Cytotoxic and NF-?B inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones from Piptocoma rufescens.
ABSTRACT: Six new (1-6) and eight known germacranolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, along with several known phenylpropanol coumarates and methylated flavonoids, were isolated from the leaves of Piptocoma rufescens, collected in the Dominican Republic. The new compounds were identified by analysis of their spectroscopic data, with the molecular structure of 3 being established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The absolute configurations of the sesquiterpene lactones isolated were determined from their CD and NOESY NMR spectra, together with the analysis of Mosher ester reactions. Bioassay screening results showed the majority of the sesquiterpene lactones isolated (1-13) to be highly cytotoxic toward the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line, with the most potent compound being 15-deoxygoyazensolide (10, IC(50), 0.26 µM). In addition, several of the sesquiterpene lactones exhibited NF-?B (p65) inhibitory activity.
Project description:A new sesquiterpene lactone, rufescenolide C (1), the first furanoheliangolide dimer, was isolated from the leaves of Piptocoma rufescens, collected in the Dominican Republic. Its structure was determined by analysis of its spectroscopic data, with the absolute configuration being established by analysis of the CD spectrum. A plausible biogenesis of this dimer is proposed. This compound showed potent cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 150 nM, when tested against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
Project description:The molecular structures of three parthenolide analogues, (-)-goyazensolide (1), (-)-15-deoxygoyazensolide (2), and (-)-ereglomerulide (3), isolated from the leaves of Piptocoma rufescens in a previous study were determined by X-ray analysis, and the absolute configuration of (-)-goyazensolide (1) was confirmed crystallographically using Cu K? radiation at low temperature. Compounds 1-3, (+)-rufesolide A (4), and commercial parthenolide were found to be growth inhibitory toward MOLM-13 and EOL-1 human acute myeloid leukemia cells using PKC412 (midostaurin) as the positive control, with 1-3 being more active than parthenolide. Also, compounds 1-4 exhibited synergistic effects when tested with PKC412, but parthenolide did not show this type of activity. At a concentration lower than 2.0 ?M, both 1 and 2 induced approximately 50% of the cells to become apoptotic at a late stage of the cell cycle, but no similar apoptotic effects were observed for 3, 4, or parthenolide. Leukemia cell apoptosis was induced by these compounds through the activation of caspase-3 and the inhibition of NF-?B, as indicated by immunoblotting analysis, and compounds 1 and 2 seem to be promising leads for development as potential antileukemic agents.
Project description:Guaianolides are an important class of sesquiterpene lactones with unique biological and pharmaceutical properties. They have been postulated to be derived from germacranolides, but for years no progress has been made in the elucidation of their biosynthesis that requires an unknown cyclization mechanism. Here we demonstrate the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P450 from feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), kauniolide synthase. Kauniolide synthase catalyses the formation of the guaianolide kauniolide from the germacranolide substrate costunolide. Unlike most cytochrome P450s, kauniolide synthase combines stereoselective hydroxylation of costunolide at the C3 position, with water elimination, cyclization and regioselective deprotonation. This unique mechanism of action is supported by in silico modelling and docking experiments. The full kauniolide biosynthesis pathway is reconstructed in the heterologous hosts Nicotiana benthamiana and yeast, paving the way for biotechnological production of guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones.
Project description:A new tricyclic sesquiterpene, named meleucanthin (1), was isolated from an extract of the leaves and branches of Melampodium leucanthum, along with four known germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones, leucanthin-A (2), leucanthin-B (3), melampodin-A acetate (4), and 3?-hydroxyenhydrin (5). The chemical structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. All compounds exhibited antiproliferative and cytotoxic efficacy against PC-3 and DU 145 prostate cancer cells, as well as HeLa cervical cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.18 to 9 ?M. These compounds were effective in clonogenic assays and displayed high cellular persistence. They were also found to be capable of circumventing P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance. Mechanism of action studies showed that 4 caused an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and 2-5 caused the formation of abnormal mitotic spindles. These results suggest the cytotoxic effects of these germacranolides involve inhibition of mitotic spindle function, and it is likely that other mechanisms additionally contribute to cell death. These studies also demonstrate the possibility of isolating new, biologically active compounds from indigenous Texas plants.
Project description:Bioassay-directed fractionation of an antiproliferative ethanol extract of the leaves and twigs of Piptocoma antillana (Asteraceae) afforded two new goyazensolide-type sesquiterpene lactones named 5-O-methyl-5-epiisogoyazensolide (1) and 15-O-methylgoyazensolide (2), together with the known compounds 1-oxo-3,10-epoxy-8-(2-methylacr1 0-epoxy-8-(2-methylacryloxy)-l 5-acetoxygermacra-2,4, 11(1 3)-trien-6(12)-olide (3) and 5-epiisogoyazensolide (4). The structure elucidation of all compounds was carried out based on NMR and mass spectroscopic data analyses. The relative and absolute configurations of all the isolated compounds were determined from their CD and NOESY NMR spectra. Compounds 1-4 showed moderately potent antiproliferative activities against A2780 ovarian cancer cells, with IC50 values of 1.5 +0.5, 0.6 ± 0.3, 1.62 ± 0.05, and 1.56 ± 0.04 ?M, respectively. They also displayed antimalarial activity against Plasmodiumfalciparum, with IC50 values of 6.2 05 22 ± 0.5, 2.2± 0.5, 8.0 ± 0.4, and 9.0 ± 0.6 ?M, respectively.
Project description:Four new kahalalides, V (1), W (2), X (3), and Y (4), as well as six previously characterized kahalalides have been isolated from a two-year collection of the sacoglossan mollusk Elysia rufescens. Curiously, kahalalide B, previously isolated in high yield from E. rufescens, was found to be essentially absent from these collections despite identical collection sites and times with previous collections. In addition, kahalalide K, which to date has only been reported from Bryopsis sp., was found in this collection of E. rufescens, suggesting that the production of these metabolites could potentially be from a microbial association with the mollusk and algae, and this relationship is continuously evolving in response to changes in the environment and predation. The structures of new peptides have been established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis. Kahalalide V (1) was ascertained to be an acyclic derivative of kahalalide D (5), while kahalalide W (2) was determined to have a 4-hydroxy-L-proline residue instead of the proline in 5. The arginine residue of kahalalide X (3), an acyclic derivative of kahalalide C, was determined to have an L configuration. Kahalalide Y (4) was found to have an L-proline residue instead of the hydroxyproline in kahalalide K. It is clear from this collection of E. rufescens that the discovery of new kahalalide-related metabolites is still highly feasible.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Protostrongylus rufescens is a metastrongyloid nematode of small ruminants, such as sheep and goats, causing protostrongylosis. In spite of its importance, the ecology and epidemiology of this parasite are not entirely understood. In addition, genetic data are scant for P. rufescens and related metastrongyloids. METHODS: The mt genome was amplified from a single adult worm of P. rufescens (from sheep) by long-PCR, sequenced using 454-technology and annotated using bioinformatic tools. Amino acid sequences inferred from individual genes of the mt genomes were concatenated and subjected to phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: The circular mitochondrial genome was 13,619 bp in length and contained two ribosomal RNA, 12 protein-coding and 22 transfer RNA genes, consistent with nematodes of the order Strongylida for which mt genomes have been determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for the 12 mt proteins showed that P. rufescens was closely related to Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis. CONCLUSIONS: The mt genome determined herein provides a source of markers for future investigations of P. rufescens. Molecular tools, employing such mt markers, are likely to find applicability in studies of the population biology of this parasite and the systematics of lungworms.
Project description:Sacoglossans are characterized by the ability to sequester functional chloroplasts from their algal diet through a process called kleptoplasty, enabling them to photosynthesize. The bacterial diversity associated with sacoglossans is not well understood. In this study, we coupled traditional cultivation-based methods with 454 pyrosequencing to examine the bacterial communities of the chemically defended Hawaiian sacoglossan Elysia rufescens and its secreted mucus. E. rufescens contains a defense molecule, kahalalide F, that is possibly of bacterial origin and is of interest because of its antifungal and anticancer properties. Our results showed that there is a diverse bacterial assemblage associated with E. rufescens and its mucus, with secreted mucus harboring higher bacterial richness than entire-E. rufescens samples. The most-abundant bacterial groups affiliated with E. rufescens and its mucus are Mycoplasma spp. and Vibrio spp., respectively. Our analyses revealed that the Vibrio spp. that were highly represented in the cultivable assemblage were also abundant in the culture-independent community. Epifluorescence microscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were utilized to detect the chemical defense molecule kahalalide F on a longitudinal section of the sacoglossan.
Project description:The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of <i>Achalinus rufescens</i> was determined by using a PCR-based method. The total length of mitogenome is 17,339?bp and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 2 control regions (D-loop). All the protein-coding genes of <i>A. rufescens</i> were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes which were encoded on the L-strand. The phylogenetic tree of <i>A. rufescens</i> and 11 other closely species was built. The DNA data presented here will be useful to study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of <i>A. rufescens</i>.
Project description:We report the complete mitochondrial genome for the <i>Eospalax rufescens</i>, a typical subterranean rodent species and endemic in China. The resulting <i>E. rufescens</i> mitogenome is 16,355?bases in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 1 noncoding control region (D-loop). The base compositions present highly biased toward A?+?T nucleotides. Moreover, twelve of all 13 PCGs initiated with ATN start codon, whereas <i>ND1</i> began with GTG start codon. Stop codons in 13 PCGs were all typical types except incomplete stop codon T for <i>ND4</i>. We further provide a Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree showing relationships among <i>E. rufescens</i> and other common subterranean rodents in family Spalacidae.