The IkappaB kinase family phosphorylates the Parkinson's disease kinase LRRK2 at Ser935 and Ser910 during Toll-like receptor signaling.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are strongly associated with late-onset autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is highly expressed in immune cells and recent work points towards a link between LRRK2 and innate immunity. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathway by MyD88-dependent agonists in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) or RAW264.7 macrophages induces marked phosphorylation of LRRK2 at Ser910 and Ser935, the phosphorylation sites that regulate the binding of 14-3-3 to LRRK2. Phosphorylation of these residues is prevented by knock-out of MyD88 in BMDMs, but not the alternative TLR adaptor protein TRIF. Utilising both pharmacological inhibitors, including a new TAK1 inhibitor, NG25, and genetic models, we provide evidence that both the canonical (IKK? and IKK?) and IKK-related (IKK? and TBK1) kinases mediate TLR agonist induced phosphorylation of LRRK2 in vivo. Moreover, all four IKK members directly phosphorylate LRRK2 at Ser910 and Ser935 in vitro. Consistent with previous work describing Ser910 and Ser935 as pharmacodynamic biomarkers of LRRK2 activity, we find that the TLR independent basal phosphorylation of LRRK2 at Ser910 and Ser935 is abolished following treatment of macrophages with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. However, the increased phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 induced by activation of the MyD88 pathway is insensitive to LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Finally, employing LRRK2-deficient BMDMs, we present data indicating that LRRK2 does not play a major role in regulating the secretion of inflammatory cytokines induced by activation of the MyD88 pathway. Our findings provide the first direct link between LRRK2 and the IKKs that mediate many immune responses. Further work is required to uncover the physiological roles that phosphorylation of LRRK2 by IKKs play in controlling macrophage biology and to determine how phosphorylation of LRRK2 by IKKs impacts upon the use of Ser910 and Ser935 as pharmacodynamic biomarkers.
Project description:Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands that signal via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN? (TRIF) activate the I?B kinase (IKK)-related kinases, TRAF associated NF?B activator (TANK)-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) and IKK?, which then phosphorylate IRF3 and induce the production of IFN?. Here we show that TBK1 and IKK? are also activated by TLR ligands that signal via MyD88. Notably, the activation of IKK? is rapid, transient, and it precedes a more prolonged activation of TBK1. The MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling pathways activate the IKK-related kinases by two signaling pathways. One is mediated by the canonical IKKs, whereas the other culminates in the autoactivation of the IKK-related kinases. Once activated, TBK1/IKK? then phosphorylate and inhibit the canonical IKKs. The negative regulation of the canonical IKKs by the IKK-related kinases occurs in both the TRIF- and MyD88-dependent TLR pathways, whereas IRF3 phosphorylation is restricted to the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway. We have discovered that the activation of IKK? is abolished, the activation of TBK1 is reduced, and the interaction between the IKK-related kinases and the canonical IKKs is suppressed in TANK(-/-) macrophages, preventing the IKK-related kinases from negatively regulating the canonical IKKs. In contrast, IRF3 phosphorylation and IFN? production was normal in TANK(-/-) macrophages. Our results demonstrate a key role for TANK in enabling the canonical IKKs and the IKK-related kinases to regulate each other, which is required to limit the strength of TLR signaling and ultimately, prevent autoimmunity.
Project description:LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2) is mutated in a significant number of Parkinson's disease patients. Since a common mutation that replaces Gly2019 with a serine residue enhances kinase catalytic activity, small-molecule LRRK2 inhibitors might have utility in treating Parkinson's disease. However, the effectiveness of inhibitors is difficult to assess, as no physiological substrates or downstream effectors have been identified that could be exploited to develop a robust cell-based assay. We recently established that LRRK2 bound 14-3-3 protein isoforms via its phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935. In the present study we show that treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells or lymphoblastoid cells derived from control or a Parkinson's disease patient harbouring a homozygous LRRK2(G2019S) mutation with two structurally unrelated inhibitors of LRRK2 (H-1152 or sunitinib) induced dephosphorylation of endogenous LRRK2 at Ser910 and Ser935, thereby disrupting 14-3-3 interaction. Our results suggest that H-1152 and sunitinib induce dephosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 by inhibiting LRRK2 kinase activity, as these compounds failed to induce significant dephosphorylation of a drug-resistant LRRK2(A2016T) mutant. Moreover, consistent with the finding that non-14-3-3-binding mutants of LRRK2 accumulated within discrete cytoplasmic pools resembling inclusion bodies, we observed that H-1152 causes LRRK2 to accumulate within inclusion bodies. These findings indicate that dephosphorylation of Ser910/Ser935, disruption of 14-3-3 binding and/or monitoring LRRK2 cytoplasmic localization can be used as an assay to assess the relative activity of LRRK2 inhibitors in vivo. These results will aid the elaboration and evaluation of LRRK2 inhibitors. They will also stimulate further research to understand how phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 is controlled by LRRK2, and establish any relationship to development of Parkinson's disease.
Project description:Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) have been linked to Parkinson's disease. Recent studies show that inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity decreased the level of phosphorylation at its own Ser910 and Ser935, indicating that these sites are prime targets for cellular readouts of LRRK2 inhibition.Using Time-Resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (TR-FRET) technology, we developed a high-throughput cellular assay for monitoring LRRK2 phosphorylation at Ser935. LRRK2-Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) fusions were expressed in cells via BacMam. Phosphorylation at Ser935 in these cells is detected using a terbium labeled anti-phospho-Ser935 antibody that generates a TR-FRET signal between terbium and GFP. LRRK2 wild-type and G2019S are constitutively phosphorylated at Ser935 in cells as measured by TR-FRET. The phosphorylation level is reduced for the R1441C mutant and little could be detected for the kinase-dead mutant D1994A. The TR-FRET cellular assay was further validated using reported LRRK2 inhibitors including LRRK2-IN-1 and our results confirmed that inhibition of LRRK2 can reduce the phosphorylation level at Ser935. To demonstrate the utility of this assay for screening, we profiled a small library of 1120 compounds. Three known LRRK2 inhibitors were identified and 16 hits were followed up in the TR-FRET and a cytotoxicity assay. Interestingly, out of the top 16 hits, five are known inhibitors of I?B phosphorylation, two CHK1 and two CDC25 inhibitors. Thirteen hits were further tested in a biochemical LRRK2 kinase activity assay and Western blot analysis for their effects on the phosphorylation of Ser910, Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973.We developed a TR-FRET cellular assay for LRRK2 Ser935 phosphorylation that can be applied to the screening for LRRK2 inhibitors. We report for the first time that several compounds such as IKK16, CHK1 inhibitors and GW441756 can inhibit LRRK2 Ser935 phosphorylation in cells and LRRK2 kinase activity in vitro.
Project description:LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2) is mutated in a significant number of Parkinson's disease patients, but still little is understood about how it is regulated or functions. In the present study we have demonstrated that 14-3-3 protein isoforms interact with LRRK2. Consistent with this, endogenous LRRK2 isolated from Swiss 3T3 cells or various mouse tissues is associated with endogenous 14-3-3 isoforms. We have established that 14-3-3 binding is mediated by phosphorylation of LRRK2 at two conserved residues (Ser910 and Ser935) located before the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results suggests that mutation of Ser910 and/or Ser935 to disrupt 14-3-3 binding does not affect intrinsic protein kinase activity, but induces LRRK2 to accumulate within discrete cytoplasmic pools, perhaps resembling inclusion bodies. To investigate links between 14-3-3 binding and Parkinson's disease, we studied how 41 reported mutations of LRRK2 affected 14-3-3 binding and cellular localization. Strikingly, we found that five of the six most common pathogenic mutations (R1441C, R1441G, R1441H, Y1699C and I2020T) display markedly reduced phosphorylation of Ser910/Ser935 thereby disrupting interaction with 14-3-3. We have also demonstrated that Ser910/Ser935 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding to endogenous LRRK2 is significantly reduced in tissues of homozygous LRRK2(R1441C) knock-in mice. Consistent with 14-3-3 regulating localization, all of the common pathogenic mutations displaying reduced 14-3-3-binding accumulated within inclusion bodies. We also found that three of the 41 LRRK2 mutations analysed displayed elevated protein kinase activity (R1728H, ~2-fold; G2019S, ~3-fold; and T2031S, ~4-fold). These results provide the first evidence suggesting that 14-3-3 regulates LRRK2 and that disruption of the interaction of LRRK2 with 14-3-3 may be linked to Parkinson's disease.
Project description:Activating mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are present in a subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and may represent an attractive therapeutic target. Here we report a 2-anilino-4-methylamino-5-chloropyrimidine, HG-10-102-01(4) is a potent and selective inhibitor of wild-type LRRK2 and the G2019S mutant. Compound 4 substantially inhibits Ser910 and Ser935 phosphorylation of both wild-type LRRK2 and G2019S mutant at a concentration of 0.1-0.3 µM in cells and is the first compound reported to be capable of inhibiting Ser910 and Ser935 phosphorylation in mouse brain following intraperitoneal delivery of doses as low as 50 mg/kg.
Project description:Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a complex, multidomain protein which is considered a valuable target for potential disease-modifying therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). In mammalian cells and brain, LRRK2 is phosphorylated and treatment of cells with inhibitors of LRRK2 kinase activity can induce LRRK2 dephosphorylation at a cluster of serines including Ser910/935/955/973. It has been suggested that phosphorylation levels at these sites reflect LRRK2 kinase activity, however kinase-dead variants of LRRK2 or kinase activating variants do not display altered Ser935 phosphorylation levels compared to wild type. Furthermore, Ser910/935/955/973 are not autophosphorylation sites, therefore, it is unclear if inhibitor induced dephosphorylation depends on the activity of compounds on LRRK2 or on yet to be identified upstream kinases. Here we used a panel of 160 ATP competitive and cell permeable kinase inhibitors directed against all branches of the kinome and tested their activity on LRRK2 in vitro using a peptide-substrate-based kinase assay. In neuronal SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing LRRK2 we used compound-induced dephosphorylation of Ser935 as readout. In silico docking of selected compounds was performed using a modeled LRRK2 kinase structure. Receiver operating characteristic plots demonstrated that the obtained docking scores to the LRRK2 ATP binding site correlated with in vitro and cellular compound activity. We also found that in vitro potency showed a high degree of correlation to cellular compound induced LRRK2 dephosphorylation activity across multiple compound classes. Therefore, acute LRRK2 dephosphorylation at Ser935 in inhibitor treated cells involves a strong component of inhibitor activity on LRRK2 itself, without excluding a role for upstream kinases. Understanding the regulation of LRRK2 phosphorylation by kinase inhibitors aids our understanding of LRRK2 signaling and may lead to development of new classes of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors.
Project description:Activating mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are present in a subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and may represent an attractive therapeutic target. Here we report a 2-anilino-4-methylamino-5-chloropyrrolopyrimidine, JH-II-127 (18), as a potent and selective inhibitor of both wild-type and G2019S mutant LRRK2. Compound 18 substantially inhibits Ser910 and Ser935 phosphorylation of both wild-type LRRK2 and G2019S mutant at a concentration of 0.1-0.3 ?M in a variety of cell types and is capable of inhibiting Ser935 phosphorylation in mouse brain following oral delivery of doses as low as 30 mg/kg.
Project description:Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is linked to Parkinson's disease and may represent an attractive therapeutic target. Here we report a 2,4-dianilino-5-chloro-pyrimidine, TAE684, a previously reported inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), is also a potent inhibitor of LRRK2 kinase activity (IC(50) of 7.8nM against wild-type LRRK2, 6.1nM against the G2019S mutant). TAE684 substantially inhibits Ser910 and Ser935 phosphorylation of both wild-type LRRK2 and G2019S mutant at a concentration of 0.1-0.3?M in cells and in mouse spleen and kidney, but not in brain, following oral doses of 10mg/kg.
Project description:Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a promising therapeutic target for some forms of Parkinson's disease. Here we report the discovery and characterization of 2-arylmethyloxy-5-subtitutent-N-arylbenzamides with potent LRRK2 activities exemplified by GSK2578215A which exhibits biochemical IC(50)s of around 10 nM against both wild-type LRRK2 and the G2019S mutant. GSK2578215A exhibits exceptionally high selectivity for LRRK2 across the kinome, substantially inhibits Ser910 and Ser935 phosphorylation of both wild-type LRRK2 and G2019S mutant at a concentration of 0.3-1.0 ?M in cells and in mouse spleen and kidney, but not in brain, following intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/kg.
Project description:Missense mutations in the Leucine-Rich Repeat protein Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common genetic predisposition to develop Parkinson's disease (PD) (Farrer et al., 2005; Skipper et al., 2005; Di Fonzo et al., 2006; Healy et al., 2008; Paisan-Ruiz et al., 2008; Lesage et al., 2010). LRRK2 is a large multi-domain phosphoprotein with a GTPase domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase domain whose activity is implicated in neuronal toxicity; however the precise mechanism is unknown. LRRK2 autophosphorylates on several serine/threonine residues across the enzyme and is found constitutively phosphorylated on Ser910, Ser935, Ser955, and Ser973, which are proposed to be regulated by upstream kinases. Here we investigate the phosphoregulation at these sites by analyzing the effects of disease-associated mutations Arg1441Cys, Arg1441Gly, Ala1442Pro, Tyr1699Cys, Ile2012Thr, Gly2019Ser, and Ile2020Thr. We also studied alanine substitutions of phosphosite serines 910, 935, 955, and 973 and specific LRRK2 inhibition on autophosphorylation of LRRK2 Ser1292, Thr1491, Thr2483 and phosphorylation at the cellular sites. We found that mutants in the Roc-COR domains, including Arg1441Cys, Arg1441His, Ala1442Pro, and Tyr1699Cys, can positively enhance LRRK2 kinase activity, while concomitantly inducing the dephosphorylation of the cellular sites. Mutation of the cellular sites individually did not affect LRRK2 intrinsic kinase activity; however, Ser910/935/955/973Ala mutations trended toward increased kinase activity of LRRK2. Increased cAMP levels did not lead to increased LRRK2 cellular site phosphorylation, 14-3-3 binding or kinase activity. In cells, inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity leads to dephosphorylation of Ser1292 by Calyculin A and Okadaic acid sensitive phosphatases, while the cellular sites are dephosphorylated by Calyculin A sensitive phosphatases. These findings indicate that comparative analysis of both Ser1292 and Ser910/935/955/973 phosphorylation sites will provide important and distinct measures of LRRK2 kinase and biological activity in vitro and in vivo.