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Age-related comparisons of evolution of the inflammatory response after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.



In the hours to days after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), there is an inflammatory response within the brain characterized by the infiltration of peripheral neutrophils and macrophages and the activation of brain-resident microglia and astrocytes. Despite the strong correlation of aging and ICH incidence, and increasing information about cellular responses, little is known about the temporal- and age-related molecular responses of the brain after ICH. Here, we monitored a panel of 27 genes at 6 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the striatum of young adult and aged rats. Several molecules (CR3, TLR2, TLR4, IL-1?, TNF?, iNOS, IL-6) were selected to reflect the classical activation of innate immune cells (macrophages, microglia) and the potential to exacerbate inflammation and damage brain cells. Most of the others are associated with the resolution of innate inflammation, alternative pathways of macrophage/microglial activation, and the repair phase after acute injury (TGF?, IL-1ra, IL-1r2, IL-4, IL-13, IL-4R?, IL-13R?1, IL-13R?2, MRC1, ARG1, CD163, CCL22). In young animals, the up-regulation of 26 in 27 genes (not IL-4) was detected within the first week. Differences in timing or levels between young and aged animals were detected for 18 of 27 genes examined (TLR2, GFAP, IL-1?, IL-1ra, IL-1r2, iNOS, IL-6, TGF?, MMP9, MMP12, IL-13, IL-4R?, IL-13R?1, IL-13R?2, MRC1, ARG1, CD163, CCL22), with a generally less pronounced or delayed inflammatory response in the aged animals. Importantly, within this complex response to experimental ICH, the induction of pro-inflammatory, potentially harmful mediators often coincided with resolving and beneficial molecules.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12975-012-0151-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC3372776 | BioStudies | 2012-01-01


REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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