Reference miRNAs for miRNAome analysis of urothelial carcinomas.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is widely used in microRNA (miRNA) expression studies on cancer. To compensate for the analytical variability produced by the multiple steps of the method, relative quantification of the measured miRNAs is required, which is based on normalization to endogenous reference genes. No study has been performed so far on reference miRNAs for normalization of miRNA expression in urothelial carcinoma. The aim of this study was to identify suitable reference miRNAs for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in urothelial carcinoma. METHODS: Candidate reference miRNAs were selected from 24 urothelial carcinoma and normal bladder tissue samples by miRNA microarrays. The usefulness of these candidate reference miRNAs together with the commonly for normalization purposes used small nuclear RNAs RNU6B, RNU48, and Z30 were thereafter validated by RT-qPCR in 58 tissue samples and analyzed by the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the miRNA microarray data, a total of 16 miRNAs were identified as putative reference genes. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-101, miR-125a-5p, miR-148b, miR-151-5p, miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-29c, miR-324-3p, miR-424, miR-874, RNU6B, RNU48, and Z30 were used for geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper analyses that gave different combinations of recommended reference genes for normalization. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provided the first systematic analysis for identifying suitable reference miRNAs for miRNA expression studies of urothelial carcinoma by RT-qPCR. Different combinations of reference genes resulted in reliable expression data for both strongly and less strongly altered miRNAs. Notably, RNU6B, which is the most frequently used reference gene for miRNA studies, gave inaccurate normalization. The combination of four (miR-101, miR-125a-5p, miR-148b, and miR-151-5p) or three (miR-148b, miR-181b, and miR-874,) reference miRNAs is recommended for normalization.
Project description:Background/Objective: Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is widely used in miRNA expression studies on cancer. To compensate for the analytical variability produced by the multiple steps of the method, relative quantification of the measured miRNAs is required, which is based on normalization to endogenous reference genes. A literature search in PubMed revealed that no study has been performed so far on reference miRNAs for normalization of miRNA expression in urothelial carcinoma. The aim of this study was to identify suitable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in urothelial carcinoma. Methods: Candidate reference miRNAs were selected from 24 papillary urothelial carcinoma and normal bladder tissue samples by miRNA microarrays. The usefulness of these candidate reference miRNAs together with the commonly for normalization purposes used small nuclear RNAs RNU6B, RNU48, and Z30 were thereafter validated by RT-qPCR in 58 tissue samples and analyzed by the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Principal Findings: Based on the miRNA microarray data, a total of 16 miRNAs were identified as putative reference genes. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-101, miR-125a-5p, miR-148b, miR-151-3p, miR-151-5p, miR-181a, miR-181b miR-29c, miR-324-3p, miR-424, miR-874, RNU6B, RNU48, and Z30 were used for geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper analyses that gave different combinations of recommended reference genes for normalization. Conclusions: The present study provided the first systematic analysis for identifying suitable reference miRNAs for miRNA expression studies of urothelial carcinoma by RT-qPCR. Different combinations of reference genes resulted in reliable expression data for both strongly and less strongly altered miRNAs. Notably, RNU6B, which is the most frequently used reference gene for miRNA studies, gave inaccurate normalization. The combination of four (miR-125a-5p, miR-148b, miR-151-3p, and miR-151-5p) or three (miR-148b, miR-874, miR-181b) miRNA reference genes is recommended for normalization. Candidate reference miRNAs (for RT-qPCR analysis) were selected from 24 papillary urothelial carcinoma and normal bladder tissue samples by miRNA microarrays.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a severe disorder with an increasing incidence worldwide. An early detection may help to prevent its progression and to minimize the risk of cardiovascular diseases as one of the major comorbidities. Recently, extracellular miRNAs like urinary exosomal miRNAs became of great interest as non-invasive biomarkers which can be determined by RT-qPCR. But until now, there is no consensus regarding the normalization of miRNAs isolated from body fluids. The present study analyzed the miRNAs miR-16, miR-92a, miR-21, miR-124a and the small nuclear RNA RNU6B for their applicability as an endogenous reference gene in expression studies of exosomal miRNAs isolated from CKD patients. For this purpose, miRNA expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR after the isolation of urinary exosomes from 33 CKD patients and from 5 healthy controls. Expression data was analyzed with the normalization determination software NormFinder, BestKeeper, GeNorm and DeltaCt. Our results revealed an abundant expression of the four candidate miRNAs in urinary exosomes and no detectable expression of RNU6B. We identified miR-16 as the most stable endogenous reference gene in our data set, making it a suitable endogenous reference gene for miRNA studies of urinary exosomes derived from CKD patients.
Project description:Circulating cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers of cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used in miRNA expression studies. The aim of this study was to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs were investigated in 10 benign pleural effusion (BPE) and 10 lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (LA-MPE) samples using miRNA microarrays. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs, together with those of U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), RNU6B, RNU44 and RNU48 small RNAs, in 46 BPE and 45 LA-MPE samples were validated by RT-qPCR, and were analyzed using the NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The impact of different normalization approaches on the detection of differential expression levels of miR-198 in BPE and LA-MPE samples was also assessed. As determined by the miRNA microarray data, five candidate reference miRNAs were identified. Following RT-qPCR validation, U6 snRNA, miR-192, miR-20a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-16 were evaluated using the NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. U6 snRNA and miR-192 were identified as single reference genes and the combination of these genes was preferred for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. Normalization of miR-98 expression levels to those of U6 snRNA, miR-192 or a combination of these genes enabled the detection of a significant difference between BPE and LA-MPE samples. Therefore, U6 snRNA and miR-192 are recommended as reference genes for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expressions in tumor biopsies have shown potential as biomarkers in cervical cancer, but suitable reference RNAs for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays in patient cohorts with different clinicopathological characteristics are not available. We aimed to identify the optimal reference miRNAs and apply these to investigate the potential of miR-9-5p as human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 biomarker and miR-210-3p as hypoxia biomarker in cervical cancer. Candidate reference miRNAs were preselected in sequencing data of 90 patients and ranked in a stability analysis by RefFinder. A selection of the most stable miRNAs was evaluated by geNorm and NormFinder analyses of RT-qPCR data of 29 patients. U6 small nuclear RNA (RNU6) was also included in the evaluation. MiR-9-5p and miR-210-3p expression was assessed by RT-qPCR in 45 and 65 patients, respectively. Nine candidates were preselected in the sequencing data after excluding those associated with clinical markers, HPV type, hypoxia status, suboptimal expression levels, and low stability. In RT-qPCR assays, the combination of miR-151-5p, miR-152-3p, and miR-423-3p was identified as the most stable normalization factor across clinical markers, HPV type, and hypoxia status. RNU6 showed poor stability. By applying the optimal reference miRNAs, higher miR-9-5p expression in HPV16- than HPV18-positive tumors and higher miR-210-3p expression in more hypoxic than less hypoxic tumors were found in accordance with the sequencing data. MiR-210-3p was associated with poor outcome by both sequencing and RT-qPCR assays. In conclusion, miR-151-5p, miR-152-3p, and miR-423-3p are suitable reference miRNAs in cervical cancer. MiR-9-5p and miR-210-3p are promising HPV16 and hypoxia biomarkers, respectively.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a family of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) playing important roles in human carcinogenesis. Multiple investigations reported miRNAs aberrantly expressed in several cancers, including high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGS-OvCa). Quantitative PCR is widely used in studies investigating miRNA expression and the identification of reliable endogenous controls is crucial for proper data normalization. In this study, we aimed to experimentally identify the most stable reference sncRNAs for normalization of miRNA qPCR expression data in HGS-OvCa. Eleven putative reference sncRNAs for normalization (U6, SNORD48, miR-92a-3p, let-7a-5p, SNORD61, SNORD72, SNORD68, miR-103a-3p, miR-423-3p, miR-191-5p, miR-16-5p) were analysed on a total of 75 HGS-OvCa and 30 normal tissues, using a highly specific qPCR. Both the normal tissues considered to initiate HGS-OvCa malignant transformation, namely ovary and fallopian tube epithelia, were included in our study. Stability of candidate endogenous controls was evaluated using an equivalence test and validated by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Combining results from the three different statistical approaches, SNORD48 emerged as stably and equivalently expressed between malignant and normal tissues. Among malignant samples, considering groups based on residual tumour, miR-191-5p was identified as the most equivalent sncRNA. On the basis of our results, we support the use of SNORD48 as best reference sncRNA for relative quantification in miRNA expression studies between HGS-OvCa and normal controls, including the first time both the normal tissues supposed to be HGS-OvCa progenitors. In addition, we recommend miR-191-5p as best reference sncRNA in miRNA expression studies with prognostic intent on HGS-OvCa tissues.
Project description:Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have a critical role in tissue regeneration and in the hematopoietic niche due to their differentiation and self-renewal capacities. These mechanisms are finely tuned partly by small non-coding microRNA implicated in post-transcriptional regulation. The easiest way to quantify them is RT-qPCR followed by normalization on validated reference genes (RGs). This study identified appropriate RG for normalization of miRNA expression in BM-MSCs and HS27a and HS5 cell lines in various conditions including normoxia, hypoxia, co-culture, as model for the hematopoietic niche and after induced differentiation as model for regenerative medicine. Six candidates, namely miR-16-5p, miR-34b-3p, miR-103a-3p, miR-191-5p, let-7a-5p and RNU6A were selected and their expression verified by RT-qPCR. Next, a ranking on stability of the RG candidates were performed with two algorithms geNorm and RefFinder and the optimal number of RGs needed to normalize was determined. Our results indicate miR-191-5p as the most stable miRNA in all conditions but also that RNU6a, usually used as RG is the less stable gene. This study demonstrates the interest of rigorously evaluating candidate miRNAs as reference genes and the importance of the normalization process to study the expression of miRNAs in BM-MSCs or derived cell lines.
Project description:Plasma exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as valid circulating biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the most commonly used technique to assess circulating miRNA levels, requires a normalization step involving uniformly expressed endogenous miRNAs. However, there is still no consensus on reference miRNAs for plasma exosomal miRNA abundance normalization. In this study, we identified a panel of miRNAs with stable abundance by analyzing public plasma exosome RNA-seq data and selected miR-486-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-423-5p and miR191-5p as candidate normalizers. Next, we tested the abundance variation of these miRNAs by qRT-PCR in plasma exosomes of healthy donors and pediatric patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MiR-486-5p and miR-26a-5p showed the most stable levels, both between healthy controls and patients and among the malignancies analyzed. In light of previous reports on miRNA stability in different exosome isolation methods, our data indicated that miR-26a-5p is a bona fide reference miRNA for qRT-PCR normalization to evaluate miRNA abundance from circulating plasma exosomes in studies of hematological malignancies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Research on microRNAs (miRNAs) is becoming an increasingly attractive field, as these small RNA molecules are involved in several physiological functions and diseases. To date, only few studies have assessed the expression of blood miRNAs related to Parkinson's disease (PD) using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Measuring miRNA expression involves normalization of qRT-PCR data using endogenous reference genes for calibration, but their choice remains a delicate problem with serious impact on the resulting expression levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a set of commonly used small RNAs as normalizers and to identify which of these miRNAs might be considered reliable reference genes in qRT-PCR expression analyses on PD blood samples. RESULTS: Commonly used reference genes snoRNA RNU24, snRNA RNU6B, snoRNA Z30 and miR-103a-3p were selected from the literature. We then analyzed the effect of using these genes as reference, alone or in any possible combination, on the measured expression levels of the target genes miR-30b-5p and miR-29a-3p, which have been previously reported to be deregulated in PD blood samples. CONCLUSIONS: We identified RNU24 and Z30 as a reliable and stable pair of reference genes in PD blood samples.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNAs has been observed in cancer, and miRNAs are being investigated as potential biomarkers regarding diagnosis, prognosis and prediction in cancer management. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is commonly used, when measuring miRNA expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data is important to ensure reliable results. The aim of the present study was to identify stably expressed miRNAs applicable as normaliser candidates in future studies of miRNA expression in rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We performed high-throughput miRNA profiling (OpenArray®) on ten pairs of laser micro-dissected rectal cancer tissue and adjacent stroma. A global mean expression normalisation strategy was applied to identify the most stably expressed miRNAs for subsequent validation. In the first validation experiment, a panel of miRNAs were analysed on 25 pairs of micro dissected rectal cancer tissue and adjacent stroma. Subsequently, the same miRNAs were analysed in 28 pairs of rectal cancer tissue and normal rectal mucosa. RESULTS:From the miRNA profiling experiment, miR-645, miR-193a-5p, miR-27a and let-7g were identified as stably expressed, both in malignant and stromal tissue. In addition, NormFinder confirmed high expression stability for the four miRNAs. In the RT-qPCR based validation experiments, no significant difference between tumour and stroma/normal rectal mucosa was detected for the mean of the normaliser candidates miR-27a, miR-193a-5p and let-7g (first validation P = 0.801, second validation P = 0.321). MiR-645 was excluded from the data analysis, because it was undetected in 35 of 50 samples (first validation) and in 24 of 56 samples (second validation), respectively. Significant difference in expression level of RNU6B was observed between tumour and adjacent stromal (first validation), and between tumour and normal rectal mucosa (second validation). CONCLUSION:We recommend the mean expression of miR-27a, miR-193a-5p and let-7g as normalisation factor, when performing miRNA expression analyses by RT-qPCR on rectal cancer tissue.
Project description:Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, whose etiology and pathogenesis are still largely unknown. In order to uncover novel regulatory networks and molecular pathways possibly related to ADHD, we performed an integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiling analysis in peripheral blood samples of children with ADHD and age-matched typically developing (TD) children. The expression levels of 13 miRNAs were evaluated with microfluidic qPCR, and differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs were detected on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 genome analyzer. The miRNA targetome was identified using an integrated approach of validated and predicted interaction data extracted from seven different bioinformatic tools. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were carried out. Results showed that six miRNAs (miR-652-3p, miR-942-5p, let-7b-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-320a, and miR-148b-3p) and 560 genes were significantly DE in children with ADHD compared to TD subjects. After correction for multiple testing, only three miRNAs (miR-652-3p, miR-148b-3p, and miR-942-5p) remained significant. Genes known to be associated with ADHD (e.g., B4GALT2, SLC6A9 TLE1, ANK3, TRIO, TAF1, and SYNE1) were confirmed to be significantly DE in our study. Integrated miRNA and mRNA expression data identified critical key hubs involved in ADHD. Finally, the GO and pathway enrichment analyses of all DE genes showed their deep involvement in immune functions, reinforcing the hypothesis that an immune imbalance might contribute to the ADHD etiology. Despite the relatively small sample size, in this study we were able to build a complex miRNA-target interaction network in children with ADHD that might help in deciphering the disease pathogenesis. Validation in larger samples should be performed in order to possibly suggest novel therapeutic strategies for treating this complex disease.