CaMKII?C slows [Ca]i decline in cardiac myocytes by promoting Ca sparks.
ABSTRACT: Acute activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in permeabilized phospholamban knockout (PLN-KO) mouse myocytes phosphorylates ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and activates spontaneous local sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release events (Ca sparks) even at constant SR Ca load. To assess how CaMKII regulates SR Ca release in intact myocytes (independent of SR Ca content changes or PLN effects), we compared Ca sparks in PLN-KO versus mice, which also have transgenic cardiac overexpression of CaMKII?C in the PLN-KO background (KO/TG). Compared with PLN-KO mice, these KO/TG cardiomyocytes exhibited 1), increased twitch Ca transient and fractional release (both by ?35%), but unaltered SR Ca load; 2), increased resting Ca spark frequency (300%) despite a lower diastolic [Ca]i, which also slowed twitch [Ca]i decline (suggesting CaMKII-dependent RyR Ca sensitization); 3), elevated Ca spark amplitude and rate of Ca release (which might indicate that more RyR channels participate in a single spark); 4), prolonged Ca spark rise time (which implies that CaMKII either delays RyR closure or prolongs the time when openings can occur); 5), more frequent repetitive sparks at single release sites. Analysis of repetitive sparks from individual Ca release sites indicates that CaMKII enhanced RyR Ca sensitivity, but did not change the time course of SR Ca refilling. These results demonstrate that there are dramatic CaMKII-mediated effects on RyR Ca release that occur via regulation of both RyR activation and termination processes.
Project description:We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta(C) (CaMKII-TG) develop dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak and lowering of SR Ca(2+) load. We hypothesized that phospholamban (PLN) ablation would restore SR Ca(2+) load and prevent the decreased ventricular contractility, dilation and mortality seen in CaMKII-TG.Our objectives were to generate CaMKII-TG mice lacking PLN, determine whether the maladaptive effects of cardiac CaMKIIdelta(C) expression were corrected, and establish the mechanistic basis for these changes.CaMKII-TG were crossed with PLN knockout (PLN-KO) mice to generate KO/TG mice. Myocytes from wild type (WT), CaMKII-TG, PLN-KO and KO/TG were compared. The decreased SR Ca(2+) load and twitch Ca(2+) transients seen in CaMKII-TG were normalized in KO/TG. Surprisingly the heart failure phenotype was exacerbated, as indicated by increased left ventricular dilation, decreased ventricular function, increased apoptosis and greater mortality. In KO/TG myocytes SR Ca(2+) sparks and leak were significantly increased, presumably because of the combined effects of restored SR Ca(2+) load and RyR2 phosphorylation. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading was increased in cardiomyocytes from KO/TG versus WT or CaMKII-TG mice and this was dependent on elevated SR Ca(2+) sparks. Cardiomyocytes from KO/TG showed poor viability, improved by inhibiting SR Ca(2+) release and mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading.Normalizing cardiomyocyte SR Ca(2+) loading in the face of elevated CaMKII and RyR2 phosphorylation leads to enhanced SR Ca(2+) leak and mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, associated with exacerbated cell death, heart failure and mortality.
Project description:Single ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) flux amplitude (i(Ca-RyR)) decreases as intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) levels fall during a cardiac Ca(2+) spark. Since i(Ca-RyR) drives the inter-RyR Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) that underlies the spark, decreasing i(Ca-RyR) may contribute to spark termination because RyRs that spontaneously close may stay closed. To test this possibility, we simultaneously measured local cytosolic and intra-SR ([Ca(2+)]cyto and [Ca(2+)]SR) during Ca(2+) sparks in permeabilized rabbit ventricular myocytes. Local cytosolic or intra-SR Ca(2+) dynamics were manipulated using Ca(2+) buffers. Buffer manipulations applied in cells had no effect on individual RyR channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers. Presence of a fast cytosolic Ca(2+) buffer (BAPTA) significantly suppressed Ca(2+) spark activity and sparks terminated earlier at a higher than usual [Ca(2+)]SR level (?80% vs. ?62%). When cytosolic Ca(2+) buffer power was reduced (i.e. cytosolic EGTA level decreased), sparks terminated later and at a lower than usual [Ca(2+)]SR level (?45% vs. ?62%). When intra-SR Ca(2+) buffer power was increased, sparks also terminated later and at a lower than usual [Ca(2+)]SR (?48% vs. ?62%). These results suggest that cytosolic local control of inter-RyR CICR by i(Ca-RyR) plays a substantial role during the spark termination process. Thus, alterations in local cytosolic Ca(2+) handling dynamics in the dyadic cleft (Ca(2+) buffering, extrusion, etc.) likely influence Ca(2+) spark termination.
Project description:In heart cells, the mechanisms underlying refractoriness of the elementary units of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, Ca(2+) sparks, remain unclear. We investigated local recovery of SR Ca(2+) release using experimental measurements and mathematical modelling.Repeated Ca(2+) sparks were induced from individual clusters of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in quiescent rat ventricular myocytes, and we examined how changes in RyR gating influenced the time-dependent recovery of Ca(2+) spark amplitude and triggering probability. Repeated Ca(2+) sparks from individual sites were analysed in the presence of 50 nM ryanodine with: (i) no additional agents (control); (ii) 50 µM caffeine to sensitize RyRs; (iii) 50 µM tetracaine to inhibit RyRs; or (iv) 100 nM isoproterenol to activate ?-adrenergic receptors. Sensitization and inhibition of RyR clusters shortened and lengthened, respectively, the median interval between consecutive Ca(2+) sparks (caffeine 239 ms; control 280 ms; tetracaine 453 ms). Recovery of Ca(2+) spark amplitude, however, was exponential with a time constant of ?100 ms in all cases. Isoproterenol both accelerated the recovery of Ca(2+) spark amplitude (? = 58 ms) and shortened the median interval between Ca(2+) sparks (192 ms). The results were recapitulated by a mathematical model in which SR [Ca(2+)] depletion terminates Ca(2+) sparks, but not by an alternative model based on limited depletion and Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of RyRs.Together, the results strongly suggest that: (i) local SR refilling controls Ca(2+) spark amplitude recovery; (ii) Ca(2+) spark triggering depends on both refilling and RyR sensitivity; and (iii) ?-adrenergic stimulation influences both processes.
Project description:In cardiac muscle, Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. The inherent positive feedback of CICR is normally well-controlled. Understanding this control mechanism is a priority because its malfunction has life-threatening consequences.We show that CICR local control is governed by SR Ca(2+) load, largely because load determines the single RyR current amplitude that drives inter-RyR CICR.We differentially manipulated single RyR Ca(2+) flux amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load in permeabilized ventricular myocytes as an endogenous cell biology model of the heart. Large RyR-permeable organic cations were used to interfere with Ca(2+) conductance through the open RyR pore. Single-channel studies show this attenuates current amplitude without altering other aspects of RyR function. In cells, the same experimental maneuver increased resting SR Ca(2+) load. Despite the increased load, Ca(2+) spark (inter-RyR CICR events) frequency decreased and sparks terminated earlier.Spark local control follows single RyR current amplitude, not simply SR Ca(2+) load. Spark frequency increases with load because spontaneous RyR openings at high loads produce larger currents (ie, a larger CICR trigger signal). Sparks terminate when load falls to the point at which single RyR current amplitude is no longer sufficient to sustain inter-RyR CICR. Thus, RyRs that spontaneously close no longer reopen and local Ca(2+) release ends.
Project description:Stable calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is critical for maintaining normal cellular contraction during cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. The fundamental element of CICR in the heart is the calcium (Ca(2+)) spark, which arises from a cluster of ryanodine receptors (RyR). Opening of these RyR clusters is triggered to produce a local, regenerative release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The Ca(2+) leak out of the SR is an important process for cellular Ca(2+) management, and it is critically influenced by spark fidelity, i.e., the probability that a spontaneous RyR opening triggers a Ca(2+) spark. Here, we present a detailed, three-dimensional model of a cardiac Ca(2+) release unit that incorporates diffusion, intracellular buffering systems, and stochastically gated ion channels. The model exhibits realistic Ca(2+) sparks and robust Ca(2+) spark termination across a wide range of geometries and conditions. Furthermore, the model captures the details of Ca(2+) spark and nonspark-based SR Ca(2+) leak, and it produces normal excitation-contraction coupling gain. We show that SR luminal Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of the RyR is not critical for spark termination, but it can explain the exponential rise in the SR Ca(2+) leak-load relationship demonstrated in previous experimental work. Perturbations to subspace dimensions, which have been observed in experimental models of disease, strongly alter Ca(2+) spark dynamics. In addition, we find that the structure of RyR clusters also influences Ca(2+) release properties due to variations in inter-RyR coupling via local subspace Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]ss). These results are illustrated for RyR clusters based on super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Finally, we present a believed-novel approach by which the spark fidelity of a RyR cluster can be predicted from structural information of the cluster using the maximum eigenvalue of its adjacency matrix. These results provide critical insights into CICR dynamics in heart, under normal and pathological conditions.
Project description:Calcium (Ca) sparks are the fundamental sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release events in cardiac myocytes, and they have a typical duration of 20-40 ms. However, when a fraction of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are blocked by tetracaine or ruthenium red, Ca sparks lasting hundreds of milliseconds have been observed experimentally. The fundamental mechanism underlying these extremely prolonged Ca sparks is not understood. In this study, we use a physiologically detailed mathematical model of subcellular Ca cycling to examine how Ca spark duration is influenced by the number of functional RyRs in a junctional cluster (which is reduced by tetracaine or ruthenium red) and other SR Ca handling properties. One RyR cluster contains a few to several hundred RyRs, and we use a four-state Markov RyR gating model. Each RyR opens stochastically and is regulated by cytosolic and luminal Ca. We varied the number of functional RyRs in the single cluster, diffusion within the SR network, diffusion between network and junctional SR, cytosolic Ca diffusion, SERCA uptake activity, and RyR open probability. For long-lasting Ca release events, opening events within the cluster must occur continuously because the typical open time of the RyR is only a few milliseconds. We found the following: 1) if the number of RyRs is too small, it is difficult to maintain consecutive openings and stochastic attrition terminates the release; 2) if the number of RyRs is too large, the depletion of Ca from the junctional SR terminates the release; and 3) very long release events require relatively small-sized RyR clusters (reducing flux as seen experimentally with tetracaine) and sufficiently rapid intra-SR Ca diffusion, such that local junctional intra-SR [Ca] can be maintained by intra-SR diffusion and overall SR Ca reuptake.
Project description:The factors responsible for the regulation of regenerative calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) during Ca(2+) spark evolution remain unclear. Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in rats and sheep was recorded at physiological Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and ATP levels and incorporated into a 3D model of the cardiac dyad, which reproduced the time course of Ca(2+) sparks, Ca(2+) blinks, and Ca(2+) spark restitution. The termination of CICR by induction decay in the model principally arose from the steep Ca(2+) dependence of RyR closed time, with the measured sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen Ca(2+) dependence of RyR gating making almost no contribution. The start of CICR termination was strongly dependent on the extent of local depletion of junctional SR Ca(2+), as well as the time course of local Ca(2+) gradients within the junctional space. Reducing the dimensions of the dyad junction reduced Ca(2+) spark amplitude by reducing the strength of regenerative feedback within CICR. A refractory period for Ca(2+) spark initiation and subsequent Ca(2+) spark amplitude restitution arose from 1), the extent to which the regenerative phase of CICR can be supported by the partially depleted junctional SR, and 2), the availability of releasable Ca(2+) in the junctional SR. The physical organization of RyRs within the junctional space had minimal effects on Ca(2+) spark amplitude when more than nine RyRs were present. Spark amplitude had a nonlinear dependence on RyR single-channel Ca(2+) flux, and was approximately halved by reducing the flux from 0.6 to 0.2 pA. Although rat and sheep RyRs had quite different Ca(2+) sensitivities, Ca(2+) spark amplitude was hardly affected. This suggests that moderate changes in RyR gating by second-messenger systems will principally alter the spatiotemporal properties of SR release, with smaller effects on the amount released.
Project description:Spontaneous calcium (Ca) sparks are initiated by single ryanodine receptor (RyR) opening. Once one RyR channel opens, it elevates local [Ca] in the cleft space ([Ca](Cleft)), which opens other RyR channels in the same Ca release unit (CaRU) via Ca-induced Ca-release. Experiments by Zima et al. (J. Physiol. 588:4743-4757, 2010) demonstrate that spontaneous Ca sparks occur only when intrasarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR) [Ca] ([Ca](SR)) is above a threshold level, but that RyR-mediated SR Ca leak exists without Ca sparks well below this threshold [Ca](SR). We examine here how single RyR opening at lower [Ca](SR) can fail to recruit Ca sparks at a CaRU, while still contributing to SR Ca leak. We assess this using a physiologically detailed mathematical model of junctional SR Ca release in which RyR gating is regulated by [Ca](SR) and [Ca](Cleft). We find that several factors contribute to the failure of Ca sparks as [Ca](SR) declines: 1), lower [Ca](SR) reduces driving force and thus limits local [Ca](Cleft) achieved and the rate of rise during RyR opening; 2), low [Ca](SR) limits RyR open time (?(O)), which further reduces local [Ca](Cleft) attained; 3), low ?(O) and fast [Ca](Cleft) dissipation after RyR closure shorten the opportunity for neighboring RyR activation; 4), at low [Ca](SR), the RyR exhibits reduced [Ca](Cleft) sensitivity. We conclude that all of these factors conspire to reduce the probability of Ca sparks as [Ca](SR) declines, despite continued RyR-mediated Ca leak. In addition, these same factors explain the much lower efficacy of L-type Ca channel opening to trigger local SR Ca release at low [Ca](SR) during excitation-contraction coupling. Conversely, all of these factors are fundamentally important for increasing the propensity for pro-arrhythmic Ca sparks and waves in cardiac myocytes at high [Ca](SR).
Project description:In heart failure (HF), T-tubule (TT) disruption contributes to dyssynchronous calcium (Ca) release and impaired contraction, but its role in arrhythmogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effects of TT disruption and other HF remodeling factors on Ca alternans in ventricular myocytes using computer modeling. A ventricular myocyte model with detailed spatiotemporal Ca cycling modeled by a coupled Ca release unit (CRU) network was used, in which the L-type Ca channels and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels were simulated by random Markov transitions. TT disruption, which removes the L-type Ca channels from the associated CRUs, results in "orphaned" RyR clusters and thus provides increased opportunity for spark-induced Ca sparks to occur. This effect combined with other HF remodeling factors promoted alternans by two distinct mechanisms: 1) for normal sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA) activity, alternans was caused by both CRU refractoriness and coupling. The increased opportunity for spark-induced sparks by TT disruption combined with the enhanced CRU coupling by Ca elevation in the presence or absence of increased RyR leakiness facilitated spark synchronization on alternate beats to promote Ca alternans; 2) for down-regulated SERCA, alternans was caused by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load-dependent mechanism, independent of CRU refractoriness. TT disruption and increased RyR leakiness shifted and steepened the SR Ca release-load relationship, which combines with down-regulated SERCA to promote Ca alternans. In conclusion, the mechanisms of Ca alternans for normal and down-regulated SERCA are different, and TT disruption promotes Ca alternans by both mechanisms, which may contribute to alternans at different stages of HF.
Project description:Diminished Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is an important contributor to the impaired contractility of the failing heart. Despite extensive effort, the underlying causes of abnormal SR Ca release in heart failure (HF) remain unknown. We used a combination of simultaneous imaging of cytosolic and SR intraluminal [Ca] in isolated cardiomyocytes and recordings from single-ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels reconstituted into lipid bilayers to investigate alterations in intracellular Ca handling in an experimental model of chronic HF. We found that diastolic free [Ca] inside the SR was dramatically reduced because of a Ca leak across the SR membrane, mediated by spontaneous local release events (Ca sparks), in HF myocytes. Additionally, the magnitudes of intrastore Ca depletion signals during global and focal Ca release events were blunted, and [Ca]SR recovery was slowed after global but not focal Ca release in HF myocytes. At the single-RyR level, the sensitivity of RyRs to activation by luminal Ca was greatly enhanced, providing a molecular mechanism for the maintained potentiation of Ca sparks (and increased Ca leak) at reduced intra-SR [Ca] in HF. This work shows that the diminished SR Ca release characteristic of failing myocardium could be explained by increased sensitivity of RyRs to luminal Ca, leading to enhanced spark-mediated SR Ca leak and reduced intra-SR [Ca].