Characterization of the biosynthetic operon for the antibacterial peptide herbicolin in Pantoea vagans biocontrol strain C9-1 and incidence in Pantoea species.
ABSTRACT: Pantoea vagans C9-1 is a biocontrol strain that produces at least two antibiotics inhibiting the growth of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease of pear and apple. One antibiotic, herbicolin I, was purified from culture filtrates of P. vagans C9-1 and determined to be 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine, also known as N(ß)-epoxysuccinamoyl-DAP-valine. A plasposon library was screened for mutants that had lost the ability to produce herbicolin I. It was shown that mutants had reduced biocontrol efficacy in immature pear assays. The biosynthetic gene cluster in P. vagans C9-1 was identified by sequencing the flanking regions of the plasposon insertion sites. The herbicolin I biosynthetic gene cluster consists of 10 coding sequences (CDS) and is located on the 166-kb plasmid pPag2. Sequence comparisons identified orthologous gene clusters in Pantoea agglomerans CU0119 and Serratia proteamaculans 568. A low incidence of detection of the biosynthetic cluster in a collection of 45 Pantoea spp. from biocontrol, environmental, and clinical origins showed that this is a rare trait among the tested strains.
Project description:Pantoea vagans is a Gram-negative enterobacterial plant epiphyte of a broad range of plants. Here we report the 4.89-Mb genome sequence of P. vagans strain C9-1 (formerly Pantoea agglomerans), which is commercially registered for biological control of fire blight, a disease of pear and apple trees caused by Erwinia amylovora.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pantoea vagans is a commercialized biological control agent used against the pome fruit bacterial disease fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Compared to other biocontrol agents, relatively little is currently known regarding Pantoea genetics. Better understanding of antagonist mechanisms of action and ecological fitness is critical to improving efficacy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome analysis indicated two major factors Contribute to biocontrol activity: competition for limiting substrates and antibacterial metabolite production. Pathways for utilization of a broad diversity of sugars and acquisition of iron were identified. Metabolism of sorbitol by P. vagans C9-1 may be a major metabolic feature in biocontrol of fire blight. Biosynthetic genes for the antibacterial peptide pantocin A were found on a chromosomal 28-kb genomic island, and for dapdiamide E on the plasmid pPag2. There was no evidence of potential virulence factors that could enable an animal or phytopathogenic lifestyle and no indication of any genetic-based biosafety risk in the antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying key determinants contributing to disease suppression allows the development of procedures to follow their expression in planta and the genome sequence contributes to rationale risk assessment regarding the use of the biocontrol strain in agricultural systems.
Project description:Fire Blight is a destructive disease of apple and pear caused by the enteric bacterial pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. E. amylovora initiates infection by colonizing the stigmata of apple and pear trees, and entering the plants through natural openings. Epiphytic populations of the related enteric bacterium, Pantoea, reduce the incidence of disease through competition and antibiotic production. In this study, we identify an antibiotic from Pantoea ananatis BRT175, which is effective against E. amylovora and select species of Pantoea. We used transposon mutagenesis to create a mutant library, screened approximately 5,000 mutants for loss of antibiotic production, and recovered 29 mutants. Sequencing of the transposon insertion sites of these mutants revealed multiple independent disruptions of an 8.2 kb cluster consisting of seven genes, which appear to be coregulated. An analysis of the distribution of this cluster revealed that it was not present in any other of our 115 Pantoea isolates, or in any of the fully sequenced Pantoea genomes, and is most closely related to antibiotic biosynthetic clusters found in three different species of Pseudomonas. This identification of this biosynthetic cluster highlights the diversity of natural products produced by Pantoea.
Project description:The genus Pantoea incorporates many economically and clinically important species. The plant-associated species, Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans, are closely related and are often isolated from similar environments. Plasmids conferring certain metabolic capabilities are also shared amongst these two species. The genomes of two isolates obtained from fungus-growing termites in South Africa were sequenced, assembled and annotated. A high number of orthologous genes are conserved within and between these species. The difference in genome size between P. agglomerans MP2 (4,733,829 bp) and P. vagans MP7 (4,598,703 bp) can largely be attributed to the differences in plasmid content. The genome sequences of these isolates may shed light on the common traits that enable P. agglomerans and P. vagans to co-occur in plant- and insect-associated niches.
Project description:Although Pantoea species are widely distributed among plants, water, soils, humans, and animals, due to a lack of efficient isolation methods, the clonality of Pantoea species is poorly characterized. Therefore, we developed a new semi-selective medium designated 'lysine-ornithine-mannitol-arginine-charcoal' (LOMAC) to isolate these species. In an inclusive and exclusive study examining 94 bacterial strains, all Pantoea strains exhibited yellow colonies on LOMAC medium. The performance of the medium was assessed using Pantoea-spiked soils. Percent average agreement relative to the Api20E biochemical test was 97%. A total of 24 soil spot samples and 19 plant types were subjected to practical trials. Of the 91 yellow colonies selected on LOMAC medium, 81 were correctly identified as Pantoea species using the biochemical test. The sequencing of 16S rRNA (rrs) and gyrB from these isolates confirmed that Pantoea agglomerans, P. vagans, P. ananatis, and P. deleyi were present in Japanese fields. A phylogenetic analysis using rrs enabled only the limited separation of strains within each Pantoea spp., whereas an analysis using gyrB revealed higher variability and enabled the finer resolution of distinct branches. P. agglomerans isolates were divided into 3 groups, 2 of which were new clades, with the other comprising a large group including biocontrol strains. P. vagans was also in one of the new clades. The present results indicate that LOMAC medium is useful for screening Pantoea species. The use of LOMAC medium will provide new opportunities for identifying the beneficial properties of Japanese Pantoea isolates.
Project description:Pantoea vagans, a gram-negative bacterium from the genus Pantoea and family Enterobacteriaceae, is present in various natural environments and considered to be plant endophytes. We isolated the Pantoea vagans PV989 strain from the clinic and sequenced its whole genome. Besides a chromosome DNA molecule, it also harboured three large plasmids. A comparative genomics analysis was performed for the smallest plasmid, pPV989-94. It can be divided into four regions, including three conservative regions related to replication (R1), transfer conjugation (R2), and transfer leading (R3), and one variable region (R4). Further analysis showed that pPV989-94 is most similar to plasmids LA637P2 and pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated from fruit trees. These three plasmids share three conservative regions (R1, R2, and R3). Interestingly, a fragment (R4') in R4, mediated by phage integrase and phage integrase family site-specific recombinase and encoding 9 genes related to glycometabolism, resistance, and DNA repair, was unique in pPV989-94. Homologues of R4' were found in other plasmids or chromosomes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurred among different bacteria of various species or genera. The acquired functional genes may play important roles in the adaptation of bacteria to different hosts or environmental conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pantoea agglomerans strains are among the most promising biocontrol agents for a variety of bacterial and fungal plant diseases, particularly fire blight of apple and pear. However, commercial registration of P. agglomerans biocontrol products is hampered because this species is currently listed as a biosafety level 2 (BL2) organism due to clinical reports as an opportunistic human pathogen. This study compares plant-origin and clinical strains in a search for discriminating genotypic/phenotypic markers using multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) fingerprinting. RESULTS: Majority of the clinical isolates from culture collections were found to be improperly designated as P. agglomerans after sequence analysis. The frequent taxonomic rearrangements underwent by the Enterobacter agglomerans/Erwinia herbicola complex may be a major problem in assessing clinical associations within P. agglomerans. In the P. agglomerans sensu stricto (in the stricter sense) group, there was no discrete clustering of clinical/biocontrol strains and no marker was identified that was uniquely associated to clinical strains. A putative biocontrol-specific fAFLP marker was identified only in biocontrol strains. The partial ORF located in this band corresponded to an ABC transporter that was found in all P. agglomerans strains. CONCLUSION: Taxonomic mischaracterization was identified as a major problem with P. agglomerans, and current techniques removed a majority of clinical strains from this species. Although clear discrimination between P. agglomerans plant and clinical strains was not obtained with phylogenetic analysis, a single marker characteristic of biocontrol strains was identified which may be of use in strain biosafety determinations. In addition, the lack of Koch's postulate fulfilment, rare retention of clinical strains for subsequent confirmation, and the polymicrobial nature of P. agglomerans clinical reports should be considered in biosafety assessment of beneficial strains in this species.
Project description:Members of the genus Pantoea are Gram-negative bacteria isolated from various environments. Taxonomic affiliation based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) is used routinely for inferring accurate phylogeny and identification of bacterial species and genera. Partial sequences of five housekeeping genes (fusA, gyrB, leuS, rpoB, and pyrG) were extracted from 206 draft or complete genomes of Pantoea strains publicly available in databases and analyzed together with the representative sequences of the 25 validly published Pantoea type strains to verify and assess their phylogenetic assignations. Of a total of 159 strains assigned to species level, 11.3% of the non-type strains were incorrectly assigned within suitable Pantoea species. The highest proportion of misidentified strains was recorded in Pantoea vagans, 8 out of 15 (53.3%) inaccurate assignations at the species level. One probable reason for this incorrect classification could be the method previously used for strain identification. Forty-seven (22.8%) genome sequences were from strains identified at the genus level only (Pantoea sp.). A combination of MLSA, average nucleotide identities [ANI and MuMmer-based ANI (ANIm)], tetranucleotide usage pattern (TETRA), and genome-based DNA-DNA hybridization (gDDH) data was used to accurately assign 25 of the 47 strains to validly published Pantoea species, while 17 strains could be assigned as putative novel species within the genus Pantoea. Four genomes designed as Pantoea sp. were identified as Mixta calida. Positive and significant correlation coefficients were computed between MLSA and all the indices derived from whole-genome sequences being proposed for species delimitation. gDDH exhibited the best correlation with MLSA while TETRA was the worst. Accurate species-level identification is key to a better understanding of bacterial diversity and evolution. The MLSA scheme used here could be instrumental to determine the correct taxonomic status of new whole-genome sequenced Pantoea strains, especially non-type strains, before depositing into public databases.
Project description:Strain 3.5.1 was isolated from soils of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, on the basis of presence of a high phytate-degrading activity. Strains with such activities attract special interest because of its potential use as feed additives and natural manures. Strain 3.5.1 harbors a 99 % 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence similarity to different Pantoea species (P. vagans, P. ananatis, P. agglomerans, P. anthophila and Pantoea sp.) and exhibits unique biochemical properties that do not allow strain identification up to species. Moreover, the strain 3.5.1 shows a low ANI and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry scores. Thus, it is likely that the strain 3.5.1 represents a new Pantoea species. Here, we present the genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1. The 4,964,649 bp draft genome consists of 23 contigs with 4,556 protein-coding and 143 RNA genes. Genome sequencing and annotation revealed two phytase genes and putative regulatory genes controlling its activity.