Desmethyl Macrolides: Synthesis and Evaluation of 4,10-Didesmethyl Telithromycin.
ABSTRACT: Novel sources of antibiotics are required to keep pace with the inevitable onset of bacterial resistance. Continuing with our macrolide desmethylation strategy as a source of new antibiotics, we report the total synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of 4,10-didesmethyl telithromycin (4), a novel desmethyl analogue of the 3rd-generation drug telithromycin (2). Telithromycin is an FDA-approved ketolide antibiotic derived from erythromycin (1). We found 4,10-didesmethyl telithromycin (4) to be four times more active than previously prepared 4,8,10-tridesmethyl congener (3) in MIC assays. While less potent than telithromycin (2), the inclusion of the C-8 methyl group has improved biological activity suggesting it plays an important role in antibiotic function.
Project description:There is an urgent need for novel sources of antibiotics to address the incessant and inevitable onset of bacterial resistance. To this end, we have initiated a structure-based drug design program that features a desmethylation strategy (i.e., replacing methyl groups with hydrogens). Herein we report the total synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of 4,8-didesmethyl telithromycin (5), a novel desmethyl analogue of the third-generation ketolide antibiotic telithromycin (2), which is an FDA-approved semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin (1). We found 4,8-didesmethyl telithromycin (5) to be eight times more active than previously prepared 4,8,10-tridesmethyl congener (3) and two times more active than 4,10-didesmethyl regioisomer (4) in MIC assays. While less potent than telithromycin (2) and paralleling the observations made in the previous study of 4,10-didesmethyl analogue (4), the inclusion of a single methyl group improves biological activity thus supporting its role in antibiotic activity.
Project description:There is an urgent need to discover new drugs to address the pressing problem of antibiotic-resistance. Macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin (1) are safe, broad-spectrum antibiotics used in the clinic since 1954. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of 4,8,10-tridesmethyl telithromycin (3), a novel desmethyl analogue of the 3rd-generation drug telithromycin (2), which is a semisynthetic derivative of 1. Analogue 3 was found to possess antibiotic activity and was superior to telithromycin (2) when tested against resistant strains of S. aureus possessing an A?T mutation at position 2058 (E. coli numbering).
Project description:Novel sources of antibiotics are required to address the serious problem of antibiotic resistance. Telithromycin (2) is a third-generation macrolide antibiotic prepared from erythromycin (1) and used clinically since 2004. Herein we report the details of our efforts that ultimately led to the total synthesis of (-)-4,8,10-tridesmethyl telithromycin (3) wherein methyl groups have been replaced with hydrogens. The synthesis of desmethyl macrolides has emerged as a novel strategy for preparing bioactive antibiotics.
Project description:Novel sources of antibiotics are needed to address the serious threat of bacterial resistance. Accordingly, we have launched a structure-based drug design program featuring a desmethylation strategy wherein methyl groups have been replaced with hydrogens. Herein we report the total synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of 4-desmethyl telithromycin (6), a novel desmethyl analogue of the third-generation ketolide antibiotic telithromycin (2) and our final analogue in this series. While 4-desmethyl telithromycin (6) was found to be equipotent with telithromycin (2) against wild-type bacteria, it was 4-fold less potent against the A2058G mutant. These findings reveal that strategically replacing the C4-methyl group with hydrogen (i.e., desmethylation) did not address this mechanism of resistance. Throughout the desmethyl series, the sequential addition of methyls to the 14-membered macrolactone resulted in improved bioactivity. Molecular modeling methods indicate that changes in conformational flexibility dominate the increased biological activity; moreover, they reveal 6 adopts a different conformation once bound to the A2058G ribosome, thus impacting noncovalent interactions reflected in a lower MIC value. Finally, fluorescence polarization experiments of 6 with E. coli ribosomes confirmed 6 is indeed binding the ribosome.
Project description:Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging at an alarming rate in both hospital and community settings. Motivated by this issue, we have prepared desmethyl (i.e., replacing methyl groups with hydrogens) analogues of third-generation macrolide drugs telithromycin (TEL, 2) and cethromycin (CET, 6), both of which are semi-synthetic derivatives of flagship macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (1). Herein, we report the total synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of 4,8,10-tridesmethyl cethromycin (7). In MIC assays, CET analogue 7 was found to be equipotent with TEL (2) against a wild-type E. coli strain, more potent than previously disclosed desmethyl TEL congeners 3, 4, and 5, but fourfold less potent than TEL (2) against a mutant E. coli A2058G strain.
Project description:A ketolide antibiotic, telithromycin, has side effects including temporary loss of consciousness in clinical use, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the effects of telithromycin on perivascular nerve function in rat mesenteric arteries, in comparison with those of macrolide (erythromycin and clarithromycin) and new quinolone antibiotics (levofloxacin and gatifloxacin).In vitro, vascular responses and release of noradrenaline induced by periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) of rat perfused mesenteric vascular beds were measured in the presence of each antibiotic. In vivo blood pressure measurement was performed in Wistar rats.In mesenteric preparations with resting tone, telithromycin (10 nM-10 microM) markedly inhibited PNS (4-12 Hz)-induced adrenergic nerve- and exogenous noradrenaline-mediated vasoconstriction, whereas the other antibiotics slightly inhibited PNS-induced responses without affecting noradrenaline-induced responses. Telithromycin significantly reduced PNS (12 Hz)-evoked noradrenaline release in the perfusate. In pre-constricted preparations with or without endothelium, telithromycin (0.1 nM-10 microM) caused a concentration-dependent vasodilation. Telithromycin (10 nM) inhibited calcium-induced vasoconstriction in high KCl and calcium-free medium. None of the antibiotics used affected PNS (0.5-2 Hz)-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) nerve- and exogenous CGRP-mediated vasodilation. Intravenous injection of telithromycin significantly lowered blood pressure in anaesthetized rats.These results suggest that telithromycin causes not only strong inhibition of perivascular adrenergic neurotransmission but also a vasodilator action in mesenteric vascular beds and hypotension. It is thus possible that telithromycin increases visceral blood flow, consequently reducing cerebral blood flow and resulting in a temporary loss of consciousness.
Project description:The crystal structure of the ketolide telithromycin bound to the Deinococcus radiodurans large ribosomal subunit shows that telithromycin blocks the ribosomal exit tunnel and interacts with domains II and V of the 23S RNA. Comparisons to other clinically relevant macrolides provided structural insights into its enhanced activity against macrolide-resistant strains.
Project description:Applying kinetics and footprinting analysis, we show that telithromycin, a ketolide antibiotic, binds to Escherichia coli ribosomes in a two-step process. During the first, rapidly equilibrated step, telithromycin binds to a low-affinity site (K(T) = 500 nM), in which the lactone ring is positioned at the upper portion of the peptide exit tunnel, while the alkyl-aryl side chain of the drug inserts a groove formed by nucleotides A789 and U790 of 23S rRNA. During the second step, telithromycin shifts slowly to a high-affinity site (K(T)* = 8.33 nM), in which the lactone ring remains essentially at the same position, while the side chain interacts with the base pair U2609:A752 and the extended loop of protein L22. Consistently, mutations perturbing either the base pair U2609:A752 or the L22-loop hinder shifting of telithromycin to the final position, without affecting the initial step of binding. In contrast, mutation Lys63Glu in protein L4 placed on the opposite side of the tunnel, exerts only a minor effect on telithromycin binding. Polyamines disfavor both sequential steps of binding. Our data correlate well with recent crystallographic data and rationalize the changes in the accessibility of ribosomes to telithromycin in response to ribosomal mutations and ionic changes.
Project description:The ABCF family protein Msr(A) confers high resistance to macrolides but only low resistance to ketolides in staphylococci. Mutations in conserved functional regions of ClpX as well as deletion of clpX significantly increased Msr(A)-mediated resistance to the ketolide antibiotic telithromycin. ClpX is the chaperone component of the ClpXP two-component proteolytic system. Nevertheless, no changes in resistance were observed in a clpP knockout strain expressing msr(A), demonstrating that ClpX affects Msr(A) independently of ClpP.
Project description:An efficient synthesis of ?-amino-?-lactone ketolide (3) was developed, which provided a versatile intermediate for the incorporation of a variety of aryl and heteroaryl groups onto the C-21 position of clarithromycin via HBTU-mediated amidation. The biological data for this important new class of macrolides revealed significantly potent activity against erythromycin-susceptible strains as well as efflux-resistant and erythromycin MLSB-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. In addition, ketolide 11o showed excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against H. influenzae strain as compared to telithromycin. These results indicate that C-21 substituted ?-lactone ketolides have potential as a next generation macrolide antibiotics.