A multiplicity of anti-invasive effects of farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 in human head and neck cancer.
ABSTRACT: Metastasis is a critical event in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and closely correlates with clinical outcome. We previously showed that the farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 has antitumor activities in HNSCC by inducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), which in turn inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. In our study, we found that SCH66336 at a sublethal dose for HNSCC inhibited the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 was associated with the blockade of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway via suppressing IGF-1R itself and Akt expression. Consistent with previous work, induction of IGFBP-3 by SCH66336 also contributed in part to the anti-invasive effect. SCH66336 treatment also reduced the expression and activity of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), both important regulators of tumor metastasis. The effect of SCH66336 on uPA activity was inhibited partly by knockdown of IGFBP-3 using small interfering RNA. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 on migration or invasion was attenuated partly or completely by knockdown of IGFBP-3, Akt or IGF-1R expression, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the IGF-1R pathway plays a major role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, suggesting that therapeutic obstruction of the IGF-1R pathway would be a useful approach to treating patients with HNSCC.
Project description:Angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels are recruited to existing ones, is essential for tumor development. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which modulates bioavailability of IGF, has been studied for its potential role in angiogenesis during tissue regeneration and cancer development. In this study, we assessed the role of IGFBP-3 in tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using adenoviral (Ad-BP3) and recombinant (rBP3) IGFBP-3. Using an in vivo orthotopic tongue tumor model, we confirmed that both Ad-BP3 and rBP3 suppress the growth of UMSCC38 HNSCC cells in vivo. Ad-BP3 inhibited vascularization in tongue tumors and chorio-allantoic membrane, and suppressed angiogenesis-stimulating activities in UMSCC38 cells. In HUVECs, Ad-BP3 decreased migration, invasion, and tube formation. rBP3 also suppressed production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HUVECs and UMSCC38 cells. IGFBP-3-GGG, a mutant IGFBP-3 with loss of IGF binding capacity, suppressed VEGF production. In addition, we found that IGFBP-3 suppressed VEGF expression, even in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from an IGF-1R-null mouse. Finally, we demonstrated that IGFBP-3-GGG inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth to the same degree as wild-type IGFBP-3. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that IGFBP-3 has anti-angiogenic activity in HNSCC, at least in part due to IGF-independent suppression of VEGF production from vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells.
Project description:The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is part of the receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily. The activation of IGF-1R regulates several key signaling pathways responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis, including survival, growth, and proliferation. In addition to mediating signal transduction at the plasma membrane, in serum-based models, IGF-1R undergoes SUMOylation by SUMO 1 and translocates to the nucleus in response to IGF-1. In corneal epithelial cells grown in serum-free culture, however, IGF-1R has been shown to accumulate in the nucleus independent of IGF-1. In this study, we report that the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R in response to growth factor withdrawal. This occurs via SUMOylation by SUMO 2/3. Further, IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 undergo reciprocal regulation independent of PI3k/Akt signaling. Thus, under healthy growth conditions, IGFBP-3 functions as a gatekeeper to arrest the cell cycle in G0/G1, but does not alter mitochondrial respiration in cultured cells. When stressed, IGFBP-3 functions as a caretaker to maintain levels of IGF-1R in the nucleus. These results demonstrate mutual regulation between IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 to maintain cell survival under stress. This is the first study to show a direct relationship between IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 in the maintenance of corneal epithelial homeostasis.
Project description:The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family plays key roles in growth and development. In the cornea, IGF family members have been implicated in proliferation, differentiation, and migration, critical events that maintain a smooth refracting surface that is essential for vision. The IGF family is composed of multiple ligands, receptors, and ligand binding proteins. Expression of IGF type 1 receptor (IGF-1R), IGF type 2 receptor (IGF-2R), and insulin receptor (INSR) in the cornea has been well characterized, including the presence of the IGF-1R and INSR hybrid (Hybrid-R) in the corneal epithelium. Recent data also indicates that each of these receptors display unique intracellular localization. Thus, in addition to canonical ligand binding at the plasma membrane and the initiation of downstream signaling cascades, IGF-1R, INSR, and Hybrid-R also function to regulate mitochondrial stability and nuclear gene expression. IGF-1 and IGF-2, two of three principal ligands, are polypeptide growth factors that function in all cellular layers of the cornea. Unlike IGF-1 and IGF-2, the hormone insulin plays a unique role in the cornea, different from many other tissues in the body. In the corneal epithelium, insulin is not required for glucose uptake, due to constitutive activation of the glucose transporter, GLUT1. However, insulin is needed for the regulation of metabolism, circadian rhythm, autophagy, proliferation, and migration after wounding. There is conflicting evidence regarding expression of the six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), which function primarily to sequester IGF ligands. Within the cornea, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 have identified roles in tissue homeostasis. While IGFBP-3 regulates growth control and intracellular receptor localization in the corneal epithelium, both IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 function in corneal fibroblast differentiation and myofibroblast proliferation, key events in stromal wound healing. IGFBP-2 has also been linked to cellular overgrowth in pterygium. There is a clear role for IGF family members in regulating tissue homeostasis in the cornea. This review summarizes what is known regarding the function of IGF and related proteins in corneal development, during wound healing, and in the pathophysiology of disease. Finally, we highlight key areas of research that are in need of future study.
Project description:We previously reported that IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a major IGF-binding protein in human serum, regulates angiogenic activities of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms. However, the role of IGFBP-3 in cell adhesion is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that IGFBP-3 inhibits the adhesion of HNSCC cells and HUVECs to the extracellular matrix (ECM). IGFBP-3 reduced transcription of a variety of integrins, especially integrin ?4, and suppressed phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src in these cells through both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent pathways. IGFBP-3 was found to suppress the transcription of c-fos and c-jun and the activity of AP1 transcription factor. The regulatory effect of IGFBP-3 on integrin ?4 transcription was attenuated by blocking c-jun and c-fos gene expression via siRNA transfection. Taken together, our data show that IGFBP-3 has IGF-dependent and -independent inhibitory effects on intracellular adhesion signaling in HNSCC and HUVECs through its ability to block c-jun and c-fos transcription and thus AP-1-mediated integrin ?4 transcription. Collectively, our data suggest that IGFPB-3 may be an effective cancer therapeutic agent by blocking integrin-mediated adhesive activity of tumor and vascular endothelial cells.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential to hippocampal neurogenesis and the neuronal response to hypoxia/ischemia injury. IGF (IGF-1 and -2) signaling is mediated primarily by the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and modulated by six high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP) and the type 2 IGF receptor (IGF-2R), collectively termed IGF system proteins. Defining the precise cells that express each is essential to understanding their roles. With the exception of IGFBP-1, we found that mouse hippocampus expresses mRNA for each of these proteins during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Compared to postnatal day 14 (P14), mRNA abundance at P5 was higher for IGF-1, IGFBP-2, -3, and -5 (by 71%, 108%, 100%, and 98%, respectively), lower for IGF-2, IGF-2R, and IGFBP-6 (by 65%, 78%, and 44%, respectively), and unchanged for IGF-1R and IGFBP-4. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM), we found that granule neurons and pyramidal neurons exhibited identical patterns of expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2R, IGFBP-2, and -4, but did not express other IGF system genes. We then compared IGF system expression in mature granule neurons and their progenitors. Progenitors exhibited higher mRNA levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1R (by 130% and 86%, respectively), lower levels of IGF-2R (by 72%), and similar levels of IGFBP-4. Our data support a role for IGF in hippocampal neurogenesis and provide evidence that IGF actions are regulated within a defined in vivo milieu.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes the survival of cardiomyocytes by activating type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R). Within the myocardium, IGF-1 action is modulated by IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which sequesters IGF-1 away from IGF-1R. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is implicated in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, we investigated the effects of the anthracycline, doxorubicin, on the IGF-1 system in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.Besides inducing apoptosis, concentrations of doxorubicin comparable to those observed in patients after bolus infusion (0.1-1 µM) caused a progressive decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3 expression. Exogenous IGF-1 was capable to rescue cardiomyocytes from apoptosis triggered by 0.1 and 0.5 µM, but not 1 µM doxorubicin. The loss of response to IGF-1 was paralleled by a significant reduction in IGF-1 availability and signaling, as assessed by free hormone levels in conditioned media and Akt phosphorylation in cell lysates, respectively. Doxorubicin also dose-dependently induced p53, which is known to repress the transcription of IGF1R and induce that of IGFBP3. Pre-treatment with the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-?, prevented apoptosis and the changes in IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 elicited by doxorubicin. The decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3, as well as apoptosis, were also antagonized by pre-treatment with the antioxidant agents, N-acetylcysteine, dexrazoxane, and carvedilol.Doxorubicin down-regulates IGF-1R and up-regulates IGFBP-3 via p53 and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. This leads to resistance to IGF-1 that may contribute to doxorubicin-initiated apoptosis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in human cardiomyocytes and explore the possibility of manipulating the IGF-1 axis to protect against anthracycline cardiotoxicity.
Project description:The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) overexpression contributes to the development of a variety of cancers. The present study explored the role of IGF-1R in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the possibility of IGF-1R silencing by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) as a therapeutic target for HCC. We showed that IGF-1R mRNA was up-regulated in Huh7 and Hep3B cells and human HCC tissues, and that IGF-1R knockdown by RNAi led to decreased proliferation, apoptosis induction, and decreased migration and invasion of Huh7 and Hep3B cells. Further, the in vivo study indicated that IGF-1R knockdown markedly diminished the tumorigenesis and metastasis of Huh7 xenograft. Moreover, the intratumoral administration of lentivirus-IGF-1R siRNA led to significant tumor growth inhibition in an established Huh7 xenograft model. Mechanistic investigations showed that midkine was found to be the most significantly down-regulated protein in Huh7 cells with IGF-1R knockdown, and ectopic overexpression of midkine significantly rescued inhibition of Huh7 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion caused by IGF-1R suppression. Collectively, these data suggest that IGF-1R inhibition by RNAi can significantly suppress HCC growth and invasion at least partially through down-regulating midkine expression, and IGF-1R is a potential target for HCC gene therapy.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I binds to the ECM protein vitronectin (VN) through IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) to enhance proliferation and migration of skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Although evidence exists for the role of individual components of the complex (IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and VN), the cellular functions stimulated by these proteins together as a complex remains un-investigated in melanoma cells. We report here that the IGF-I:IGFBP-3:VN trimeric complex stimulates a dose-dependent increase in the proliferation and migration of WM35 and Sk-MEL28 melanoma cells. In 3D Matrigel™ and hydrogel cultures, both cell lines formed primary tumor-like spheroids, which increased in size in a dose-dependent manner in response to the trimeric complex. Furthermore, we reveal IGFBP-3:VN protein complexes in malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma patient tissues, where the IGFBP-3:VN complex was seen to be predominantly tumor cell-associated. Peptide antagonists designed to target the binding of IGF-I:IGFBP-3 to VN were demonstrated to inhibit IGF-I:IGFBP-3:VN-stimulated cell migration, invasion and 3D tumor cell growth of melanoma cells. Overall, this study provides new data on IGF:ECM interactions in skin malignancies and demonstrates the potential usefulness of a growth factor:ECM-disrupting strategy for abrogating tumor progression.
Project description:To improve the significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) as a prognostic and potentially predictive marker in patients with breast cancer.Increased IGFBP-5 expression was identified in MCF-7 cells resistant (MCF-7R4) to the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (InsR) inhibitor BMS-536924 and its role examined by targeted knockdown and overexpression in multiple experimental models. Protein expression of IGFBP-5 was measured by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 76 patients with breast cancer to examine correlative associations with invasive tumor fraction and outcome. The use of a combined IGFBP-5/IGFBP-4 (BPR) expression ratio was applied to predict anti-IGF-1R/InsR response in a panel of breast cancer lines and outcome in multiple breast tumor cohorts.IGFBP-5 knockdown decreased BMS-536924 resistance in MCF-7R4 cells, whereas IGFBP-5 overexpression in MCF-7 cells conferred resistance. When compared with pathologically normal reduction mammoplasty tissue, IGFBP-5 expression levels were upregulated in both invasive and histologically normal adjacent breast cancer tissue. In both univariate and multivariate modeling, metastasis-free survival, recurrence free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were significantly associated with high IGFBP-5 expression. Prognostic power of IGFBP-5 was further increased with the addition of IGFBP-4 where tumors were ranked based upon IGFBP-5/IGFBP-4 expression ratio (BPR). Multiple breast cancer cohorts confirm that BPR (high vs. low) was a strong predictor of RFS and OS.IGFBP-5 expression is a marker of poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. An IGFBP-5/IGFBP-4 expression ratio may serve as a surrogate biomarker of IGF pathway activation and predict sensitivity to anti-IGF-1R targeting.