Mus spicilegus endogenous retrovirus HEMV uses murine sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter 1 as a receptor.
ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the relationship between two recent additions to the murine leukemia virus (MLV) ecotropic subgroup: Mus cervicolor isolate M813 and Mus spicilegus endogenous retrovirus HEMV. Though divergent in sequence, the two viruses share an Env protein with similarly curtailed VRA and VRB regions, and infection by both is restricted to mouse cells. HEMV and M813 displayed reciprocal receptor interference, suggesting that they share a receptor. Expression of the M813 receptor murine sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter 1 (mSMIT1) allowed previously nonpermissive cells to be infected by HEMV, indicating that mSMIT1 also serves as a receptor for HEMV. Our findings add HEMV as a second member to the MLV subgroup that uses mSMIT1 to gain entry into cells.
Project description:A variant ecotropic Friend murine leukemia virus, F-S MLV, is capable of inducing the formation of large multinucleated syncytia in Mus dunni cells. This cytopathicity resembles that of Spl574 MLV, a novel variant recently isolated from the spleen of a Mus spicilegus mouse neonatally inoculated with Moloney MLV. F-S MLV is an N-tropic Friend MLV that also has the unusual ability to infect hamster cells, which are normally resistant to mouse ecotropic MLVs. Syncytium induction by both F-S MLV and Spl574 is accompanied by the accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA, a hallmark of pathogenic retroviruses, but not previously reported for mouse ecotropic gammaretroviruses. Sequencing and site-specific mutagenesis determined that the syncytium-inducing phenotype of F-S MLV can be attributed to a single amino acid substitution (S84A) in the VRA region of the viral env gene. This site corresponds to that of the single substitution previously shown to be responsible for the cytopathicity of Spl574, S82F. The S84A substitution in F-S MLV also contributes to the ability of this virus to infect hamster cells, but Spl574 MLV is unable to infect hamster cells. Because this serine residue is one of the critical amino acids that form the CAT-1 receptor binding site, and because M. dunni and hamster cells have variant CAT-1 receptors, these results suggest that syncytium formation as well as altered host range may be a consequence of altered interaction between virus and receptor.
Project description:Simple retroviruses present a unique opportunity for examining the host-virus relationship. Following exogenous infection and integration into the germ line, copies of these viruses can become fixed within the genome. The resulting endogenous proviral "fossils" represent a record of past retroviral infections and forms. Previous work in our laboratory has been directed at dissecting the extensive nonecotropic murine leukemia virus content of the mouse genome. One such provirus, hortulanus endogenous murine leukemia virus (HEMV), found in a single copy in the genome of Mus spicilegus, was remarkable for characteristics that suggested that it was ancient and related to the hypothetical common ancestor of murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) and other gammaretroviral species. In the present study, we have analyzed its functional properties. Transfection of a molecular clone of the HEMV provirus into mouse-derived cell lines revealed that it is replication competent. Furthermore, host range and interference studies revealed a strictly ecotropic host range and the use of a receptor distinct from those used by other classical MLVs. The identity of nucleotide sequence of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) further suggested that HEMV is a relatively recent insertion into the M. spicilegus genome at the distal end of chromosome 7. Although unique to M. spicilegus, its presence in a homozygous state in three individuals obtained from different regions implies that it has been present long enough to become fixed in this species. Exhaustive phylogenetic analysis of all regions of the HEMV genome supported the previously assigned ancestral position of HEMV relative to other MLV-related viruses. Thus, HEMV is a relatively recent introduction into the Mus germ line but is representative of a relatively ancestral MLV group.
Project description:Subgroup B feline leukemia viruses (FeLV-Bs) evolve from subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A) by recombining with portions of endogenous FeLV envelope sequences in the cat genome. The replication properties of FeLV-B are distinct from those of FeLV-A; FeLV-B infects many nonfeline cell lines and recognizes the human Pit1 (HuPit1) receptor, whereas FeLV-A infects primarily feline cells, using a distinct but as yet undefined receptor. Here, we demonstrate that some FeLV-Bs can also use human Pit2 (HuPit2) and hamster Pit2 (HaPit2) for entry. By making viruses that contain chimeric surface (SU) envelope proteins from FeLV-A and FeLV-B, and testing their infectivity, we have defined genetic determinants that confer host range and specific receptor recognition. HuPit1 receptor recognition determinants localize to the N-terminal region of the FeLV-B SU, amino acids 83 to 116, encompassing the N-terminal portion of variable region A (VRA). While this 34-amino-acid domain of the FeLV-B VRA is sufficient for infection of some cells (feline, canine, and human), amino acids 146 to 249 of FeLV-B, which include variable region B (VRB), were required for efficient infection in other cell types (hamster, bovine, and rat). Chimeras encoding FeLV-B VRA and VRB also infected cells expressing HaPit2 and HuPit2 receptors more efficiently than chimeras encoding only the VRA of FeLV-B, suggesting that VRB provides a secondary determinant that is both cell and receptor specific. However, viruses containing additional FeLV-B sequences in the C terminus of SU could not recognize HuPit2, implying that there is a determinant beyond VRB that negatively affects HuPit2 interactions. Thus, Pit2 recognition may drive selection for the generation of specific FeLV-B recombinants, offering an explanation for the two major classes of FeLV-B that have been observed in vivo. Furthermore, the finding that some FeLV-Bs can use both Pit1 and Pit2 may explain previous observations that FeLV-B and GALV, which primarily uses Pit1, display nonreciprocal interference on many cell types.
Project description:Spl574 MLV (murine leukemia virus) is a variant of Moloney ecotropic MLV (MoMLV) that is cytopathic in Mus dunni cells and restricted by other mouse cells. Its host range and cytopathicity are due to a mutation, S82F, at a site critical for binding to the CAT-1 receptor. To identify residues that affect affinity for receptor variants, virus with S82F was passed in restrictive cells. The env genes of the adapted viruses contained 18 novel mutations, including one, E114G, present in 6 of 30 sequenced envs. MoMLV-E114G efficiently infected all mouse cells as well as ecotropic MLV resistant Chinese hamster cells. Virus with E114G and S82F induced large multinucleated syncytia in NIH 3T3 and SC-1 cells as well as M. dunni cells. Inoculation of Mo-S82F,E114G into mice produced lymphomas typical of MoMLV. Residues at env position 114 are thus important determinants of host range, and E114G suppresses host range restriction due to S82F, but does not affect S82F-governed cytopathicity.
Project description:Murine leukemia virus (MuLV) M813 was originally isolated from the Southeast Asian rodent Mus cervicolor. As with the ecotropic MuLVs derived from Mus musculus, its host range is limited to rodent cells. Earlier studies have mapped its receptor to chromosome 2, but it has not been established whether M813 shares a common receptor with any other MuLVs. In this study, we have performed interference assays with M813 and viruses from four interference groups of MuLV. The infection efficiency of M813 was not compromised in cells expressing any one of the other MuLVs, demonstrating that M813 must use a distinct receptor for cell entry. The entire M813 env coding region was molecularly cloned. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other MuLVs but with a unique receptor-binding domain. Substitution of M813 env sequences in Moloney MuLV resulted in a replication-competent virus with a host range and interference profile similar to those of the biological clone M813. M813 thus defines a novel receptor interference group of type C MuLVs.
Project description:FeLV-945 is a representative isolate of the natural feline leukemia virus (FeLV) variant predominant in non-T-cell malignant, proliferative, and degenerative diseases in a geographic cohort. The FeLV-945 surface glycoprotein (SU) is closely related to natural horizontally transmissible FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A) but was found to differ from a prototype to a larger extent than the members of FeLV-A differ among themselves. The sequence differences included point mutations restricted largely to the functional domains of SU, i.e., VRA, VRB, and PRR. Despite the sequence differences in these critical domains, measurements of receptor utilization, including host range and superinfection interference, confirmed the assignment of FeLV-945 to subgroup A. Other proviruses isolated from the cohort contained similar sequence hallmarks and were assigned to FeLV subgroup A. A provirus from cat 1046 contained a histidine-to-proline change at SU residue 6 within an SPHQ motif that was previously identified as a critical mediator of fusion events during virus entry. The 1046 pseudotype virus entered cells only in the presence of the soluble cofactor FeLIX provided in trans, but it retained an ecotropic host range even in the presence of FeLIX. The mutational changes in FeLV-945 were shown to confer significant functional differences compared to prototype FeLV-A viruses. The substitution of FeLV-945 envelope gene sequences for FeLV-A/61E sequences conferred a small but statistically significant replicative advantage in some feline cells. Moreover, substitution of the unique FeLV-945 long terminal repeat and envelope gene for those of FeLV-A/61E altered the disease spectrum entirely, from a thymic lymphoma of a T-cell origin to an as yet uncharacterized multicentric lymphoma that did not contain T cells.
Project description:The wild mouse species most closely related to the common laboratory strains contain proviral env genes of the xenotropic/polytropic subgroup of mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs). To determine if the polytropic proviruses of Mus spretus contain functional genes, we inoculated neonates with Moloney MLV (MoMLV) or amphotropic MLV (A-MLV) and screened for viral recombinants with altered host ranges. Thymus and spleen cells from MoMLV-inoculated mice were plated on Mus dunni cells and mink cells, since these cells do not support the replication of MoMLV, and cells from A-MLV-inoculated mice were plated on ferret cells. All MoMLV-inoculated mice produced ecotropic viruses that resembled their MoMLV progenitor, although some isolates, unlike MoMLV, grew to high titers in M. dunni cells. All of the MoMLV-inoculated mice also produced nonecotropic virus that was infectious for mink cells. Sequencing of three MoMLV- and two A-MLV-derived nonecotropic recombinants confirmed that these viruses contained substantial substitutions that included the regions of env encoding the surface (SU) protein and the 5' end of the transmembrane (TM) protein. The 5' recombination breakpoint for one of the A-MLV recombinants was identified in RNase H. The M. spretus-derived env substitutions were nearly identical to the corresponding regions in prototypical laboratory mouse polytropic proviruses, but the wild mouse infectious viruses had a more restricted host range. The M. spretus proviruses contributing to these recombinants were also sequenced. The seven sequenced proviruses were 99% identical to one another and to the recombinants; only two of the seven had obvious fatal defects. We conclude that the M. spretus proviruses are likely to be recent germ line acquisitions and that they contain functional genes that can contribute to the production of replication-competent virus.
Project description:Genomic data for the closest relatives of house mice (Mus musculus species complex) are surprisingly limited. Here, we present the first complete genome for a behaviorally and ecologically unique member of the sister clade to house mice, the mound-building mouse, Mus spicilegus Using read cloud sequencing and de novo assembly we produced a 2.50 Gbp genome with a scaffold N50 of 2.27 Mbp. We constructed >25 000 gene models, of which the majority had high homology to other Mus species. To evaluate the utility of the M. spicilegus genome for behavioral and ecological genomics, we extracted 196 vomeronasal receptor (VR) sequences from our genome and analyzed phylogenetic relationships between M. spicilegus VRs and orthologs from M. musculus and the Algerian mouse, M. spretus While most M. spicilegus VRs clustered with orthologs in M. musculus and M. spretus, 10 VRs with evidence of rapid divergence in M. spicilegus are strong candidate modulators of species-specific chemical communication. A high quality assembly and genome for M. spicilegus will help to resolve discordant ancestry patterns in house mouse genomes, and will provide an essential foundation for genetic dissection of phenotypes that distinguish commensal from non-commensal species, and the social and ecological characteristics that make M. spicilegus unique.
Project description:We previously identified unusual variants of Moloney and Friend ecotropic mouse gammaretroviruses that have altered host range and are cytopathic in cells of the wild mouse species Mus dunni. Cytopathicity was attributed to different amino acid substitutions at the same critical env residue involved in receptor interaction: S82F in the Moloney variant Spl574, and S84A in the Friend mouse leukemia virus F-S MLV. Because M. dunni cells carry a variant CAT-1 cell surface virus receptor (dCAT-1), we examined the role of this receptor variant in cytopathicity and host range.We expressed dCAT-1 or mCAT-1 of NIH 3T3 origin in cells that are not normally infectible with ecotropic MLVs and evaluated the transfectants for susceptibility to virus infection and to virus-induced syncytium formation. The dCAT-1 transfectants, but not the mCAT-1 transfectants, were susceptible to virus-induced cytopathicity, and this cytopathic response was accompanied by the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA. The dCAT-1 transfectants, however, did not also reproduce the relative resistance of M. dunni cells to Moloney MLV, and the mCAT-1 transfectants did not show the relative resistance of NIH 3T3 cells to Spl574. Western analysis, use of glycosylation inhibitors and mutagenesis to remove receptor glycosylation sites identified a possible role for cell-specific glycosylation in the modulation of virus entry.Virus entry and virus-induced syncytium formation using the CAT-1 receptor are mediated by a small number of critical amino acid residues in receptor and virus Env. Virus entry is modulated by glycosylation of cellular proteins, and this effect is cell and virus-specific.
Project description:To develop a better understanding of the interaction between retroviruses and their hosts, we have investigated the polymorphism in endogenous murine leukemia proviruses (MLVs). We used genomic libraries of wild mouse DNAs and PCR to analyze genetic variation in the proviruses found in wild mouse species, including Mus musculus (M. m. castaneus, M. m. musculus, M. m. molossinus, and M. m. domesticus), Mus spretus, and Mus spicelegus, as well as some inbred laboratory strains. In this analysis, we detected several unique forms of sequence organization in the U3 regions of the long terminal repeats of these proviruses. The distribution of the proviruses with unique U3 structures demonstrated that xenotropic MLV-related proviruses were present only in M. musculus subspecies, while polytropic MLV-related proviruses were found in both M. musculus and M. spretus. Furthermore, one unique provirus from M. spicelegus was found to be equidistant from ecotropic provirus and nonecotropic provirus by phylogenetic analysis. This provirus, termed HEMV, was thus likely to be related to the common ancestor of these MLVs. Moreover, an ancestral type of polytropic MLV-related provirus was detected in M. spretus species. Despite their "ancestral" phylogenetic position, proviruses of these types are not widespread in mice, implying more-recent spread by infection rather than inheritance. These results imply that recent evolution of these proviruses involved alternating periods of replication as virus and residence in the germ line.