Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) localises to the nucleus in glioblastoma multiforme cells.
ABSTRACT: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter, plays a role in multiple drug resistance (MDR). Previous studies of the subcellular location of the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein indicated that this protein is expressed in nuclear membranes. This study examines the nuclear distribution of BCRP in seven human-derived glioblastoma (GBM) and astrocytoma cell lines. BCRP expression was observed in the nuclear extracts of 6/7 cell lines. Using the GBM LN229 cell line as a model, nuclear BCRP protein was detected by immunoblotting and confocal laser microscopy. Importantly, nuclear BCRP staining was found in a subpopulation of tumour cells in a human brain GBM biopsy. Mitoxantrone cytotoxicity in the LN229 cell line was determined with and without the BCRP inhibitor fumitremorgin C (FTC) and after downregulation of BCRP with small interfering RNA (siRNA). FTC inhibition of BCRP increased mitoxantrone cytotoxicity with a ~7-fold reduction in the IC?? and this effect was further potentiated in the siRNA-treated cells. In conclusion, BCRP is expressed in the nuclear extracts of select GBM and astrocytoma cell lines and in a human GBM tumour biopsy. Its presence in the nucleus of cancer cells suggests new role for BCRP in MDR.
Project description:The presence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is considered as the major cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism responsible for the phenomenon of multidrug resistance is explained, among others, as overexpression of membrane transporters primarily from the ABC family which actively remove cytostatics from the tumor cell. The effect of 20 coumarin derivatives on the cytotoxicity and expression of MDR1, MRP1, BCRP, and LRP genes (encoding proteins responsible for multidrug resistance) in cancer cells was analyzed in the study. The aim of this research included determination of IC10 and IC50 values of selected coumarin derivatives in the presence and absence of mitoxantrone in leukemia cells and analysis of changes in the expression of genes involved in multidrug resistance: MDR1, MRP, LRP, and BCRP after 24-hour exposure of the investigated cell lines to selected coumarins in the presence and absence of mitoxantrone in IC10 and IC50 concentrations. The designed research was conducted on 5 cell lines derived from the human hematopoietic system: CCRF/CEM, CEM/C1, HL-60, HL-60/MX1, and HL-60/MX2. Cell lines CEM/C1, HL-60/MX1, and HL-60/MX2 exhibit a multidrug resistance phenotype.
Project description:Development of resistance to chemotherapy drugs is a significant problem in treating human malignancies in the clinic. Overexpression of ABC transporter proteins, including P-170 glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) have been implicated in this multi-drug resistance (MDR). These ABC transporters are ATP-dependent efflux proteins. We have recently shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits the ATPase activities of P-gp, resulting in a significant enhancement of drug accumulation and the reversal of multi-drug resistance in NCI/ADR-RES cells, a P-gp-overexpressing human MDR cell line. In this study, we used [O<sup>2</sup>-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)-piperazin-1?yl]-diazene-1-ium-1-2-diolate] (JS-K), a tumor-specific NO-donor to study the reversal of drug resistance in both P-gp- and BCRP-overexpressing human tumor cells. We report here that while JS-K was extremely effective in reversing adriamycin resistance in the P-gp-overexpressing tumor cells (NCI/ADR-RES); it was significantly resistant to BCRP-overexpressing (MCF-7/MX) tumor cells, suggesting that JS-K may be a substrate for BCRP. Using another NO-donor (DETNO), we show that NO directly inhibits the ATP activities of BCRP, inducing significant increases in the accumulations of both Hoechst 33342 dye and topotecan, substrates for BCRP. Furthermore, NO treatment significantly reversed topotecan and mitoxantrone resistance to MCF-7/MX tumor cells. Molecular docking studies indicated that while DETNO and JS-K bind to ATP binding site in both ABC proteins, binding score was significantly reduced, compared to the ATP binding. Our results indicate that appropriately designed NO donors may find success in reversing multidrug resistance in the clinic.
Project description:The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is the second member of the G subfamily of the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. BCRP was initially discovered in multidrug resistant breast cancer cell lines where it confers resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as mitoxantrone, topotecan and methotrexate by extruding these compounds out of the cell. BCRP is capable of transporting non-chemotherapy drugs and xenobiotiocs as well, including nitrofurantoin, prazosin, glyburide, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. BCRP is frequently detected at high levels in stem cells, likely providing xenobiotic protection. BCRP is also highly expressed in normal human tissues including the small intestine, liver, brain endothelium, and placenta. Therefore, BCRP has been increasingly recognized for its important role in the absorption, elimination, and tissue distribution of drugs and xenobiotics. At present, little is known about the transport mechanism of BCRP, particularly how it recognizes and transports a large number of structurally and chemically unrelated drugs and xenobiotics. Here, we review current knowledge of structure and function of this medically important ABC efflux drug transporter.
Project description:Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), one of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, was associated with the multidrug resistance (MDR) of chemotherapy. Magnolol (MN) and honokiol (HK) are major bioactive polyphenols of <i>Magnolia officinalis</i>. This study investigated the effects of MN and HK on the function and expression of BCRP for the purpose of developing BCRP inhibitor to overcome MDR. Cell lines including MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII-WT were used for evaluating the function and expression of BCRP. The results showed that MN (100-12.5 µM) and HK (100-12.5 µM) significantly decreased the function of BCRP by 80~12% and 67~14%, respectively. In addition, MN and HK were verified as substrates of BCRP. Furthermore, MN and HK reduced the protein expression of BCRP, and inhibited the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In conclusion, both MN and HK decreased the function and expression of BCRP via EGFR/PI3K signaling pathway. Therefore, both compounds were promising candidates for reversing the MDR of chemotherapy.
Project description:ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP1, can increase efflux of clinical chemotherapeutic agents and lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. While the discovery and development of clinically useful inhibitors has proved elusive to date, this molecular target nevertheless remains a promising strategy for addressing and potentially overcoming MDR. In a search for new classes of inhibitor, we used fluorescent accumulation and efflux assays supported by cell flow cytometry and MDR reversal assays, against a panel of sensitive and MDR human cancer cell lines, to evaluate the marine sponge co-metabolites 1-12 as inhibitors of P-gp, BCRP or MRP1 initiated MDR. These studies identified and characterized lamellarin O (11) as a selective inhibitor of BCRP mediated drug efflux. A structure-activity relationship analysis inclusive of the natural products 1-12 and the synthetic analogues 13-19, supported by in silico docking studies, revealed key structural requirements for the lamellarin O (11) BCRP inhibitory pharmacophore.
Project description:Overexpression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) has been shown to produce multidrug resistance (MDR) in colon cancer, leading to major obstacles for chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of regorafenib, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, in inhibiting BCRP-mediated MDR in silico, in vitro and in vivo. We found that regorafenib significantly sensitized MDR colon cancer cells to BCRP substrates by increasing their intracellular accumulation. There are no significant changes in the expression level or the subcellular distribution of BCRP in the cells exposed to regorafenib. Investigation of the mechanism revealed that regorafenib stimulated BCRP ATPase activity. Our induced-fit docking and molecular dynamics simulations suggested the existence of a strong and stable interaction between regorafenib and the transmembrane domain of human crystalized BCRP. In vivo tumor xenograft study revealed that the combination of regorafenib and topotecan exhibited synergistic effects on mitoxantrone-resistant S1-M1-80 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, our studies indicate that regorafenib would be beneficial in combating MDR in colon cancer.
Project description:Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) belongs to the family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify the presence and possible role of BCRP as a barrier for ocular drug resistance.Transfected human corneal epithelial cells (SV40-HCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium with MDCKII-BCRP as positive control. [(3)H]-Mitoxantrone ([(3)H]-MTX), which is a proven substrate for organic anion transporter like BCRP, was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. Fumetremorgin C (FTC), a known specific inhibitor for BCRP and GF120918, an inhibitor for BCRP and P-gp, were added to inhibit BCRP-mediated efflux. PGP-4008, a specific inhibitor of P-gp was used to delineate the contribution of P-gp. The mRNA extracted from cells was used for RT-PCR analysis and gene expression. Membrane fractions of SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP were used for immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis.Efflux was inhibited significantly in the presence of FTC and GF120918. Dose-dependent inhibition of efflux by BCRP was noticed in SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP in the presence of FTC and GF120918, and the efflux was ATP-dependent. The metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP, significantly inhibited efflux. No pH-dependent efflux was noticed except at pH 5.5. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at approximately 429 bp, corresponding to BCRP in SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP cells. Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at approximately 70 kDa in the membrane fraction of SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP cells.We have demonstrated the expression of BCRP in human corneal epithelial cells and, for the first time, demonstrated its functional activity leading to drug efflux. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis further confirmed this finding.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumors and pathogens remains a major problem in the efficacious treatment of patients by reduction of therapy options and subsequent treatment failure. Various mechanisms are described to be involved in the development of MDR with overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters reflecting the most extensively studied. These membrane transporters translocate a wide variety of substrates utilizing energy from ATP hydrolysis leading to decreased intracellular drug accumulation and impaired drug efficacy. One treatment strategy might be inhibition of transporter-mediated efflux by small molecules. Isocoumarins and 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins are a large group of natural products derived from various sources with great structural and functional variety, but have so far not been in the focus as potential MDR reversing agents. Thus, three natural products and nine novel 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins were designed and analyzed regarding cytotoxicity induction and inhibition of human ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in a variety of human cancer cell lines as well as the yeast ABC transporter Pdr5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dual inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP and inhibitors of Pdr5 were identified, and distinct structure-activity relationships for transporter inhibition were revealed. The strongest inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP, which inhibited the transporters up to 80 to 90% compared to the respective positive controls, demonstrated the ability to reverse chemotherapy resistance in resistant cancer cell lines up to 5.6-fold. In the case of Pdr5, inhibitors were identified that prevented substrate transport and/or ATPase activity with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. However, cell toxicity was not observed. Molecular docking of the test compounds to P-gp revealed that differences in inhibition capacity were based on different binding affinities to the transporter. Thus, these small molecules provide novel lead structures for further optimization.
Project description:The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in the clinic is a significant problem for a successful treatment of human cancers. Overexpression of various ABC transporters (P-gp, BCRP and MRP's), which remove anticancer drugs in an ATP-dependent manner, is linked to the emergence of MDR. Attempts to modulate MDR have not been very successful in the clinic. Furthermore, no single agent has been found to significantly inhibit their functions to overcome clinical drug resistance. We have previously shown that nitric oxide (<sup>●</sup>NO) inhibits ATPase functions of ABC transporters, causing reversal of resistance to clinically active anticancer drugs. In this study, we have used cytotoxicity and molecular docking studies to show that NCX4040, a nitric oxide donor related to aspirin, inhibited the functions of ATPase which resulted in significant reversal of resistance to both adriamycin and topotecan in P-gp- and BCRP-expressing human cancer cell lines, respectively. We also used several other cytotoxic nitric oxide donors, e.g., molsidomine and S-nitroso glutathione; however, both P-gp- and BCRP-expressing cells were found to be highly resistant to these NO-donors. Molecular docking studies showed that NCX4040 binds to the nucleotide binding domains of the ATPase and interferes with further binding of ATP, resulting in decreased activities of these transporters. Our results are extremely promising and suggest that nitric oxide and other reactive species delivered to drug resistant tumor cells by well-designed nitric oxide donors could be useful in sensitizing anticancer drugs in multidrug resistant tumors expressing various ABC transporters.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PI3K/AKT is a vital signaling pathway in humans. Recently, several PI3K/AKT inhibitors were reported to have the ability to reverse cancer multidrug resistance (MDR); however, specific targets in the PI3K/AKT pathways and the mechanisms associated with MDR have not been found because many of the inhibitors have multiple targets within a large candidate protein pool. AKT activation is one presumed mechanism by which MDR develops during cancer treatment. METHODS:The effects of inhibiting PI3K 110? and 110? by BAY-1082439 treatment and CRISPR/Cas9 knockout were examined to determine the possible functions of BAY-1082439 and the roles of PI3K 110? and 110? in the reversal of MDR that is mediated by the downregulation of P-gp and BCRP. Inhibition of AKT with GSK-2110183 showed that the downregulation of P-gp and BCRP is independent of generalized AKT inactivation. Immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, MTT, flow cytometry and JC-1 staining analyses were conducted to study the reversal of MDR that is mediated by P-gp and BCRP in cancer cells. An ATPase assay and a structural analysis were also used to analyze the potential mechanisms by which BAY-1082439 specifically targets PI3K 110? and 110? and nonspecifically influences P-gp and BCRP. RESULTS:By inhibiting the activation of the PI3K 110? and 110? catalytic subunits through both the administration of BAY-1082439 and the CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of Pik3ca and Pik3cb, the ATP-binding cassette transporters P-gp/ABCB1 and BCRP/ABCG2 were downregulated, thereby reestablishing the drug sensitivity of human epidermoid carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) MDR cells. Inhibition of AKT did not reverse the MDR mediated by P-gp or BCRP. The ABC family proteins and AKT may play MDR-enhancing roles independently. CONCLUSIONS:The reversal of the dual functions of ABC-transporter-mediated and AKT-activation-enhanced MDR through the inhibition or knockout of PI3K 110? or 110? promises to improve current strategies based on combined drug treatments to overcome MDR challenges.