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Receptor-dependent and -independent immunomodulatory effects of phenol-soluble modulin peptides from Staphylococcus aureus on human neutrophils are abrogated through peptide inactivation by reactive oxygen species.

ABSTRACT: The virulence and pathogenesis mechanisms of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains depend on a newly described group of phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides (the PSM? peptides) with cytolytic activity. These toxins are ?-helical peptides with a formyl group at the N terminus, and they activate neutrophils through formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), a function closely correlated to the capacity of staphylococcal species to cause invasive infections. The effects of two synthetic PSM? peptides were investigated, and we show that they utilize FPR2 and promote neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn trigger inactivation of the peptides. Independently of FPR2, the PSM? peptides also downregulate the neutrophil response to other stimuli and exert a cytolytic effect to which apoptotic neutrophils are more sensitive than viable cells. The novel immunomodulatory functions of the PSM? peptides were sensitive to ROS generated by the neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H(2)O(2) system, suggesting a role for this enzyme system in counteracting bacterial virulence.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3370598 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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