoposide plus ART (20%, 6 to 33; n=59), and -20% (-33% to -7%) for the comparison of paclitaxel plus ART (64%, 55 to 73; n=138) and bleomycin and vincristine plus ART (44%, 35 to 53; n=132). Both CIs overlapped the non-inferiority margin. The most common adverse events, in 329 eligible participants who began treatment, were neutropenia (48 [15%]), low serum albumin (33 [10%]), weight loss (29 [9%]), and anaemia (28 [9%]), occurring at similar frequency across treatment arms.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Non-inferiority of either investigational intervention was not shown, with paclitaxel plus ART showing superiority to both oral etoposide plus ART and bleomycin and vincristine plus ART, supporting its use in treating advanced AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in resource-limited settings.<h4>Funding</h4>US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.
Project description:Between 1984 and 2006, 12 959 people with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study contributed a total of 73 412 person-years (py) of follow-up, 35 551 of which derived from PWHA treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Five hundred and ninety-seven incident Kaposi sarcoma (KS) cases were identified of whom 52 were among HAART users. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Kaposi sarcoma incidence fell abruptly in 1996-1998 to reach a plateau at 1.4 per 1000 py afterwards. Men having sex with men and birth in Africa or the Middle East were associated with KS in both non-users and users of HAART but the risk pattern by CD4 cell count differed. Only very low CD4 cell count (<50 cells microl(-1)) at enrollment or at HAART initiation were significantly associated with KS among HAART users. The HR for KS declined steeply in the first months after HAART initiation and continued to be low 7-10 years afterwards (HR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02-0.17). Thirty-three out of 52 (63.5%) KS cases among HAART users arose among PWHA who had stopped treatment or used HAART for less than 6 months.
Project description:Paclitaxel and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) are active cytotoxic agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS). A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel and PLD was performed, and the effects of therapy on symptom palliation and quality of life were determined.Patients with advanced HIV-associated KS were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m2 intravenously (iv) every 2 weeks or PLD at a dose of 20 mg/m2 iv every 3 weeks. The KS Functional Assessment of HIV (FAHI) quality of life instrument was used before and after every other treatment cycle.The study included 73 analyzable patients enrolled between 1998 and 2002, including 36 in the paclitaxel arm and 37 in the PLD arm; 73% of patients received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 32% had an undetectable viral load (<400 copies/mL). Treatment was associated with significant improvements in pain (P=.024) and swelling (P<.001). Of the 36 patients who reported that pain interfered with their normal work or activities at baseline, 25 (69%) improved. Of the 41 patients who reported swelling at baseline, 38 (93%) improved. Comparing the paclitaxel and PLD arms revealed comparable response rates (56% vs 46%; P=.49), median progression-free survival (17.5 months vs 12.2 months; P=.66), and 2-year survival rates (79% vs 78%; P=.75), but somewhat more grade 3 to 5 toxicity for paclitaxel (84% vs 66%; P=.077).Treatment with either paclitaxel or PLD appears to produce significant improvements in pain and swelling in patients with advanced, symptomatic, HIV-associated KS treated in the HAART era.
Project description:Background:Mild-to-moderate AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) often responds to antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone; the role of chemotherapy is unclear. We assessed the impact of immediate vs as-needed oral etoposide (ET) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with mild-to-moderate KS initiating ART. Methods:Chemotherapy-naive, HIV type 1-infected adults with mild-to-moderate KS initiating ART in Africa and South America were randomized to ART (tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz) alone (chemotherapy "as-needed" arm) vs ART plus up to 8 cycles of oral ET (immediate arm). Participants with KS progression on ART alone received ET as part of the as-needed strategy. Primary outcome was ordinal as follows: failure, stable, and response at 48 weeks. Secondary outcomes included time to initial KS progression, KS-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS), and KS response. Results:Of 190 randomized participants (as-needed = 94, immediate = 96), the majority were men (71%) and African (93%). Failure (53.8% vs 56.6%), stable (16.3% vs 10.8%), and response (30% vs 32.5%) did not differ between arms (as-needed vs immediate) among those with week 48 data potential (N = 163, P = .91). Time to KS progression (P = .021), KS-IRIS (P = .003), and KS response (P = .003) favored the immediate arm. Twenty-five participants died (13%). Mortality, adverse events, CD4+ T-cell changes, and HIV RNA suppression were similar at 48 weeks. Conclusions:Among HIV-infected adults with mild-to-moderate KS, immediate ET provided early, nondurable clinical benefits. By 48 weeks, no clinical benefit was observed compared to use of ET as needed. Mortality was high and tumor response was low. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT01352117.
Project description:Alternatives to cytotoxic agents are desirable for patients with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) contributes to KS pathogenesis. We evaluated the humanized anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in patients with HIV-KS.Patients with HIV-KS who either experienced progression while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 1 month or did not regress despite HAART for at least 4 months were administered bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously on days 1 and 8 and then every 3 weeks. The primary objective was assessment of antitumor activity using modified AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) criteria for HIV-KS. HIV-uninfected patients were also eligible and observed separately.Seventeen HIV-infected patients were enrolled. Fourteen patients had been receiving effective HAART for at least 6 months (median, 1 year). Thirteen patients had advanced disease (ACTG T(1)), 13 patients had received prior chemotherapy for KS, and seven patients had CD4 count less than 200 cells/?L. Median number of cycles was 10 (range, 1 to 37 cycles); median follow-up was 8.3 months (range, 3 to 36 months). Of 16 assessable patients, best tumor responses observed were complete response (CR) in three patients (19%), partial response (PR) in two patients (12%), stable disease in nine patients (56%), and progressive disease in two patients (12%). Overall response rate (CR + PR) was 31% (95% CI, 11% to 58.7%). Four of five responders had received prior chemotherapy for KS. Over 202 cycles, grade 3 to 4 adverse events at least possibly attributed to therapy included hypertension (n = 7), neutropenia (n = 5), cellulitis (n = 3), and headache (n = 2).Bevacizumab is tolerated in patients with HIV-KS and has activity in a subset of patients.
Project description:Background:HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS), among the most frequent cancers seen in sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with a high prevalence of lymphedema. Lymphedema causes progressive functional impairment marked by swelling, physical discomfort, disfiguring changes, skin hardening from fibrosis, poor wound healing, and recurrent skin infection. While compression therapy is considered a major component of lymphedema management, this intervention has never been evaluated in HIV-associated KS lymphedema. Methods/design:The Kenyan Improvised Compression for Kaposi Sarcoma (KICKS) study is a randomized, controlled trial. Due to variable lymphedema stage, we will use block randomization with a 1:1 allocation to assign participants to one of two groups: "Immediate compression" or "Delayed compression." Those randomized to "Immediate compression" intervention arm will receive weekly two-component compression bandages while receiving chemotherapy, whereas those in the "Delayed compression" control arm will be followed during chemotherapy and then receive compression after chemotherapy is completed. The primary outcome is change in Lower Extremity Lymphedema Index from enrollment at Week 0 to blinded outcome assessment at Week 14 between intervention and control arms. Secondary outcomes are change in leg lymphedema-specific quality of life (LYMQOL) and change in overall health quality of life in cancer (EORTC QLQ C30). Discussion:This represents the first study in sub-Saharan Africa to assess a lymphedema-directed intervention for KS, and the intervention-locally sourced two-component compression bandages-is affordable and available. Thus, the KICKS study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based path for regionally relevant management of HIV-associated KS lymphedema. Trial registration:This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on January 19, 2018: identifier NCT03404297.
Project description:Patients with poor and intermediate prognosis metastatic germ-cell tumours (MGCTs) are at a significant risk of relapse after standard platinum-based chemotherapy. Novel treatment regimens are required to improve survival. Dose intense, alternating combinations of drugs with known activity in germ-cell tumours represents one approach. In all, 43 patients with IGCCCG intermediate/poor prognosis MGCT were treated with a dose intense regimen alternating bleomycin, vincristine, cisplatin (BOP) with bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) to a maximum of three cycles. Data were collected on the maintenance of dose intensity, toxicity, response, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The complete response rate was 58%; a further 7% of patients being rendered disease free by resection of viable residual tumour. With a median follow-up of more than 4 years in surviving patients, 3-year OS and PFS rates of 81% (95% CI: 66-91%) and 72% (95% CI: 56-83%) are seen, respectively. Bleomycin, vincristine, cisplatin (BOP)/bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) was well tolerated, with 86% of patients completing all planned courses. Toxicity was predominantly haematological with common toxicity criteria grade III neutropenia in 90% of patients. Cisplatin neuropathy and bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity represented the most significant nonhaematological toxicity. Bleomycin, vincristine, cisplatin (BOP)/bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) represents a practicable, well-tolerated, dose intense chemotherapy regimen with significant activity in intermediate and poor prognosis MGCT.
Project description:The toxicity of dose-intensive regimens used for Burkitt lymphoma prompted modification of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC) for HIV-positive patients. We added rituximab, reduced and/or rescheduled cyclophosphamide and methotrexate, capped vincristine, and used combination intrathecal chemotherapy. Antibiotic prophylaxis and growth factor support were required; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was discretionary. Thirteen AIDS Malignancy Consortium centers enrolled 34 patients from 2007 to 2010. Median age was 42 years (range, 19-55 years), 32 of 34 patients were high risk, 74% had stage III to IV BL and CD4 count of 195 cells per ?L (range, 0-721 cells per ?L), and 5 patients (15%) had CD4 <100 cells per ?L. Twenty-six patients were receiving HAART; viral load was <100 copies per mL in 12 patients. Twenty-seven patients had at least one grade 3 to 5 toxicity, including 20 hematologic, 14 infectious, and 6 metabolic. None had grade 3 to 4 mucositis. Five patients did not complete treatments because of adverse events. Eleven patients died, including 1 treatment-related and 8 disease-related deaths. The 1-year progression-free survival was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51%-82%) and overall survival was 72% (95% CI, 53%-84%); 2-year overall survival was 69% (95% CI, 50%-82%). Modifications of the CODOX-M/IVAC regimen resulted in a grade 3 to 4 toxicity rate of 79%, which was lower than that in the parent regimen (100%), without grade 3 to 4 mucositis. Despite a 68% protocol completion rate, the 1-year survival rate compares favorably with 2 studies that excluded HIV-positive patients. This trial was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00392834.