Double threading through DNA: NMR structural study of a bis-naphthalene macrocycle bound to a thymine-thymine mismatch.
ABSTRACT: The macrocyclic bis-naphthalene macrocycle (2,7-BisNP), belonging to the cyclobisintercalator family of DNA ligands, recognizes T-T mismatch sites in duplex DNA with high affinity and selectivity, as evidenced by thermal denaturation experiments and NMR titrations. The binding of this macrocycle to an 11-mer DNA oligonucleotide containing a T-T mismatch was studied using NMR spectroscopy and NMR-restrained molecular modeling. The ligand forms a single type of complex with the DNA, in which one of the naphthalene rings of the ligand occupies the place of one of the mismatched thymines, which is flipped out of the duplex. The second naphthalene unit of the ligand intercalates at the A-T base pair flanking the mismatch site, leading to encapsulation of its thymine residue via double stacking. The polyammonium linking chains of the macrocycle are located in the minor and the major grooves of the oligonucleotide and participate in the stabilization of the complex by formation of hydrogen bonds with the encapsulated thymine base and the mismatched thymine remaining inside the helix. The study highlights the uniqueness of this cyclobisintercalation binding mode and its importance for recognition of DNA lesion sites by small molecules.
Project description:Binding of three macrocyclic bis-intercalators, derivatives of acridine and naphthalene, and two acyclic model compounds to mismatch-containing and matched duplex oligodeoxynucleotides was analyzed by thermal denaturation experiments, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry studies (ESI-MS) and fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) titrations. The macrocyclic bis-intercalators bind to duplexes containing mismatched thymine bases with high selectivity over the fully matched ones, whereas the acyclic model compounds are much less selective and strongly bind to the matched DNA. Moreover, the results from thermal denaturation experiments are in very good agreement with the binding affinities obtained by ESI-MS and FID measurements. The FID results also demonstrate that the macrocyclic naphthalene derivative BisNP preferentially binds to pyrimidine-pyrimidine mismatches compared to all other possible base mismatches. This ligand also efficiently competes with a DNA enzyme (M.TaqI) for binding to a duplex with a TT-mismatch, as shown by competitive fluorescence titrations. Altogether, our results demonstrate that macrocyclic distance-constrained bis-intercalators are efficient and selective mismatch-binding ligands that can interfere with mismatch-binding enzymes.
Project description:We have determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure of DNA duplex that includes tandem Hg(II)-mediated T-T base pairs (thymine-Hg(II)-thymine, T-Hg(II)-T) with NMR spectroscopy in solution. This is the first 3D structure of metallo-DNA (covalently metallated DNA) composed exclusively of 'NATURAL' bases. The T-Hg(II)-T base pairs whose chemical structure was determined with the (15)N NMR spectroscopy were well accommodated in a B-form double helix, mimicking normal Watson-Crick base pairs. The Hg atoms aligned along DNA helical axis were shielded from the bulk water. The complete dehydration of Hg atoms inside DNA explained the positive reaction entropy (?S) for the T-Hg(II)-T base pair formation. The positive ?S value arises owing to the Hg(II) dehydration, which was approved with the 3D structure. The 3D structure explained extraordinary affinity of thymine towards Hg(II) and revealed arrangement of T-Hg(II)-T base pairs in metallo-DNA.
Project description:Oxidative damage to 5-methylcytosine in DNA, followed by deamination, yields thymine glycol (Tg), 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine, mispaired with deoxyguanosine. The structure of the 5R Tg.G mismatch pair has been refined using a combination of simulated annealing and isothermal molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-derived distance restraints and torsion angle restraints in 5'-d(G(1)T(2)G(3)C(4)G(5)Tg(6)G(7)T(8)T(9)T(10)G(11)T(12))-3'.5'-d(A(13)C(14)A(15)A(16)A(17)C(18)G(19)C(20)G(21)C(22)A(23)C(24))-3'; Tg = 5R Tg. In this duplex the cis-5R,6S:trans-5R,6R equilibrium favors the cis-5R,6S epimer [Brown, K. L., Adams, T., Jasti, V. P., Basu, A. K., and Stone, M. P. (2008) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11701-11710]. The cis-5R,6S Tg lesion is in the wobble orientation such that Tg(6) O(2) is proximate to G(19) N1H and Tg(6) N3H is proximate to G(19) O(6). Both Tg(6) and the mismatched nucleotide G(19) remain stacked in the helix. The Tg(6) nucleotide shifts toward the major groove and stacks below the 5'-neighbor base G(5), while its complement G(19) stacks below the 5'-neighbor C(20). In the 3'-direction, stacking between Tg(6) and the G(7).C(18) base pair is disrupted. The solvent-accessible surface area of the Tg nucleotide increases as compared to the native Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonded T.A base pair. An increase in T(2) relaxation rates for the Tg(6) base protons is attributed to puckering of the Tg base, accompanied by increased disorder at the Tg.G mismatch pair. The axial vs equatorial conformation of the Tg(6) CH(3) group cannot be determined with certainty from the NMR data. The rMD trajectories suggest that in either the axial or equatorial conformations the cis-5R,6S Tg lesion does not form strong intrastrand hydrogen bonds with the imidazole N7 atom of the 3'-neighbor purine G(7). The wobble pairing and disorder of the Tg.G mismatch correlate with the reduced thermodynamic stability of the mismatch and likely modulate its recognition by DNA base excision repair systems.
Project description:The cis-syn thymine cyclobutane dimer is a DNA photoproduct implicated in skin cancer. We compared the stability of individual base pairs in thymine dimer-containing duplexes to undamaged parent 10-mer duplexes. UV melting thermodynamic measurements, CD spectroscopy, and 2D NOESY NMR spectroscopy confirm that the thymine dimer lesion is locally and moderately destabilizing within an overall B-form duplex conformation. We measured the rates of exchange of individual imino protons by NMR using magnetization transfer from water and determined the equilibrium constant for the opening of each base pair K(op). In the normal duplex K(op) decreases from the frayed ends of the duplex toward the center, such that the central TA pair is the most stable with a K(op) of 8 × 10??. In contrast, base pair opening at the 5'T of the thymine dimer is facile. The 5'T of the dimer has the largest equilibrium constant (K(op) = 3 × 10??) in its duplex, considerably larger than even the frayed penultimate base pairs. Notably, base pairing by the 3'T of the dimer is much more stable than by the 5'T, indicating that the predominant opening mechanism for the thymine dimer lesion is not likely to be flipping out into solution as a single unit. The dimer asymmetrically affects the stability of the duplex in its vicinity, destabilizing base pairing on its 5' side more than on the 3' side. The striking differences in base pair opening between parent and dimer duplexes occur independently of the duplex-single strand melting transitions.
Project description:Thymine glycol (Tg), 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine, is formed in DNA by the reaction of thymine with reactive oxygen species. The 5R Tg lesion was incorporated site-specifically into 5'-d(G(1)T(2)G(3)C(4)G(5)Tg(6)G(7)T(8)T(9)T(10)G(11)T(12))-3'; Tg = 5R Tg. The Tg-modified oligodeoxynucleotide was annealed with either 5'-d(A(13)C(14)A(15)A(16)A(17)C(18)A(19)C(20)G(21)C(22)A(23)C(24))-3', forming the Tg(6) x A(19) base pair, corresponding to the oxidative damage of thymine in DNA, or 5'-d(A(13)C(14)A(15)A(16)A(17)C(18)G(19)C(20)G(21)C(22)A(23)C(24))-3', forming the mismatched Tg(6) x G(19) base pair, corresponding to the formation of Tg following oxidative damage and deamination of 5-methylcytosine in DNA. At 30 degrees C, the equilibrium ratio of cis-5R,6S:trans-5R,6R epimers was 7:3 for the duplex containing the Tg(6) x A (19) base pair. In contrast, for the duplex containing the Tg(6) x G(19) base pair, the cis-5R,6S:trans-5R,6R equilibrium favored the cis-5R,6S epimer; the level of the trans-5R,6R epimer remained below the level of detection by NMR. The data suggested that Tg disrupted hydrogen bonding interactions, either when placed opposite to A(19) or G(19). Thermodynamic measurements indicated a 13 degrees C reduction of T(m) regardless of whether Tg was placed opposite dG or dA in the complementary strand. Although both pairings increased the free energy of melting by 3 kcal/mol, the melting of the Tg x G pair was more enthalpically favored than was the melting of the Tg x A pair. The observation that the position of the equilibrium between the cis-5R,6S and trans-5R,6R thymine glycol epimers in duplex DNA was affected by the identity of the complementary base extends upon observations that this equilibrium modulates the base excision repair of Tg [Ocampo-Hafalla, M. T.; Altamirano, A.; Basu, A. K.; Chan, M. K.; Ocampo, J. E.; Cummings, A., Jr.; Boorstein, R. J.; Cunningham, R. P.; Teebor, G. W. DNA Repair (Amst) 2006, 5, 444-454].
Project description:Despite significant progress in the past decade, questions still remain about the complete structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic effect of the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesion (hereafter called the thymine dimer) on double-stranded genomic DNA. We examined a 19-mer oligodeoxynucleotide duplex containing a thymine dimer lesion using several small, base-selective reactive chemical probes. These molecules probe whether the presence of the dimer causes the base pairs to be more accessible to the solution, either globally or adjacent to the dimer. Though all of the probes confirm that the overall structure of the dimer-containing duplex is conserved compared to that of the undamaged parent duplex, reactions with both diethyl pyrocarbonate and Rh(bpy)(2)(chrysi)(3+) indicate that the duplex is locally destabilized near the lesion. Reactions with potassium permanganate and DEPC hint that the dimer-containing duplex may also be globally more accessible to the solution through a subtle shift in the double-stranded DNA ? single-stranded DNA equilibrium. To begin to distinguish between kinetic and thermodynamic effects, we determined the helix melting thermodynamic parameters for the dimer-containing and undamaged parent duplexes by microcalorimetry and UV melting. The presence of the thymine dimer causes this DNA duplex to be slightly less stable enthalpically but slightly less unstable entropically at 298 K, causing the overall free energy of duplex melting to remain unchanged by the dimer lesion within the error of the experiment. Here we consider these results in the context of what has been learned about the thymine dimer lesion from NMR, X-ray crystallographic, and molecular biological methods.
Project description:Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) locates uracil and its structural congener thymine in the context of duplex DNA using a base flipping mechanism. NMR imino proton exchange measurements were performed on free and UNG-bound DNA duplexes in which a single thymine (T) was paired with a series of adenine analogues (X) capable of forming one, two, or three hydrogen bonds. The base pair opening equilibrium for the free DNA increased 55-fold as the number of hydrogen bonds decreased, but the opening rate constants were nearly the same in the absence and presence of UNG. In contrast, UNG was found to slow the base pair closing rate constants (kcl) compared to each free duplex by a factor of 3- to 23-fold. These findings indicate that regardless of the inherent thermodynamic stability of the TX pair, UNG does not alter the spontaneous opening rate. Instead, the enzyme holds the spontaneously expelled thymine (or uracil) in a transient extrahelical sieving site where it may partition forward into the enzyme active site (uracil) or back into the DNA base stack (thymine).
Project description:Methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides plays an important role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and chromatin structure/stability in higher eukaryotes. DNA methylation patterns are established and maintained at CpG dinucleotides by DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b). In mammals and many other eukaryotes, the CpG dinucleotide is underrepresented in the genome. This loss is postulated to be the result of unrepaired deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine to uracil and thymine, respectively. Two thymine glycosylases are believed to reduce the impact of 5-methylcytosine deamination. G/T mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylase (Tdg) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 can both excise uracil or thymine at U.G and T.G mismatches to initiate base excision repair. Here, we report the characterization of interactions between Dnmt3b and both Tdg and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4. Our results demonstrate (1) that both Tdg and Dnmt3b are colocalized to heterochromatin and (2) reduction of T.G mismatch repair efficiency upon loss of DNA methyltransferase expression, as well as a requirement for an RNA component for correct T.G mismatch repair.
Project description:The mammalian thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) excises the mismatched base, uracil, thymine or 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU), as well as removes 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) when paired with a guanine. In the previously solved structure of TDG in complex with DNA containing 5caC, the side chain of asparagine 157 (N157) contacts the 5-carboxyl moiety of 5caC via a weak hydrogen bond. We examined the role of N157 in recognition of 5caC by mutagenesis. The asparagine-to-alanine (N157A) mutant has no detectable base excision activity for a G:T mismatch, and its excision activity is reduced for other substrates including G:5caC. Unexpectedly, the asparagine-to-aspartate (N157D) mutant has a comparable base excision rate for G:5caC substrate to that of wild type, but it only has residual activity for G:U and no detectable activity for other substrates. We further show that the N157D mutant has higher activity for 5caC at a lower pH (6.0), suggesting that increased protonation of the carboxylate of 5caC and the aspartate facilitates base excision. The N157D mutant remains highly specific for 5caC even in the presence of large excess of genomic DNA, a property that can potentially be used for mapping the very low amount of 5caC in genomes.
Project description:Cis-syn thymine dimers are the major photoproducts of DNA and are the principal cause of mutations induced by sunlight. To better understand the nature of base pairing with cis-syn thymine dimers, we have synthesized a decamer oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing a cis-syn thymine dimer labeled at the N3 of both T's with 15N by two efficient routes from [3-15N]-thymidine phosphoramidite. In the postsynthetic irradiation route, an ODN containing an adjacent pair of [3-15N]-labeled T's was irradiated and the cis-syn dimer-containing ODN isolated by HPLC. In the mixed building block route, a mixture of cis-syn and trans-syn dimer-containing ODNs was synthesized from a mixture of [3-15N]-labeled thymine dimer phosphoramidites after which the cis-syn dimer-containing ODN was isolated by HPLC. The N3-nitrogen and imino proton signals of an (15)N-labeled thymine dimer-containing decamer duplex were assigned by 2D 1H-15N heterocorrelated HSQC NMR spectroscopy, and the 15N-1H coupling constant was found to be 1.8 Hz greater for the 5'-T than for the 3'-T. The larger coupling constant is indicative of weaker H-bonding that is consistent with the more distorted nature of the 5'-base pair found in solution state NMR and crystallographic structures.