Differential regulation of proteasome function in isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
ABSTRACT: Proteasomal degradation is altered in many disease phenotypes including cardiac hypertrophy, a prevalent condition leading to heart failure. Our recent investigations identified heterogeneous subpopulations of proteasome complexes in the heart and implicated multiple mechanisms for their regulation.The study aimed at identification of molecular mechanisms changing proteasome function in the hypertrophic heart.Proteasome function, expression, and assembly were analyzed during the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by ?-adrenergic stimulation. The analysis revealed, for the first time, divergent regulation of proteasome function in cardiac hypertrophy. Proteasome complexes have 3 different proteolytic activities, which are ATP-dependent for 26S complexes (19S assembled with 20S) and ATP-independent for 20S core particles. The 26S activities were enhanced in hypertrophic hearts, partially because of increased expression and assembly of 19S subunits with 20S core complexes. In contrast, caspase- and trypsin-like 20S activities were significantly decreased. Activation of endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) rescued the depressed 20S functions, supporting the notion that PKA signaling is a positive regulator of protein degradation in the heart. Chymotrypsin-like 20S activity was stably maintained during cardiac remodeling, indicating a switch in proteasome subpopulations, which was supported by altered expression and incorporation of inducible ? subunits.Three novel mechanisms for the regulation of proteasome activities were discovered in the development of cardiac hypertrophy: (1) increased incorporation of inducible subunits in 20S proteasomes; (2) enhanced 20S sensitivity to PKA activation; and (3) increased 26S assembly. PKA modulation of proteasome complexes may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for restoration of cardiac function in the diseased myocardium.
Project description:The 26S proteasome plays an essential role in regulating many cellular processes by the degradation of proteins targeted for breakdown by ubiquitin conjugation. The 26S complex is formed from the 20S core, which contains the proteolytic active sites, and 19S regulatory complexes, which bind to the 20S core to activate it and confer specificity for ubiquitinated protein substrates. We have determined the structure of the human 26S proteasome by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. In our reconstructions the crystallographic structure of each of the subunits of the 20S core can be unambiguously docked by direct recognition of each of their densities. Our results show for the first time that binding of the 19S regulatory particle results in the radial displacement of the adjacent subunits of the 20S core leading to opening of a wide channel into the proteolytic chamber. The analysis of a proteasome complex formed from one 20S core with a single 19S regulatory particle attached serve as control to our observations. We suggest locations for some of the 19S regulatory particle subunits.
Project description:The ATP-powered protein degradation machinery plays essential roles in maintaining protein homeostasis in all organisms. Robust proteolytic activities are typically sequestered within protein complexes to avoid the fatal removal of essential proteins. Because the openings of proteolytic chambers are narrow, substrate proteins must undergo unfolding. AAA superfamily proteins (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) are mostly located at these openings and regulate protein degradation appropriately. The 26S proteasome, comprising 20S peptidase and 19S regulatory particles, is the major ATP-powered protein degradation machinery in eukaryotes. The 19S particles are composed of six AAA proteins and 13 regulatory proteins, and bind to both ends of a barrel-shaped proteolytic chamber formed by the 20S peptidase. Several recent studies have reported that another AAA protein, Cdc48, can replace the 19S particles to form an alternative ATP-powered proteasomal complex, i.e., the Cdc48-20S proteasome. This review focuses on our current knowledge of this alternative proteasome and its possible linkage to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Project description:The proteasome plays a pivotal role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we used biochemical and mass spectrometric methods to investigate structural changes in the 26S proteasomes from yeast and mammalian cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H?O?). Oxidative stress induced the dissociation of the 20S core particle from the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome, which resulted in loss of the activities of the 26S proteasome and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. H?O? triggered the increased association of the proteasome-interacting protein Ecm29 with the purified 19S particle. Deletion of ECM29 in yeast cells prevented the disassembly of the 26S proteasome in response to oxidative stress, and ecm29 mutants were more sensitive to H?O? than were wild-type cells, suggesting that separation of the 19S and 20S particles is important for cellular recovery from oxidative stress. The increased amount of free 20S core particles was required to degrade oxidized proteins. The Ecm29-dependent dissociation of the proteasome was independent of Yap1, a transcription factor that is critical for the oxidative stress response in yeast, and thus functions as a parallel defense pathway against H?O?-induced stress.
Project description:Proteasomes are large intracellular complexes responsible for the degradation of cellular proteins. The altered protein homeostasis of cancer cells results in increased dependency on proteasome function. The cellular proteasome composition comprises the 20S catalytic complex that is frequently capped with the 19S regulatory particle in forming the 26S proteasome. Proteasome inhibitors target the catalytic barrel (20S) and thus this inhibition does not allow the deconvolution of the distinct roles of 20S versus 26S proteasomes in cancer progression. We examined the degree of dependency of cancer cells specifically to the level of the 26S proteasome complex. Oncogenic transformation of human and mouse immortalized cells with mutant Ras induced a strong posttranscriptional increase of the 26S proteasome subunits, giving rise to high 26S complex levels. Depletion of a single subunit of the 19S RP was sufficient to reduce the 26S proteasome level and lower the cellular 26S/20S ratio. Under this condition the viability of the Ras-transformed MCF10A cells was severely compromised. This observation led us to hypothesize that cancer cell survival is dependent on maximal utilization of its 26S proteasomes. We validated this possibility in a large number of cancer cell lines and found that partial reduction of the 26S proteasome level impairs viability in all cancer cells examined and was not correlated with cell doubling time or reduction efficiency. Interstingly, normal human fibroblasts are refractory to the same type of 26S proteasome reduction. The suppression of 26S proteasomes in cancer cells activated the UPR and caspase-3 and cells stained positive with Annexin V. In addition, suppression of the 26S proteasome resulted in cellular proteasome redistribution, cytoplasm shrinkage, and nuclear deformation, the hallmarks of apoptosis. The observed tumor cell-specific addiction to the 26S proteasome levels sets the stage for future strategies in exploiting this dependency in cancer therapy.
Project description:This study examined the hypothesis that 26S proteasome dysfunction in human end-stage heart failure is associated with decreased docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome. Previous studies have demonstrated that 26S proteasome activity is diminished in human end-stage heart failure associated with oxidation of the 19S regulatory particle Rpt5 subunit. Docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome requires functional Rpt subunit ATPase activity and phosphorylation of the ?-type subunits.An enriched proteasome fraction was prepared from 7 human nonfailing and 10 failing heart explants. Native gel electrophoresis assessed docking of 19S to 20S proteasome revealing 3 proteasome populations (20S, 26S, and 30S proteasomes). In failing hearts, 30S proteasomes were significantly lower (P=0.048) by 37% suggesting diminished docking. Mass spectrometry-based phosphopeptide analysis demonstrated that the relative ratio of phosphorylated:non phosphorylated ?7 subunit (serine250) of the 20S proteasome was significantly less (P=0.011) by almost 80% in failing hearts. Rpt ATPase activity was determined in the enriched fraction and after immunoprecipitation with an Rpt6 antibody. ATPase activity (?mol PO4/?g protein per hour) of the total fraction was lowered from 291±97 to 194±27 and in the immunoprecipitated fraction from 42±12 to 3±2 (P=0.005) in failing hearts.These studies suggest that diminished 26S activity in failing human hearts may be related to impaired docking of the 19S to the 20S as a result of decreased Rpt subunit ATPase activity and ?7 subunit phosphorylation.
Project description:Proteasomes can exist in several different molecular forms in mammalian cells. The core 20S proteasome, containing the proteolytic sites, binds regulatory complexes at the ends of its cylindrical structure. Together with two 19S ATPase regulatory complexes it forms the 26S proteasome, which is involved in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The 20S proteasome can also bind 11S regulatory complexes (REG, PA28) which play a role in antigen processing, as do the three variable gamma-interferon-inducible catalytic beta-subunits (e.g. LMP7). In the present study, we have investigated the subcellular distribution of the different forms of proteasomes using subunit specific antibodies. Both 20S proteasomes and their 19S regulatory complexes are found in nuclear, cytosolic and microsomal preparations isolated from rat liver. LMP7 was enriched approximately two-fold compared with core alpha-type proteasome subunits in the microsomal preparations. 20S proteasomes were more abundant than 26S proteasomes, both in liver and cultured cell lines. Interestingly, some significant differences were observed in the distribution of different subunits of the 19S regulatory complexes. S12, and to a lesser extent p45, were found to be relatively enriched in nuclear fractions from rat liver, and immunofluorescent labelling of cultured cells with anti-p45 antibodies showed stronger labelling in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. The REG was found to be localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Three- to six-fold increases in the level of REG were observed following gamma-interferon treatment of cultured cells but gamma-interferon had no obvious effect on its subcellular distribution. These results demonstrate that different regulatory complexes and subpopulations of proteasomes have different distributions within mammalian cells and, therefore, that the distribution is more complex than has been reported for yeast proteasomes.
Project description:Due to their altered metabolism cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition or changes of copper levels than normal cells. Thus, the development of copper complexes endowed with proteasome inhibition features has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. However, limited information is available about the exact mechanism by which copper inhibits proteasome. Here we show that Cu(II) ions simultaneously inhibit the three peptidase activities of isolated 20S proteasomes with potencies (IC50) in the micromolar range. Cu(II) ions, in cell-free conditions, neither catalyze red-ox reactions nor disrupt the assembly of the 20S proteasome but, rather, promote conformational changes associated to impaired channel gating. Notably, HeLa cells grown in a Cu(II)-supplemented medium exhibit decreased proteasome activity. This effect, however, was attenuated in the presence of an antioxidant. Our results suggest that if, on one hand, Cu(II)-inhibited 20S activities may be associated to conformational changes that favor the closed state of the core particle, on the other hand the complex effect induced by Cu(II) ions in cancer cells is the result of several concurring events including ROS-mediated proteasome flooding, and disassembly of the 26S proteasome into its 20S and 19S components.
Project description:A series of three complexes with diethyldithiocarbamate ligand and three different metals (Ni, Cu, Zn) was prepared, confirmed by X-ray crystallography, and tested in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Zinc and copper complexes, but not nickel complex, were found to be more active against cellular 26S proteasome than against purified 20S proteasome core particle. One of the possible explanations is inhibition of JAMM domain in the 19S proteasome lid.
Project description:We have determined distinct roles for different proteasome complexes in adenovirus (Ad) E1A-dependent transcription. We show that the 19S ATPase, S8, as a component of 19S ATPase proteins independent of 20S (APIS), binds specifically to the E1A transactivation domain, conserved region 3 (CR3). Recruitment of APIS to CR3 enhances the ability of E1A to stimulate transcription from viral early gene promoters during Ad infection of human cells. The ability of CR3 to stimulate transcription in yeast is similarly dependent on the functional integrity of yeast APIS components, Sug1 and Sug2. The 20S proteasome is also recruited to CR3 independently of APIS and the 26S proteasome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that E1A, S8 and the 20S proteasome are recruited to both Ad early region gene promoters and early region gene sequences during Ad infection, suggesting their requirement in both transcriptional initiation and elongation. We also demonstrate that E1A CR3 transactivation and degradation sequences functionally overlap and that proteasome inhibitors repress E1A transcription. Taken together, these data demonstrate distinct roles for APIS and the 20S proteasome in E1A-dependent transactivation.
Project description:Cytotoxic protein aggregation-induced impairment of cell function and homeostasis are hallmarks of age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. As proteasomal degradation represents the major clearance pathway for oxidatively damaged proteins, a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying its stress response is critical for developing strategies to maintain cell viability and function. Although the 26S proteasome has been shown to disassemble during oxidative stress, its conformational dynamics remains unclear. To this end, we have developed a new quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry (QXL-MS) workflow to explore the structural dynamics of proteasome complexes in response to oxidative stress. This strategy comprises SILAC-based metabolic labeling, HB tag-based affinity purification, a 2-step cross-linking reaction consisting of mild in vivo formaldehyde and on-bead DSSO cross-linking, and multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) to identify and quantify cross-links. This integrated workflow has been successfully applied to explore the molecular events underlying oxidative stress-dependent proteasomal regulation by comparative analyses of proteasome complex topologies from treated and untreated cells. Our results show that H2O2 treatment weakens the 19S-20S interaction within the 26S proteasome, along with reorganizations within the 19S and 20S subcomplexes. Altogether, this work sheds light on the mechanistic response of the 26S to acute oxidative stress, suggesting an intermediate proteasomal state(s) before H2O2-mediated dissociation of the 26S. The QXL-MS strategy presented here can be applied to study conformational changes of other protein complexes under different physiological conditions.