ABSTRACT: Mutations in SLC4A1 that mislocalize its product, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger AE1, away from its normal position on the basolateral membrane of the ?-intercalated cell cause autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We studied a family exhibiting dominant inheritance and defined a mutation (AE1-M909T) that affects the C terminus of AE1, a region rich in potential targeting motifs that are incompletely characterized. Expression of AE1-M909T in Xenopus oocytes confirmed preservation of its anion exchange function. Wild-type GFP-tagged AE1 localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK cells, but AE1-M909T localized to both the apical and basolateral membranes. Wild-type AE1 trafficked directly to the basolateral membrane without apical passage, whereas AE1-M909T trafficked to both cell surfaces, implying the gain of an apical-targeting signal. We found that AE1-M909T acquired class 1 PDZ ligand activity that the wild type did not possess. In summary, the AE1-M909T mutation illustrates the role of abnormal targeting in dRTA and provides insight into C-terminal motifs that govern normal trafficking of AE1.
Project description:Distal nephron acid secretion is mediated by highly specialized type A intercalated cells (A-ICs), which contain vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-type ATPase)-rich vesicles that fuse with the apical plasma membrane on demand. Intracellular bicarbonate generated by luminal H+ secretion is removed by the basolateral anion-exchanger AE1. Chronically reduced renal acid excretion in distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) may lead to nephrocalcinosis and renal failure. Studies in MDCK monolayers led to the proposal of a dominant-negative trafficking mechanism to explain AE1-associated dominant dRTA. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated an Ae1 R607H knockin mouse, which corresponds to the most common dominant dRTA mutation in human AE1, R589H. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous and homozygous R607H knockin mice displayed incomplete dRTA characterized by compensatory upregulation of the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1. Red blood cell Ae1-mediated anion-exchange activity and surface polypeptide expression did not change. Mutant mice expressed far less Ae1 in A-ICs, but basolateral targeting of the mutant protein was preserved. Notably, mutant mice also exhibited reduced expression of V-type ATPase and compromised targeting of this proton pump to the plasma membrane upon acid challenge. Accumulation of p62- and ubiquitin-positive material in A-ICs of knockin mice suggested a defect in the degradative pathway, which may explain the observed loss of A-ICs. R607H knockin did not affect type B intercalated cells. We propose that reduced basolateral anion-exchange activity in A-ICs inhibits trafficking and regulation of V-type ATPase, compromising luminal H+ secretion and possibly lysosomal acidification.
Project description:Mutations of SLC4A1 (AE1) encoding the kidney anion (Cl(-)/HCO(3) (-)) exchanger 1 (kAE1 or band 3) can result in either autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). The molecular mechanisms associated with SLC4A1 mutations resulting in these different modes of inheritance are now being unveiled using transfected cell systems. The dominant mutants kAE1 R589H, R901X and S613F, which have normal or insignificant changes in anion transport function, exhibit intracellular retention with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization in cultured non-polarized and polarized cells, while the dominant mutants kAE1 R901X and G609R are mis-targeted to apical membrane in addition to the basolateral membrane in cultured polarized cells. A dominant-negative effect is likely responsible for the dominant disease because heterodimers of kAE1 mutants and the wild-type protein are intracellularly retained. The recessive mutants kAE1 G701D and S773P however exhibit distinct trafficking defects. The kAE1 G701D mutant is retained in the Golgi apparatus, while the misfolded kAE1 S773P, which is impaired in ER exit and is degraded by proteosome, can only partially be delivered to the basolateral membrane of the polarized cells. In contrast to the dominant mutant kAE1, heterodimers of the recessive mutant kAE1 and wild-type kAE1 are able to traffic to the plasma membrane. The wild-type kAE1 thus exhibits a 'dominant-positive effect' relative to the recessive mutant kAE1 because it can rescue the mutant proteins from intracellular retention to be expressed at the cell surface. Consequently, homozygous or compound heterozygous recessive mutations are required for presentation of the disease phenotype. Future work using animal models of dRTA will provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of this disease.
Project description:Familial distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can be caused by mutations in the Cl2/HCO32 exchanger of the renal Type A intercalated cell, kidney AE1/SLC4A1. dRTA-associated AE1 mutations have been reported in families from North America, Europe, Thailand, Malaysia, Papua-New Guinea, Taiwan, and the Philippines, but not India. The dRTA mutation AE1 A858D has been detected only in the context of compound heterozygosity. We report here two unrelated Indian patients with combined hemolytic anemia and dRTA who share homozygous A858D mutations of the AE1/SLC4A1 gene. The mutation creates a novel restriction site that is validated for diagnostic screening.
Project description:The AE1 gene encodes band 3 Cl-/HCO3- exchangers that are expressed both in the erythrocyte and in the acid-secreting, type A intercalated cells of the kidney. Kidney AE1 contributes to urinary acidification by providing the major exit route for HCO3- across the basolateral membrane. Several AE1 mutations cosegregate with dominantly transmitted nonsyndromic renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, the modest degree of in vitro hypofunction exhibited by these dRTA-associated mutations fails to explain the disease phenotype in light of the normal urinary acidification associated with the complete loss-of-function exhibited by AE1 mutations linked to dominant spherocytosis. We report here novel AE1 mutations linked to a recessive syndrome of dRTA and hemolytic anemia in which red cell anion transport is normal. Both affected individuals were triply homozygous for two benign mutations M31T and K56E and for the loss-of-function mutation, G701D. AE1 G701D loss-of-function was accompanied by impaired trafficking to the Xenopus oocyte surface. Coexpression with AE1 G701D of the erythroid AE1 chaperonin, glycophorin A, rescued both AE1-mediated Cl- transport and AE1 surface expression in oocytes. The genetic and functional data both suggest that the homozygous AE1 G701D mutation causes recessively transmitted dRTA in this kindred with apparently normal erythroid anion transport.
Project description:All affected patients in four families with autosomal dominant familial renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) were heterozygous for mutations in their red cell HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, band 3 (AE1, SLC4A1) genes, and these mutations were not found in any of the nine normal family members studied. The mutation Arg589--> His was present in two families, while Arg589--> Cys and Ser613--> Phe changes were found in the other families. Linkage studies confirmed the co-segregation of the disease with a genetic marker close to AE1. The affected individuals with the Arg589 mutations had reduced red cell sulfate transport and altered glycosylation of the red cell band 3 N-glycan chain. The red cells of individuals with the Ser613--> Phe mutation had markedly increased red cell sulfate transport but almost normal red cell iodide transport. The erythroid and kidney isoforms of the mutant band 3 proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and all showed significant chloride transport activity. We conclude that dominantly inherited dRTA is associated with mutations in band 3; but both the disease and its autosomal dominant inheritance are not related simply to the anion transport activity of the mutant proteins.
Project description:Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by impaired distal acidification due to a failure of type A intercalated cells (A-ICs) in the collecting tubule. dRTA is characterized by persistent hyperchloremia, a normal plasma anion gap, and the inability to maximally lower urinary pH in the presence of systemic metabolic acidosis. Common clinical features of dRTA include vomiting, failure to thrive, polyuria, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, growth delay, and rickets. Mutations in genes encoding three distinct transport proteins in A-ICs have been identified as causes of dRTA, including the B1/ATP6V1B1 and a4/ATP6V0A4 subunits of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (H+-ATPase) and the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger AE1/SLC4A1. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 lead to autosomal recessive (AR) dRTA. dRTA caused by SLC4A1 mutations can occur with either autosomal dominant or AR transmission. Red blood cell abnormalities have been associated with AR dRTA due to SLC4A1 mutations, including hereditary spherocytosis, Southeast Asia ovalocytosis, and others. Some patients with dRTA exhibit atypical clinical features, including transient and reversible proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperammonemia. Incomplete dRTA presents with inadequate urinary acidification, but without spontaneous metabolic acidosis and recurrent urinary stones. Heterozygous mutations in the AE1 or H+-ATPase genes have recently been reported in patients with incomplete dRTA. Early and sufficient doses of alkali treatment are needed for patients with dRTA. Normalized serum bicarbonate, urinary calcium excretion, urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels, and growth rate are good markers of adherence to and/or efficacy of treatment. The prognosis of dRTA is generally good in patients with appropriate treatment. However, recent studies showed an increased frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with dRTA during long-term follow-up. The precise pathogenic mechanisms of CKD in patients with dRTA are unknown.
Project description:Autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) has been associated with several mutations in the anion exchanger AE1 gene. The effect of an 11-amino-acid C-terminal dRTA truncation mutation (901 stop) on the expression of kidney AE1 (kAE1) and erythroid AE1 was examined in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. Unlike the wild-type proteins, kAE1 901 stop and AE1 901 stop mutants exhibited impaired trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane as determined by immunolocalization, cell-surface biotinylation, oligosaccharide processing and pulse-chase experiments. The 901 stop mutants were able to bind to an inhibitor affinity resin, suggesting that these mutant membrane proteins were not grossly misfolded. Co-expression of wild-type and mutant kAE1 or AE1 resulted in intracellular retention of the wild-type proteins in a pre-medial Golgi compartment. This dominant negative effect was due to hetero-oligomer formation of the mutant and wild-type proteins. Intracellular retention of kAE1 in the alpha-intercalated cells of the kidney would account for the impaired acid secretion into the urine characteristic of dRTA.
Project description:The previously undescribed heterozygous missense mutation E758K was discovered in the human AE1/SLC4A1/band 3 gene in two unrelated patients with well-compensated hereditary spherostomatocytic anemia (HSt). Oocyte surface expression of AE1 E758K, in contrast to that of wild-type AE1, required coexpressed glycophorin A (GPA). The mutant polypeptide exhibited, in parallel, strong GPA dependence of DIDS-sensitive (36)Cl(-) influx, trans-anion-dependent (36)Cl(-) efflux, and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activities at near wild-type levels. AE1 E758K expression was also associated with GPA-dependent increases of DIDS-sensitive pH-independent SO(4)(2-) uptake and oxalate uptake with altered pH dependence. In marked contrast, the bumetanide- and ouabain-insensitive (86)Rb(+) influx associated with AE1 E758K expression was largely GPA-independent in Xenopus oocytes and completely GPA-independent in Ambystoma oocytes. AE1 E758K-associated currents in Xenopus oocytes also exhibited little or no GPA dependence. (86)Rb(+) influx was higher but inward cation current was lower in oocytes expressing AE1 E758K than previously reported in oocytes expressing the AE1 HSt mutants S731P and H734R. The pharmacological inhibition profile of AE1 E758K-associated (36)Cl(-) influx differed from that of AE1 E758K-associated (86)Rb(+) influx, as well as from that of wild-type AE1-mediated Cl(-) transport. Thus AE1 E758K-expressing oocytes displayed GPA-dependent surface polypeptide expression and anion transport, accompanied by substantially GPA-independent, pharmacologically distinct Rb(+) flux and by small, GPA-independent currents. The data strongly suggest that most of the increased cation transport associated with the novel HSt mutant AE1 E758K reflects activation of endogenous oocyte cation permeability pathways, rather than cation translocation through the mutant polypeptide.
Project description:Various conditions including distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can induce stone formation in the kidney. dRTA is characterized by an impairment of urine acidification in the distal nephron. dRTA is caused by variations in genes functioning in intercalated cells including SLC4A1/AE1/Band3 transcribing two kinds of mRNAs encoding the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in erythrocytes and that expressed in α-intercalated cells (kAE1). With the acid-loading test, 25% of urolithiasis patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA. In erythroid intron 3 containing the promoter region of kAE1, rs999716 SNP showed a significantly higher minor allele A frequency in incomplete dRTA compared with non-dRTA patients. The promoter regions of the kAE1 gene with the minor allele A at rs999716 downstream of the TATA box showed reduced promoter activities compared that with the major allele G. Patients with the A allele at rs999716 may express less kAE1 mRNA and protein in the intercalated cells, developing incomplete dRTA.
Project description:The first transmembrane (TM1) helix in the red cell anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3, or SLC4A1) acts as an internal signal anchor that binds the signal recognition particle and directs the nascent polypeptide chain to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane where it moves from the translocon laterally into the lipid bilayer. The sequence N-terminal to TM1 forms an amphipathic helix that lies at the membrane interface and is connected to TM1 by a bend at Pro403. Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is a red cell abnormality caused by a nine-amino acid deletion (Ala400-Ala408) at the N-terminus of TM1. Here we demonstrate, by extensive (?4.5 ?s) molecular dynamics simulations of TM1 in a model 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membrane, that the isolated TM1 peptide is highly dynamic and samples the structure of TM1 seen in the crystal structure of the membrane domain of AE1. The SAO deletion not only removes the proline-induced bend but also causes a "pulling in" of the part of the amphipathic helix into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, as well as the C-terminal of the peptide. The dynamics of the SAO peptide very infrequently resembles the structure of TM1 in AE1, demonstrating the disruptive effect the SAO deletion has on AE1 folding. These results provide a precise molecular view of the disposition and dynamics of wild-type and SAO TM1 in a lipid bilayer, an important early biosynthetic intermediate in the insertion of AE1 into the ER membrane, and extend earlier results of cell-free translation experiments.