Structural basis for inhibition of xyloglucan-specific endo-?-1,4-glucanase (XEG) by XEG-protein inhibitor.
ABSTRACT: Microorganisms such as plant pathogens secrete glycoside hydrolases (GHs) to digest the polysaccharide chains of plant cell walls. The degradation of cell walls by these enzymes is a crucial step for nutrition and invasion. To protect the cell wall from these enzymes, plants secrete glycoside hydrolase inhibitor proteins (GHIPs). Xyloglucan-specific endo-?-1,4-glucanase (XEG), a member of GH family 12 (GH12), could be a great threat to many plants because xyloglucan is a major component of the cell wall in most plants. Understanding the inhibition mechanism of XEG by GHIP is therefore of great importance in the field of plant defense, but to date the mechanism and specificity of GHIPs remain unclear. We have determined the crystal structure of XEG in complex with extracellular dermal glycoprotein (EDGP), a carrot GHIP that inhibits XEG. The structure reveals that the conserved arginines of EDGP intrude into the active site of XEG and interact with the catalytic glutamates of the enzyme. We have also determined the crystal structure of the XEG-xyloglucan complex. These structures show that EDGP closely mimics the XEG-xyloglucan interaction. Although EDGP shares structural similarity to a wheat GHIP (Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor-IA (TAXI-IA)) that inhibits GH11 family xylanases, the arrangement of GH and GHIP in the XEG-EDGP complex is distinct from that in the xylanase-TAXI-IA complex. Our findings imply that plants have evolved structures of GHIPs to inhibit different GH family members that attack their cell walls.
Project description:Xyloglucan is a prominent matrix heteropolysaccharide binding to cellulose microfibrils in primary plant cell walls. Hence, the hydrolysis of xyloglucan facilitates the overall lignocellulosic biomass degradation. Xyloglucanases (XEGs) are key enzymes classified in several glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. So far, family GH44 has been shown to contain bacterial XEGs only. Detailed genome analysis revealed GH44 members in fungal species from the phylum Basidiomycota, but not in other fungi, which we hypothesized to also be XEGs. Two GH44 enzymes from <i>Dichomitus squalens</i> and <i>Pleurotus ostreatus</i> were heterologously produced and characterized. They exhibited XEG activity and displayed a hydrolytic cleavage pattern different from that observed in fungal XEGs from other GH families. Specifically, the fungal GH44 XEGs were not hindered by substitution of neighboring glucosyl units and generated various "XXXG-type," "GXXX(G)-type," and "XXX-type" oligosaccharides. Overall, these fungal GH44 XEGs represent a novel class of enzymes for plant biomass conversion and valorization.
Project description:The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in?vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death.
Project description:Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulosic component in plant cell walls. Phytopathogenic fungi secrete cell wall-degrading enzymes on their infection to hosts, while the nature of the cell wall-lytic enzymes of such fungi are yet to be fully understood. <i>Verticillium dahliae</i> is a soil-borne fungus that causes vascular wilt diseases in a variety of commercially important crops worldwide. We purified two types of xyloglucanases, XEG12A and XEG74B, from the culture of naturally isolated <i>Verticillium dahliae</i> strain 2148. XEG12A showed a molecular size of 23 kDa with its maximal activity at pH 7.5. XEG12A specifically hydrolyzed xyloglucan with no activity on other β-glucans. XEG74B had a molecular size of 110 kDa with its optimum pH at 6.0. XEG74B primarily hydrolyzed xyloglucan, with a slight activity on β-1,3-1,4-glucan. Analysis of hydrolytic products of xyloglucanooligasaccharide (XXXGXXXG) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed that the both enzymes cleaved β-1,4-glucosidic linkage at the position of unbranched chain, while XEG74B showed a little fluctuation with the cleavage site. Both enzymes did not hydrolyzed xyloglucanoheptasaccharide (XXXG) at all. N-Terminal and internal amino acid sequencing of the enzymes revealed that XEG12A and XEG74B belonged to Glycoside Hydrolase (GH) Families 12 and 74, respectively. Based on these results we concluded that <i>V. dahliae</i> XEG12A and XEG74B were xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanases (EC 18.104.22.168).
Project description:?-conglutin (?C) is a major protein of Lupinus albus seeds, but its function is still unknown. It shares high structural similarity with xyloglucan-specific endo-glucanase inhibitor proteins (XEGIPs) and, to a lesser extent, with Triticum aestivum endoxylanase inhibitors (TAXI-I), active against fungal glycoside hydrolases GH12 and GH11, respectively. However, ?C lacks both these inhibitory activities. Since ?-galactomannans are major components of the cell walls of endosperm in several legume plants, we tested the inhibitory activity of ?C against a GH2 ?-mannosidase (EC 22.214.171.124). ?C was actually able to inhibit the enzyme, and this effect was enhanced by the presence of zinc ions. The stoichiometry of the ?C/enzyme interaction was 1:1, and the calculated Ki was 1.55 ?M. To obtain further insights into the interaction between ?C and ?-mannosidase, an in silico structural bioinformatic approach was followed, including some docking analyses. By and large, this work describes experimental findings that highlight new scenarios for understanding the natural role of ?C. Although structural predictions can leave space for speculative interpretations, the full complexity of the data reported in this work allows one to hypothesize mechanisms of action for the basis of inhibition. At least two mechanisms seem plausible, both involving lupin-?C-peculiar structures.
Project description:During host plant infection, pathogens produce a wide array of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) to break the plant cell wall. Among CWDEs, xylanases are key enzymes in the degradation of xylan, the main component of hemicellulose. Targeted deletion experiments support the direct involvement of the xylanase BcXyn11a in the pathogenesis of Botrytis cinerea. Since the Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor-I (TAXI-I) has been shown to inhibit BcXyn11a, we verified if TAXI-I could be exploited to counteract B. cinerea infections. With this aim, we first produced Nicotiana tabacum plants transiently expressing TAXI-I, observing increased resistance to B. cinerea. Subsequently, we transformed Arabidopsis thaliana to express TAXI-I constitutively, and we obtained three transgenic lines exhibiting a variable amount of TAXI-I. The line with the higher level of TAXI-I showed increased resistance to B. cinerea and the absence of necrotic lesions when infiltrated with BcXyn11a. Finally, in a droplet application experiment on wild-type Arabidopsis leaves, TAXI-I prevented the necrotizing activity of BcXyn11a. These results would confirm that the contribution of BcXyn11a to virulence is due to its necrotizing rather than enzymatic activity. In conclusion, our experiments highlight the ability of the TAXI-I xylanase inhibitor to counteract B. cinerea infection presumably by preventing the necrotizing activity of BcXyn11a.
Project description:Plant pathogenic fungi must be able to degrade host cell walls in order to penetrate and invade plant tissues. Among the plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) produced, xylanases are of special interest since its degradation target, xylan, is one of the main structural polysaccharides in plant cell walls. In the biotrophic fungus <i>Ustilago maydis</i>, attempts to characterize PCWDEs required for virulence have been unsuccessful, most likely due to functional redundancy. In previous high-throughput screening, we found one xylanase to be important for <i>U. maydis</i> infection. Here, we characterize the entire <i>U. maydis</i> endo-xylanase family, comprising two enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 10 family, Xyn1 and Xyn2, one from GH11, Xyn11A, and one from GH43, Xyn3. We show that all endo-xylanases except Xyn3 are secreted and involved in infection in a non-redundant manner, suggesting different roles for each xylanase in this process. Taking a closer look inside the plant during the pathogenic process, we observed that all secreted xylanases were necessary for fungal proliferation. Finally, we found that at least Xyn11A accumulated in the apoplast of the infected plant after three days, highlighting the role of these enzymes as important secreted proteins during fungal proliferation inside plant tissues.
Project description:Xyloglucans are highly substituted and recalcitrant polysaccharides found in the primary cell walls of vascular plants, acting as a barrier against pathogens. Here, we reveal that the diverse and economically relevant Xanthomonas bacteria are endowed with a xyloglucan depolymerization machinery that is linked to pathogenesis. Using the citrus canker pathogen as a model organism, we show that this system encompasses distinctive glycoside hydrolases, a modular xyloglucan acetylesterase and specific membrane transporters, demonstrating that plant-associated bacteria employ distinct molecular strategies from commensal gut bacteria to cope with xyloglucans. Notably, the sugars released by this system elicit the expression of several key virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, a membrane-embedded apparatus to deliver effector proteins into the host cells. Together, these findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms underpinning the intricate enzymatic machinery of Xanthomonas to depolymerize xyloglucans and uncover a role for this system in signaling pathways driving pathogenesis.
Project description:A previously undescribed forward chemical genetic screen using hydrolases affecting the extracellular matrix is introduced. The developed screen takes advantage of the power of chemical genetics and combines it with the known substrate specificity of glycosylhydrolases, resulting in the selection of conditional mutants that exhibit structural defects in their extracellular matrix. Identification of the responsible genetic locus in those mutants significantly extends our knowledge of genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, signaling, and functionality of components of the extracellular matrix. The method is exemplified by a screen of mutagenized Arabidopsis plants subjected to growth in liquid culture in the presence of a xyloglucanase, an enzyme acting on the major cross-linking glycan found in the extracellular matrix of this plant. Using this hydrolase-based screen, dozens of plant cell wall mutants (xeg mutants) were identified, leading to the identification of 23 genetic loci that affect plant cell walls. One of the identified loci is XEG113, encoding a family 77 glycosyltransferase (GT77). Detailed analysis of the wall of this mutant indicated that its extensins, structural glyocoproteins present in walls, are underarabinosylated. Xeg-113 plants exhibit more elongated hypocotyls than WT, providing genetic evidence that plant O-glycosylation--more specifically, extensin arabinosylation--is important for cell elongation.
Project description:Arabinogalactan proteins are proteoglycans found on the cell surface and in the cell walls of higher plants. The carbohydrate moieties of most arabinogalactan proteins are composed of ?-1,3-galactan main chains and ?-1,6-galactan side chains, to which other auxiliary sugars are attached. For the present study, an endo-?-1,3-galactanase, designated FvEn3GAL, was first purified and cloned from winter mushroom Flammulina velutipes. The enzyme specifically hydrolyzed ?-1,3-galactan, but did not act on ?-1,3-glucan, ?-1,3:1,4-glucan, xyloglucan, and agarose. It released various ?-1,3-galactooligosaccharides together with Gal from ?-1,3-galactohexaose in the early phase of the reaction, demonstrating that it acts on ?-1,3-galactan in an endo-fashion. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FvEn3GAL is member of a novel subgroup distinct from known glycoside hydrolases such as endo-?-1,3-glucanase and endo-?-1,3:1,4-glucanase in glycoside hydrolase family 16. Point mutations replacing the putative catalytic Glu residues conserved for enzymes in this family with Asp abolished activity. These results indicate that FvEn3GAL is a highly specific glycoside hydrolase 16 endo-?-1,3-galactanase.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Constitutive expression of Vitis vinifera polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 1 (Vvpgip1) has been shown to protect tobacco plants against Botrytis cinerea. Evidence points to additional roles for VvPGIP1, beyond the classical endopolygalacturonase (ePG) inhibition mechanism, in providing protection against fungal infection. Gene expression and biochemical datasets previously obtained, in the absence of infection, point to the cell wall, and particularly the xyloglucan component of transgenic VvPGIP1 lines as playing a role in fungal resistance.<h4>Results</h4>To elucidate the role of wall-associated processes in PGIP-derived resistance pre-infection, a wall profiling analysis, using high-throughput and fractionation techniques, was performed on healthy leaves from wild-type and previously characterized transgenic lines. The cell wall structure profile during development was found to be altered in the transgenic lines assessed versus the wild-type plants. Immunoprofiling revealed subtle changes in pectin and cellulose components and marked changes in the hemicellulose matrix, which showed reduced binding in transgenic leaves of VvPGIP1 expressing plants. Using an enzymatic xyloglucan oligosaccharide fingerprinting technique optimized for tobacco arabinoxyloglucans, we showed that polysaccharides of the XEG-soluble domain were modified in relative abundance for certain oligosaccharide components, although no differences in ion profiles were evident between wild-type and transgenic plants. These changes did not significantly influence plant morphology or normal growth processes compared to wild-type lines.<h4>Conclusions</h4>VvPGIP1 overexpression therefore results in cell wall remodeling and reorganization of the cellulose-xyloglucan network in tobacco in advance of potential infection.