Expanding the molecular basis and phenotypic spectrum of X-linked Joubert syndrome associated with OFD1 mutations.
ABSTRACT: Using a combination of linkage mapping and massively parallel sequencing of the X-chromosome exome, we identified an 18-bp deletion in exon 8 of the oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) gene in a family with X-linked Joubert syndrome (JBTS10). The deletion results in an in-frame deletion of six amino acids. New features not noted in the two previously reported cases of X-linked Joubert syndrome include the presence of polycystic kidney disease, polymicrogyria and hydrocephalus. Our study further underlines the power of genetic mapping combined with massively parallel sequencing as a powerful tool for novel disease gene and mutation discovery.
Project description:Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of ciliary diseases. To date, 34 subtypes of JBTS have been classified due to different causative genes or extra clinical features. Most of them are autosomal recessive, while only the subtype 10 (JBTS10) is a quite rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by OFD1 mutations with few reports. In this study, by using whole exome sequencing (WES), a novel OFD1 splicing mutation (c.2488+2T>C) was identified in a male fetus with suspected Dandy-Walker variant (DWV) and syndactyly, for whom abnormal karyotype and pathogenic CNV have been excluded. This mutation was inherited from the mother who has experienced two similar pregnancies before. An abnormal skipping of exon 18 in OFD1 mRNA was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. Result from quantitative RT-PCR also showed that total OFD1 mRNA in the index fetus was significantly lower than the control. After a combined analysis of genetic testing results and genotype-phenotype correlations, the novel mutation c.2488+2T>C in OFD1 was considered to be the genetic cause for the affected fetus. Thus the diagnosis should be JBTS10 rather than the primary clinical diagnosis of DWV. We report the first prenatal case of JBTS10 in Chinese population, which not only helps the family to predict recurrence risks for future pregnancies but also provides more information for understanding such a rare disease. The results also present evidence that WES is an effective method in prenatal diagnosis for those fetuses with Joubert syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The discovery of disease pathogenesis requires systematic agnostic screening of multiple homeostatic processes that may become deregulated. We illustrate this principle in the evaluation and diagnosis of a 5-year-old boy with Joubert syndrome type 10 (JBTS10). He carried the OFD1 mutation p.Gln886Lysfs*2 (NM_003611.2: c.2656del) and manifested features of Joubert syndrome. METHODS:We integrated exome sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses of plasma and cultured dermal fibroblasts glycomes, and full clinical evaluation of the proband. Analyses of cilia formation and lectin staining were performed by immunofluorescence. Measurement of cellular nucleotide sugar levels was performed with high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Statistical analyses utilized the Student's and Fisher's exact t tests. RESULTS:Glycome analyses of plasma and cultured dermal fibroblasts identified abnormal N- and O-linked glycosylation profiles. These findings replicated in two unrelated males with OFD1 mutations. Cultured fibroblasts from affected individuals had a defect in ciliogenesis. The proband's fibroblasts also had an abnormally elevated nuclear sialylation signature and increased total cellular levels of CMP-sialic acid. Ciliogenesis and each glycosylation anomaly were rescued by expression of wild-type OFD1. CONCLUSIONS:The rescue of ciliogenesis and glycosylation upon reintroduction of WT OFD1 suggests that both contribute to the pathogenesis of JBTS10.
Project description:BACKGROUND:OFD1 has long been recognized as the gene implicated in the classic dysmorphology syndrome, oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFDSI). Over time, pathogenic variants in OFD1 were found to be associated with X-linked intellectual disability, Joubert syndrome type 10 (JBTS10), Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2), and retinitis pigmentosa. Recently, OFD1 pathogenic variants have been implicated in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disorder of the motile cilia with a phenotype that includes recurrent oto-sino-pulmonary infections, situs abnormalities, and decreased fertility. METHODS:We describe three male patients with PCD who were found to have hemizygous pathogenic variants in OFD1, further supporting that PCD is part of a clinical spectrum of OFD1-related disorders. In addition, we provide a review of the available clinical literature describing patients with OFD1 variants and highlight the phenotypic variability of OFD1-related disease. RESULTS:Some individuals with hemizygous OFD1 variants have PCD, either apparently isolated or in combination with other features of OFD1-related disorders. CONCLUSION:As clinicians consider the presence or absence of conditions allelic at OFD1, PCD should be considered part of the spectrum of OFD1-related disorders. Understanding the OFD1-related disease spectrum may allow for more focused genetic testing and more timely management of treatable sequelae.
Project description:OFD1, now recognized as a ciliopathy, is characterized by malformations of the face, oral cavity and digits, and is transmitted as an X-linked condition with lethality in males. Mutations in OFD1 also cause X-linked Joubert syndrome (JBTS10) and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2). We have studied 55 sporadic and six familial cases of suspected OFD1. Comprehensive mutation analysis in OFD1 revealed mutations in 37 female patients from 30 families; 22 mutations have not been previously described including two heterozygous deletions spanning OFD1 and neighbouring genes. Analysis of clinical findings in patients with mutations revealed that oral features are the most reliable diagnostic criteria. A first, detailed evaluation of brain MRIs from seven patients with cognitive defects illustrated extensive variability with the complete brain phenotype consisting of complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, large single or multiple interhemispheric cysts, striking cortical infolding of gyri, ventriculomegaly, mild molar tooth malformation and moderate to severe cerebellar vermis hypoplasia. Although the OFD1 gene apparently escapes X-inactivation, skewed inactivation was observed in seven of 14 patients. The direction of skewing did not correlate with disease severity, reinforcing the hypothesis that additional factors contribute to the extensive intrafamilial variability.
Project description:We ascertained a multi-generation Malaysian family with Joubert syndrome (JS). The presence of asymptomatic obligate carrier females suggested an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. Affected males presented with mental retardation accompanied by postaxial polydactyly and retinitis pigmentosa. Brain MRIs showed the presence of a "molar tooth sign," which classifies this syndrome as classic JS with retinal involvement. Linkage analysis showed linkage to Xpter-Xp22.2 and a maximum LOD score of 2.06 for marker DXS8022. Mutation analysis revealed a frameshift mutation, p.K948NfsX8, in exon 21 of OFD1. In an isolated male with JS, a second frameshift mutation, p.E923KfsX3, in the same exon was identified. OFD1 has previously been associated with oral-facial-digital type 1 (OFD1) syndrome, a male-lethal X-linked dominant condition, and with X-linked recessive Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2). In a yeast two-hybrid screen of a retinal cDNA library, we identified OFD1 as an interacting partner of the LCA5-encoded ciliary protein lebercilin. We show that X-linked recessive mutations in OFD1 reduce, but do not eliminate, the interaction with lebercilin, whereas X-linked dominant OFD1 mutations completely abolish binding to lebercilin. In addition, recessive mutations in OFD1 did not affect the pericentriolar localization of the recombinant protein in hTERT-RPE1 cells, whereas this localization was lost for dominant mutations. These findings offer a molecular explanation for the phenotypic spectrum observed for OFD1 mutations; this spectrum now includes OFD1 syndrome, SGBS2, and JS.
Project description:Ciliary disorders share typical features, such as polydactyly, renal and biliary cystic dysplasia, and retinitis pigmentosa, which often overlap across diagnostic entities. We report on two siblings of consanguineous parents and two unrelated children, both of unrelated parents, with co-occurrence of Joubert syndrome and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, an association that adds to the observation of common final patterns of malformations in ciliary disorders. Using homozygosity mapping in the siblings, we were able to exclude all known genes/loci for both syndromes except for INVS, AHI1, and three genes from the previously described Jeune locus at 15q13. No pathogenic variants were found in these genes by direct sequencing. In the third child reported, sequencing of RPGRIP1L, ARL13B, AHI1, TMEM67, OFD1, CC2D2A, and deletion analysis of NPHP1 showed no mutations. Although this study failed to identify a mutation in the patients tested, the co-occurrence of Joubert and Jeune syndromes is likely to represent a distinct entity caused by mutations in a yet to be discovered gene. The mechanisms by which certain organ systems are affected more than others in the spectrum of ciliary diseases remain largely unknown.
Project description:Orofaciodigital syndrome type 1 or oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFDS1, OMIM #311200) is an X-linked malformation syndrome caused by hemizygous mutations in the OFD1 (OMIM #300170) gene with presumed male lethality. Recently males with OFDS1 and mutations in OFD1 have been described. We report a 17-year-old male with molar tooth sign, small cerebellum with absence of the cerebellar vermis, complex polydactyly with a Y-shaped metacarpal, renal failure and craniofacial anomalies caused by a novel splice-mutation (c.1129+4A>T) in the OFD1 gene identified by exome sequencing.
Project description:X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is genetically heterogeneous with two causative genes identified, RPGR and RP2. We previously mapped a locus for a severe form of XLRP, RP23, to a 10.71 Mb interval on Xp22.31-22.13 containing 62 genes. Candidate gene screening failed to identify a causative mutation, so we adopted targeted genomic next-generation sequencing of the disease interval to determine the molecular cause of RP23. No coding variants or variants within or near splice sites were identified. In contrast, a variant deep within intron 9 of OFD1 increased the splice site prediction score 4 bp upstream of the variant. Mutations in OFD1 cause the syndromic ciliopathies orofaciodigital syndrome-1, which is male lethal, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 and Joubert syndrome. We tested the effect of the IVS9+706A>G variant on OFD1 splicing in vivo. In RP23 patient-derived RNA, we detected an OFD1 transcript with the insertion of a cryptic exon spliced between exons 9 and 10 causing a frameshift, p.N313fs.X330. Correctly spliced OFD1 was also detected in patient-derived RNA, although at reduced levels (39%), hence the mutation is not male lethal. Our data suggest that photoreceptors are uniquely susceptible to reduced expression of OFD1 and that an alternative disease mechanism can cause XLRP. This disease mechanism of reduced expression for a syndromic ciliopathy gene causing isolated retinal degeneration is reminiscent of CEP290 intronic mutations that cause Leber congenital amaurosis, and we speculate that reduced dosage of correctly spliced ciliopathy genes may be a common disease mechanism in retinal degenerations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Joubert syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by brain malformation, developmental delay with hypotonia, ocular motor apraxia, and breathing abnormalities. Joubert syndrome is a genetically highly heterogeneous ciliopathy disorder with 23 identified causative genes. The diagnosis is based on brain imaging showing the "molar tooth sign" with cerebellar vermis agenesis. We describe a consanguineous Moroccan family with three affected siblings (18-year-old boy, 13-year-old girl, and 10-year-old boy) showing typical signs of Joubert syndrome, and attempt to identify the underlying genetic defect in this family. METHODS:We performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping using a high-resolution array followed by targeted Sanger sequencing to identify the causative gene. RESULTS:This approach found three homozygous regions, one including the AHI1 gene. Direct sequencing of the 26 coding exons of AHI1 revealed a homozygous mutation (p.Thr304AsnfsX6) located in exon 7 present in the three Joubert syndrome-affected Moroccan siblings. Of more interest, this truncating mutation was previously reported in patients with compound heterozygous Joubert syndrome originating from Spain (one patient) and from the Netherlands (two patients), suggesting a possible founder effect or mutational hotspot. CONCLUSIONS:Combined homozygosity mapping and targeted sequencing allowed the rapid detection of the disease-causing mutation in the AHI1 gene in this family affected with a highly genetically heterogeneous disorder. Carriers of the same truncating mutation (p.Thr304AsnfsX6), originating from Spain and the Netherlands, presented variable clinical characteristics, thereby corroborating the extreme heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome.
Project description:Centrosomes and their component centrioles represent the principal microtubule organizing centers of animal cells. Here, we show that the gene underlying orofaciodigital syndrome 1, Ofd1, is a component of the distal centriole that controls centriole length. In the absence of Ofd1, distal regions of centrioles, but not procentrioles, elongate abnormally. These long centrioles are structurally similar to normal centrioles but contain destabilized microtubules with abnormal posttranslational modifications. Ofd1 is also important for centriole distal appendage formation and centriolar recruitment of the intraflagellar transport protein Ift88. To model OFD1 syndrome in embryonic stem cells, we replaced the Ofd1 gene with missense alleles from human OFD1 patients. Distinct disease-associated mutations cause different degrees of excessive or decreased centriole elongation, all of which are associated with diminished ciliogenesis. Our results indicate that Ofd1 acts at the distal centriole to build distal appendages, recruit Ift88, and stabilize centriolar microtubules at a defined length.