Characterization of dynamic actin associations with T-cell receptor microclusters in primary T cells.
ABSTRACT: T cell triggering through T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) results in spatial assembly of the receptors on multiple length scales. This assembly is mediated by the T cell actin cytoskeleton, which reorganizes in response to TCR phosphorylation and then induces the coalescence of TCRs into microclusters, followed by their unification into a micrometer-scale structure. The exact outcomes of the association of TCRs with a dynamic and fluctuating actin network across these length scales are not well characterized, but it is clear that weak and transient interactions at the single-molecule level sum to yield significant receptor rearrangements at the plasma membrane. We used the hybrid live cell-nanopatterned supported lipid bilayer system to quantitatively probe the actin-TCR interaction in primary T cells. A specialized tracking algorithm revealed that actin slows as it passes over TCR clusters in a direction-dependent manner with respect to the resistance against TCR motion. We also observed transient actin enrichments at sites corresponding to putative TCR clusters that far exceeded pure stochastic fluctuations and described an image time-autocorrelation analysis method to quantify these accumulations.
Project description:The immunological synapse (IS) formed at the interface between T cells and antigen-presenting cells represents a hallmark of initiation of acquired immunity. T cell activation is initiated at T cell receptor (TCR) microclusters (MCs), in which TCRs and signaling molecules assemble at the interface before IS formation. We found that each TCR-MC was transiently bordered by a ring structure made of integrin and focal adhesion molecules in the early phase of activation, which is similar in structure to the IS in microscale. The micro-adhesion ring is composed of LFA-1, focal adhesion molecules paxillin and Pyk2, and myosin II (MyoII) and is supported by F-actin core and MyoII activity through LFA-1 outside-in signals. The formation of the micro-adhesion ring was transient but especially sustained upon weak TCR stimulation to recruit linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and SLP76. Perturbation of the micro-adhesion ring induced impairment of TCR-MC development and resulted in impaired cellular signaling and cell functions. Thus, the synapse-like structure composed of the core TCR-MC and surrounding micro-adhesion ring is a critical structure for initial T cell activation through integrin outside-in signals.
Project description:TCR-dependent signaling events have been observed to occur in TCR microclusters. We found that some TCR microclusters are present in unstimulated murine T cells, indicating that the mechanisms leading to microcluster formation do not require ligand binding. These pre-existing microclusters increase in absolute number following engagement by low-potency ligands. This increase is accompanied by an increase in cell spreading, with the result that the density of TCR microclusters on the surface of the T cell is not a strong function of ligand potency. In characterizing their composition, we observed a constant number of TCRs in a microcluster, constitutive exclusion of the phosphatase CD45, and preassociation with the signaling adapters linker for activation of T cells and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2. The existence of TCR microclusters prior to ligand binding in a state that is conducive for the initiation of downstream signaling could explain, in part, the rapid kinetics with which TCR signal transduction occurs.
Project description:Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with potent antimicrobial properties that suppresses T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling and T cell effector function. Actin rearrangement is needed for the interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells and for migration to sites of infection. Because of the critical role actin rearrangement plays in T cell effector function, we analyzed the effect of GML on the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton after TCR activation. We found that GML-treated human T cells were less adherent than untreated T cells and did not form actin ring structures but instead developed numerous inappropriate actin-mediated filopodia. The formation of these filopodia was not due to disruption of TCR-proximal regulators of actin or microtubule polymerization. Instead, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy demonstrated mislocalization of actin nucleation protein Arp2 microclusters, but not those containing the adaptor proteins SLP-76 and WASp, or the actin nucleation protein ARPC3, which are necessary for TCR-induced actin rearrangement. Additionally, SLP-76 microclusters colocalized with WASp and WAVE microclusters but not with LAT. Together, our data suggest that GML alters actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and identify diverse functions for GML as a T cell-suppressive agent.
Project description:T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is initiated and sustained in microclusters; however, it's not known whether signaling also occurs in the TCR-rich central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). We showed that the cSMAC formed by fusion of microclusters contained more CD45 than microclusters and is a site enriched in lysobisphosphatidic acid, a lipid involved in sorting ubiquitinated membrane proteins for degradation. Calcium signaling via TCR was blocked within 2 min by anti-MHCp treatment and 1 min by latrunculin-A treatment. TCR-MHCp interactions in the cSMAC survived these perturbations for 10 min and hence were not sufficient to sustain signaling. TCR microclusters were also resistant to disruption by anti-MHCp and latrunculin-A treatments. We propose that TCR signaling is sustained by stabilized microclusters and is terminated in the cSMAC, a structure from which TCR are sorted for degradation. Our studies reveal a role for F-actin in TCR signaling beyond microcluster formation.
Project description:Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is a negative costimulatory receptor critical for the suppression of T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Single cell imaging elucidated a molecular mechanism of PD-1-mediated suppression. PD-1 becomes clustered with T cell receptors (TCRs) upon binding to its ligand PD-L1 and is transiently associated with the phosphatase SHP2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2). These negative costimulatory microclusters induce the dephosphorylation of the proximal TCR signaling molecules. This results in the suppression of T cell activation and blockade of the TCR-induced stop signal. In addition to PD-1 clustering, PD-1-TCR colocalization within microclusters is required for efficient PD-1-mediated suppression. This inhibitory mechanism also functions in PD-1(hi) T cells generated in vivo and can be overridden by a neutralizing anti-PD-L1 antibody. Therefore, PD-1 microcluster formation is important for regulation of T cell activation.
Project description:The CD3? and ? cytoplasmic domains of the T cell receptor bind to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM), and a previous nuclear magnetic resonance structure showed that both tyrosines of the CD3? immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif partition into the bilayer. Electrostatic interactions between acidic phospholipids and clusters of basic CD3? residues were previously shown to be essential for CD3? and ? membrane binding. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the most abundant negatively charged lipid on the inner leaflet of the PM and makes a major contribution to membrane binding by the CD3? cytoplasmic domain. Here, we show that TCR triggering by peptide--MHC complexes induces dissociation of the CD3? cytoplasmic domain from the plasma membrane. Release of the CD3? cytoplasmic domain from the membrane is accompanied by a substantial focal reduction in negative charge and available PS in TCR microclusters. These changes in the lipid composition of TCR microclusters even occur when TCR signaling is blocked with a Src kinase inhibitor. Local changes in the lipid composition of TCR microclusters thus render the CD3? cytoplasmic domain accessible during early stages of T cell activation.
Project description:Immune synapses form between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Increasing evidence suggests synapses must form flexibly to accommodate ongoing motility and displacement of the synapse. Here, time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy showed that signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) occurred during synapse translation. TCR microclusters in motile synapses did not flow directly into supramolecular activating complexes (SMACs) but were directed, independently of myosin II contractility, toward an F-actin-poor 'sink' region. Inward microcluster flow often followed collapse of the leading edge, which suggested that actin depolymerization regulated microcluster flow and the formation of SMACs. The coordination of TCR movement with the translocation of this 'sink' shows how T cells coordinate TCR signaling and microcluster flow in dynamic physiological synapses.
Project description:T cell activation is mediated by microclusters (MCs) containing T cell receptors (TCRs), kinases, and adaptors. Although TCR MCs translocate to form a central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) of the immunological synapse at the interface of a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell, the role of MC translocation in T cell signaling remains unclear. Here, we found that the accumulation of MCs at cSMAC was important for T cell costimulation. Costimulatory receptor CD28 was initially recruited coordinately with TCR to MCs, and its signals were mediated through the assembly with the kinase PKCtheta. The accumulation of MCs at the cSMAC was accompanied by the segregation of CD28 from the TCR, which resulted in the translocation of both CD28 and PKCtheta to a spatially unique subregion of cSMAC. Thus, costimulation is mediated by the generation of a unique costimulatory compartment in the cSMAC via the dynamic regulation of MC translocation.
Project description:Antigen recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) directs the assembly of essential signaling complexes known as SLP-76 (also known as LCP2) microclusters. Here, we show that the interaction of the adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein (ADAP; also known as FYB1) with SLP-76 enables the formation of persistent microclusters and the stabilization of T cell contacts, promotes integrin-independent adhesion and enables the upregulation of CD69. By analyzing point mutants and using a novel phospho-specific antibody, we show that Y595 is essential for normal ADAP function, that virtually all tyrosine phosphorylation of ADAP is restricted to a Y595-phosphorylated (pY595) pool, and that multivalent interactions between the SLP-76 SH2 domain and its binding sites in ADAP are required to sustain ADAP phosphorylation. Although pY595 ADAP enters SLP-76 microclusters, non-phosphorylated ADAP is enriched in protrusive actin-rich structures. The pre-positioning of ADAP at the contact sites generated by these structures favors the retention of nascent SLP-76 oligomers and their assembly into persistent microclusters. Although ADAP is frequently depicted as an effector of SLP-76, our findings reveal that ADAP acts upstream of SLP-76 to convert labile, Ca<sup>2+</sup>-competent microclusters into stable adhesive junctions with enhanced signaling potential.
Project description:Engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by stimulatory ligand results in the rapid formation of microclusters at sites of T cell activation. Whereas microclusters have been studied extensively using confocal microscopy, the spatial and kinetic relationships of their signaling components have not been well characterized due to limits in image resolution and acquisition speed. Here we show, using TIRF-SIM to examine the organization of microclusters at sub-diffraction resolution, the presence of two spatially distinct domains composed of ZAP70-bound TCR and LAT-associated signaling complex. Kinetic analysis of microcluster assembly reveal surprising delays between the stepwise recruitment of ZAP70 and signaling proteins to the TCR, as well as distinct patterns in their disassociation. These delays are regulated by intracellular calcium flux downstream of T cell activation. Our results reveal novel insights into the spatial and kinetic regulation of TCR microcluster formation and T cell activation.