Soluble adenylyl cyclase activity is necessary for retinal ganglion cell survival and axon growth.
ABSTRACT: cAMP is a critical second messenger mediating activity-dependent neuronal survival and neurite growth. We investigated the expression and function of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, ADCY10) in CNS retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found sAC protein expressed in multiple RGC compartments including the nucleus, cytoplasm and axons. sAC activation increased cAMP above the level seen with transmembrane adenylate cyclase (tmAC) activation. Electrical activity and bicarbonate, both physiologic sAC activators, significantly increased survival and axon growth, whereas pharmacologic or siRNA-mediated sAC inhibition dramatically decreased RGC survival and axon growth in vitro, and survival in vivo. Conversely, RGC survival and axon growth were unaltered in RGCs from AC1/AC8 double knock-out mice or after specifically inhibiting tmACs. These data identify a novel sAC-mediated cAMP signaling pathway regulating RGC survival and axon growth, and suggest new neuroprotective or regenerative strategies based on sAC modulation.
Project description:Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Both cAMP sources were shown to be required for the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 triggered by activated G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) CRHR1 in neuronal and neuroendocrine contexts. Here, we show that activated CRHR1 promotes growth arrest and neurite elongation in neuronal hippocampal cells (HT22-CRHR1 cells). By characterising CRHR1 signalling mechanisms involved in the neuritogenic effect, we demonstrate that neurite outgrowth in HT22-CRHR1 cells takes place by a sAC-dependent, ERK1/2-independent signalling cascade. Both tmACs and sAC are involved in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated CREB phosphorylation and c-fos induction, but only sAC-generated cAMP pools are critical for the neuritogenic effect of CRH, further highlighting the engagement of two sources of cAMP downstream of the activation of a GPCR, and reinforcing the notion that restricted cAMP microdomains may regulate independent cellular processes.
Project description:Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates G protein-dependent and internalization-dependent signaling mechanisms. Here, we report that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response of CRHR1 in physiologically relevant scenarios engages separate cAMP sources, involving the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). cAMP produced by tmACs and sAC is required for the acute phase of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation triggered by CRH-stimulated CRHR1, but only sAC activity is essential for the sustained internalization-dependent phase. Thus, different cAMP sources are involved in different signaling mechanisms. Examination of the cAMP response revealed that CRH-activated CRHR1 generates cAMP after endocytosis. Characterizing CRHR1 signaling uncovered a specific link between CRH-activated CRHR1, sAC, and endosome-based signaling. We provide evidence of sAC being involved in an endocytosis-dependent cAMP response, strengthening the emerging model of GPCR signaling in which the cAMP response does not occur exclusively at the plasma membrane and introducing the notion of sAC as an alternative source of cAMP.
Project description:In mammals, the second messenger cAMP is synthesized by a family of transmembrane isoforms (tmACs) and one known cytoplasmic enzyme, "soluble" adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Understanding the individual contributions of these families to cAMP signaling requires tools which can distinguish them. Here, we describe the structure-based development of isoform discriminating AC inhibitors. Docking calculations using a library of small molecules with the crystal structure of a sAC homologue complexed with the noncompetitive inhibitor catechol estrogen identified two novel inhibitors, 3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-21-yl4-bromobenzenesulfonate (2) and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,13,13,14,14-dodecachloro-1,4,4a,4b,5,8,8a,12b-octahydro-11-sulfo-1,4:5,8-dimethanotriphenylene-10-carboxylic acid (3). In vitro testing revealed that 3 defines a novel AC inhibitor scaffold with high affinity for human sAC and less inhibitory effect on mammalian tmACs. 2 also discriminates between sAC and tmACs, and it appears to simultaneously block the original binding pocket and a neighboring interaction site. Our results show that compounds exploiting the catechol estrogen binding site can produce potent, isoform discriminating AC inhibitors.
Project description:cAMP is important in sea urchin sperm signaling, yet the molecular nature of the adenylyl cyclases (ACs) involved remained unknown. These cells were recently shown to contain an ortholog of the mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Here, we show that sAC is present in the sperm head and as in mammals is stimulated by bicarbonate. The acrosome reaction (AR), a process essential for fertilization, is influenced by the bicarbonate concentration in seawater. By using functional assays and immunofluorescence techniques we document that sea urchin sperm also express orthologs of multiple isoforms of transmembrane ACs (tmACs). Our findings employing selective inhibitors for each class of AC indicate that both sAC and tmACs participate in the sperm acrosome reaction.
Project description:Growth cones at the tips of nascent and regenerating axons direct axon elongation. Netrin-1, a secreted molecule that promotes axon outgrowth and regulates axon pathfinding, elevates cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in growth cones and regulates growth cone morphology and axonal outgrowth. These morphological effects depend on the intracellular levels of cAMP. However, the specific pathways that regulate cAMP levels in response to netrin-1 signaling are unclear. Here we show that 'soluble' adenylyl cyclase (sAC), an atypical calcium-regulated cAMP-generating enzyme previously implicated in sperm maturation, is expressed in developing rat axons and generates cAMP in response to netrin-1. Overexpression of sAC results in axonal outgrowth and growth cone elaboration, whereas inhibition of sAC blocks netrin-1-induced axon outgrowth and growth cone elaboration. Taken together, these results indicate that netrin-1 signals through sAC-generated cAMP, and identify a fundamental role for sAC in axonal development.
Project description:The failure of adult CNS neurons to survive and regenerate their axons after injury or in neurodegenerative disease remains a major target for basic and clinical neuroscience. Recent data demonstrated in the adult mouse that exogenous expression of Sry-related high-mobility-box 11 (Sox11) promotes optic nerve regeneration after optic nerve injury but exacerbates the death of a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), α-RGCs. During development, Sox11 is required for RGC differentiation from retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), and we found that mutation of a single residue to prevent SUMOylation at lysine 91 (K91) increased Sox11 nuclear localization and RGC differentiation <i>in vitro</i> Here, we explored whether this Sox11 manipulation similarly has stronger effects on RGC survival and optic nerve regeneration. <i>In vitro</i>, we found that non-SUMOylatable Sox11<sup>K91A</sup> leads to RGC death and suppresses axon outgrowth in primary neurons. We furthermore found that Sox11<sup>K91A</sup> more strongly promotes axon regeneration but also increases RGC death after optic nerve injury <i>in vivo</i> in the adult mouse. RNA sequence (RNA-seq) data showed that Sox11 and Sox11<sup>K91A</sup> increase the expression of key signaling pathway genes associated with axon growth and regeneration but downregulated <i>Spp1</i> and <i>Opn4</i> expression in RGC cultures, consistent with negatively regulating the survival of α-RGCs and ipRGCs. Thus, Sox11 and its SUMOylation site at K91 regulate gene expression, survival and axon growth in RGCs, and may be explored further as potential regenerative therapies for optic neuropathy.
Project description:As axon damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss lead to blindness, therapies that increase RGC survival and axon regrowth have direct clinical relevance. Given that NF?B signaling is critical for neuronal survival and may regulate neurite growth, we investigated the therapeutic potential of NF?B signaling in RGC survival and axon regeneration. Although both NF?B subunits (p65 and p50) are present in RGCs, p65 exists in an inactive (unphosphorylated) state when RGCs are subjected to neurotoxic conditions. In this study, we used a phosphomimetic approach to generate DNA coding for an activated (phosphorylated) p65 (p65mut), then employed an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) to deliver the DNA into RGCs. We tested whether constitutive p65mut expression prevents death and facilitates neurite outgrowth in RGCs subjected to transient retinal ischemia or optic nerve crush (ONC), two models of neurotoxicity. Our data indicate that RGCs treated with AAV2-p65mut displayed a significant increase in survival compared to controls in ONC model (77 ± 7% vs. 25 ± 3%, P-value = 0.0001). We also found protective effect of modified p65 in RGCs of ischemic retinas (55 ± 12% vs. 35 ± 6%), but not to a statistically significant degree (P-value = 0.14). We did not detect a difference in axon regeneration between experimental and control animals after ONC. These findings suggest that increased NF?B signaling in RGCs attenuates retinal damage in animal models of neurodegeneration, but insignificantly impacts axon regeneration.
Project description:Cyclic AMP (cAMP) has a key role in psoriasis pathogenesis, as indicated by the therapeutic efficacy of phosphodiesterase inhibitors that prevent the degradation of cAMP. However, whether soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC) (encoded by the ADCY10 gene), which is an important source for cAMP, is involved in Th17 cell-mediated inflammation or could be an alternative therapeutic target in psoriasis is unknown. We have utilized the imiquimod model of murine psoriasiform dermatitis to address this question. Adcy10-/- mice had reduced erythema, scaling and swelling in the skin and Th17 cell numbers in the draining lymph nodes, compared with wild-type mice after induction of psoriasiform dermatitis with imiquimod. During Th17 polarization in vitro, naïve T cells from Adcy10-/- mice were unable to differentiate to Th17 cells and RNA-seq analysis revealed that sAC was also essential for Th17 cell activation. Interestingly, sAC did not impact Th17 lineage-defining transcription factors (such as RORc and cMAF) but rather was required for CREB-dependent gene expression. Finally, topical application of small molecule sAC inhibitors (sACi) reduced imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis and IL17 gene expression in the skin. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that sAC is a key factor for inducing type 17 inflammation in the skin and sACi could provide an alternative class of topical therapeutics for psoriasis. Overall design: Wild Type vs Adcy10-/- T cells following differentiation to Th17 cells in vitro, without or with polarizing cytokines
Project description:Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) lose their ability to grow axons during development. Adult RGCs thus fail to regenerate their axons after injury, leading to vision loss. To uncover mechanisms that promote regeneration of RGC axons, we identified transcription factors (TF) and open chromatin regions that are enriched in rat embryonic RGCs (high axon growth capacity) compared to postnatal RGCs (low axon growth capacity). We found that developmental stage-specific gene expression changes correlated with changes in promoter chromatin accessibility. Binding motifs for TFs such as CREB, CTCF, JUN and YY1 were enriched in the regions of the chromatin that were more accessible in embryonic RGCs. Proteomic analysis of purified rat RGC nuclei confirmed the expression of TFs with potential role in axon growth such as CREB, CTCF, YY1, and JUND. The CREB/ATF binding motif was widespread at the open chromatin region of known pro-regenerative TFs, supporting a role of CREB in regulating axon regeneration. Consistently, overexpression of CREB fused to the VP64 transactivation domain in mouse RGCs promoted axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Our study provides a map of the chromatin accessibility during RGC development and highlights that TF associated with developmental axon growth can stimulate axon regeneration in mature RGC.
Project description:The circuit for binocular vision and stereopsis is established at the optic chiasm, where retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons diverge into the ipsilateral and contralateral optic tracts. In the mouse retina, ventrotemporal (VT) RGCs express the guidance receptor EphB1, which interacts with the repulsive guidance cue ephrin-B2 on radial glia at the optic chiasm to direct VT RGC axons ipsilaterally. RGCs in the ventral retina also express EphB2, which interacts with ephrin-B2, whereas dorsal RGCs express low levels of EphB receptors. To investigate how growth cones of RGCs from different retinal regions respond upon initial contact with ephrin-B2, we utilized time-lapse imaging to characterize the effects of ephrin-B2 on growth cone collapse and axon retraction in real time. We demonstrate that bath application of ephrin-B2 induces rapid and sustained growth cone collapse and axon retraction in VT RGC axons, whereas contralaterally-projecting dorsotemporal RGCs display moderate growth cone collapse and little axon retraction. Dose response curves reveal that contralaterally-projecting ventronasal axons are less sensitive to ephrin-B2 treatment compared to VT axons. Additionally, we uncovered a specific role for Rho kinase signaling in the retraction of VT RGC axons but not in growth cone collapse. The detailed characterization of growth cone behavior in this study comprises an assay for the study of Eph signaling in RGCs, and provides insight into the phenomena of growth cone collapse and axon retraction in general.