Successive phosphorylation of p27(KIP1) protein at serine-10 and C terminus crucially controls its potency to inactivate Cdk2.
ABSTRACT: During the G(1)-S transition, the activity of Cdk2 is regulated by its association with p27(KIP1), which in rodent fibroblasts undergoes phosphorylation mainly at serine 10, threonine 187, and C-terminal threonine 197 by KIS, Cdk2, and Pim or ROCK, respectively. Recently Cdc6 the AAA+ ATPase, identified initially to assemble pre-replicative complexes on origins of replication and later to activate p21(CIP1)-inactivated Cdk2, was found also to activate p27-bound Cdk2 but only after the bound p27 is C-terminally phosphorylated. On the other hand, the biological significance of the serine 10 phosphorylation remains elusive aside from its involvement in the stability of p27 itself. We report here that serine 10 phosphorylation is required for efficient C-terminal phosphorylation of its own by PIM and ROCK kinases and critically controls the potency of p27 as a Cdk2 inhibitor. In vitro, PIM1 and active ROCK1 efficiently phosphorylated free as well as Cdk2-bound p27 but only when the p27 was phosphorylated at Ser-10 in advance. Consistently, a Ser-10 nonphosphorylatable mutant p27 protein was not phosphorylated at the C terminus in vivo. Furthermore, when double-phosphorylated, free p27 was no longer a potent inhibitor of Cdk2, and Cdk2-bound p27 could be removed by Cdc6 to reactivate the Cdk2. Thus, phosphorylation at these two sites crucially controls the potency of this CDK inhibitor in two distinct modes.
Project description:In mammalian cells Cdk2 activity during the G(1)-S transition is mainly controlled by p27(KIP1). Although the amount and subcellular localization of p27 influence Cdk2 activity, how Cdk2 activity is regulated during this phase transition still remains virtually unknown. Here we report an entirely new mechanism for this regulation. Cdc6 the AAA+ ATPase, known to assemble prereplicative complexes on chromosomal replication origins and activate p21(CIP1)-bound Cdk2, also activated p27-bound Cdk2 in its ATPase and cyclin binding motif-dependent manner but only after the p27 bound to the Cdk2 was phosphorylated at the C terminus. ROCK, which mediates a signal for cell anchorage to the extracellular matrix and activates the mTORC1 cascade as well as controls cytoskeleton assembly, was partly responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of the p27. In vitro reconstitution demonstrated ROCK (Rho-associated kinase)-mediated phosphorylation of Cdk2-bound p27 at the C terminus and subsequent activation of the Cdk2 by Cdc6.
Project description:p27Kip1 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)/cyclin complexes (e.g., Cdk2/cyclin A), causing cell cycle arrest. Cell division progresses when stably Cdk2/cyclin A-bound p27 is phosphorylated on one or two structurally occluded tyrosine residues and a distal threonine residue (T187), triggering degradation of p27. Here, using an integrated biophysical approach, we show that Cdk2/cyclin A-bound p27 samples lowly-populated conformations that provide access to the non-receptor tyrosine kinases, BCR-ABL and Src, which phosphorylate Y88 or Y88 and Y74, respectively, thereby promoting intra-assembly phosphorylation (of p27) on distal T187. Even when tightly bound to Cdk2/cyclin A, intrinsic flexibility enables p27 to integrate and process signaling inputs, and generate outputs including altered Cdk2 activity, p27 stability, and, ultimately, cell cycle progression. Intrinsic dynamics within multi-component assemblies may be a general mechanism of signaling by regulatory IDPs, which can be subverted in human disease.
Project description:Cell-cycle regulatory protein, CDK2 is active when bound to its complementary partner protein, CyclinA or E. Recent discovery of the Kip/Cip family of proteins has indicated that the activity of CDK2 is also regulated by a member protein, p27. Although, the mechanism of CDK2 inhibition by p27 binding is known from crystal structure, little is known about the mechanism of CDK2 reactivation. Here, we execute classical and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of unphosphorylated- and phosphorylated-p27 bound CDK2/CyclinA to unravel the CDK2 reactivation mechanism at molecular-to-atomic detail. Results suggest that the phosphorylation of p27 Y88 residue (pY88-p27) first disrupts the p27/CDK2 hybrid ?-sheet and subsequently ejects the p27 310 helix from CDK2 catalytic cleft. The unbinding of p27 from CDK2/CyclinA complex, thus, follows a two-step unfolding mechanism, where the 310 helix ejection constitutes the rate-limiting step. Interestingly, the unfolding of p27 leaves CDK2/CyclinA in an active state, where the prerequisite CDK2-CyclinA interfacial contacts were regained and ATP achieved its native position for smooth transfer of phosphate. Our findings match very well with NMR chemical shift data that indicated the flip-out of p27 310 helix from CDK2 pocket and kinetic experiments that exhibited significant kinase activity of CDK2 when saturated with pY88-p27.
Project description:To determine the mechanism of p27 phosphorylation through common and differential pathways triggered by FGF-2 in corneal endothelial cells (CECs).A GTP pull-down assay was performed to identify Rac1-GTP. Expression and activation of protein were analyzed by immunoblotting. Cell proliferation was measured by an MTT assay. Transfection of CECs with kinase-interacting stathmin (KIS) siRNA was performed.FGF-2 activated Rac1 through Akt, and Rac1 inhibitor greatly inhibited the FGF-2-stimulated cell proliferation. Rac1 inhibitor reduced p27 phosphorylation at both serine 10 (Ser10) and threonine 187 (Thr187). ERK1/2 was also involved in FGF-2-stimulated CEC proliferation and phosphorylation of p27 at Ser10 and Thr187 in parallel to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. In both PI 3-kinase/Rac1 and ERK1/2 pathways, Ser10 of p27 is phosphorylated by KIS, confirmed by siRNA to KIS, which subsequently hampered the FGF-2-stimulated cell proliferation, while Thr187 of p27 was phosphorylated through Cdk2 activated by Cdc25A. Cdc25A inhibitor blocked activation of Cdk2, phosphorylation of p27 at Thr187, and cell proliferation. FGF-2 induced both KIS and Cdc25A during the G1 phase; the maximum KIS expression was observed 4 hours after FGF-2 stimulation, while the maximum Cdc25A expression was observed at 12 hours. Blockade of ERK1/2 and Rac1 greatly reduced KIS and Cdc25A expression.Results suggest that FGF-2 uses both PI 3-kinase/Rac1 and ERK pathways for cell proliferation; two signals employ common pathways for phosphorylating p27 according to the sites (KIS for Ser10 and Cdc25A/Cdk2 for Thr187) with their characteristic kinetics (early G1 for Ser10 and late G1 for Thr187).
Project description:Ectopically expressed Cdc6 is translocated from the nucleus during S phase in a cyclin A-Cdk2-dependent process, suggesting that reinitiation of DNA replication is prevented by removal of phosphorylated Cdc6 from chromatin after origin firing. However, whether endogenous Cdc6 translocates during S phase remains controversial. To resolve the questions regarding regulation of endogenous Cdc6, we cloned the cDNA encoding the Chinese hamster Cdc6 homolog and specifically focused on analyzing the localizations and chromatin affinities of endogenous and exogenous proteins during S phase and following overexpression of cyclin A. In agreement with other reports, ectopically expressed Cdc6 translocates from the nucleus during S phase and in response to overexpressed cyclin A. In contrast, using a combination of biochemical and immunohistochemical assays, we show convincingly that endogenous Cdc6 remains nuclear and chromatin bound throughout the entire S period, while Mcm5 loses chromatin affinity during S phase. Overexpression of cyclin A is unable to alter the nuclear localization of Cdc6. Furthermore, using a phosphospecific antibody we show that phosphoserine-54 Cdc6 maintains a high affinity for chromatin during the S period. Considering recent in vitro studies, these data are consistent with a proposed model in which Cdc6 is serine-54 phosphorylated during S phase and functions as a chromatin-bound signal that prevents reformation of prereplication complexes.
Project description:The Cdk2 inhibitor, p27(Kip1), is degraded in a phosphorylation- and ubiquitylation-dependent manner at the G(1)-S transition of the cell cycle. Degradation of p27(Kip1) requires import into the nucleus for phosphorylation by Cdk2. Phosphorylated p27(Kip1) is thought to be subsequently re-exported and degraded in the cytosol. Using two-hybrid screens, we now show that p27(Kip1) interacts with a nuclear pore-associated protein, mNPAP60, map the interaction to the 3(10) helix of p27 and identify a point mutant in p27(Kip1) that is deficient for interaction (R90G). In vivo and in vitro, the loss-of-interaction mutant is poorly transported into the nucleus, while ubiquitylation of p27R90G occurs normally. In vivo, co-expression of cyclin E and Cdk2 rescues the import defect. However, mutant p27(Kip1) accumulates in a phosphorylated form in the nucleus and is not efficiently degraded, arguing that at least one step in the degradation of phosphorylated p27(Kip1) requires an interaction with the nuclear pore. Our results identify a novel component involved in p27(Kip1) degradation and suggest that degradation of p27(Kip1) is tightly linked to its intracellular transport.
Project description:The kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 regulates the G1 cell cycle phase. Here, we present data indicating that the oncogenic kinase Src regulates p27 stability through phosphorylation of p27 at tyrosine 74 and tyrosine 88. Src inhibitors increase cellular p27 stability, and Src overexpression accelerates p27 proteolysis. Src-phosphorylated p27 is shown to inhibit cyclin E-Cdk2 poorly in vitro, and Src transfection reduces p27-cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes. Our data indicate that phosphorylation by Src impairs the Cdk2 inhibitory action of p27 and reduces its steady-state binding to cyclin E-Cdk2 to facilitate cyclin E-Cdk2-dependent p27 proteolysis. Furthermore, we find that Src-activated breast cancer lines show reduced p27 and observe a correlation between Src activation and reduced nuclear p27 in 482 primary human breast cancers. Importantly, we report that in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines, Src inhibition can increase p27 levels and restore tamoxifen sensitivity. These data provide a new rationale for Src inhibitors in cancer therapy.
Project description:Cdc6 is the bifunctional AAA+ ATPase that assembles prereplicative complexes on origins of replication and activates p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound Cdk2. During the G(1)-S transition, the Cdc6 gene essential for chromosomal replication is activated by the E2F transcriptional factor. Paradoxically, Apaf-1 encoding the central component of the apoptosome is also activated at the same time and by E2F. Consequently, genes for antipodal life and death are regulated in the same manner by the same transcriptional factor. Here we report a striking solution to this paradox. Besides performing prereplicative complex assembly and Cdk2 activation, Cdc6 obstructed apoptosome assembly by forming stable complexes very likely with a monomer of cytochrome c-activated Apaf-1 molecules. This function depended on its own ATPase domain but not on the cyclin-binding motif. In proliferating rodent fibroblasts, Cdc6 continued to block apoptosome assembly induced by a non-cytochrome c or some other mechanism, suppressing seemingly unintended apoptosis when promoting cell proliferation. Thus, Cdc6 is an AAA+ ATPase with three functions, all working for life.
Project description:PIN1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that catalyzes the <i>cis</i>/<i>trans</i> isomerization of peptide bonds between proline and phosphorylated serine/threonine residues. By changing the conformation of its protein substrates, PIN1 increases the activities of key proteins that promote cell cycle progression and oncogenesis. Moreover, it has been shown that PIN1 stabilizes and increases the level of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27, which inhibits cell cycle progression by binding cyclin A- and cyclin E-CDK2. Notwithstanding the associated increase in the p27 level, PIN1 expression promotes rather than retards cell proliferation. To explain the paradoxical effects of PIN1 on p27 levels and cell cycle progression, we hypothesized that PIN1 relieves CDK2 inhibition by suppressing the CDK inhibitory activity of p27. Here, we confirmed that PIN1-expressing cells exhibit higher p27 levels but have increased CDK2 activities and higher proliferation rates in the S-phase compared with <i>Pin1</i>-null fibroblasts or PIN1-depleted hepatoma cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation and CDK kinase activity assays, we found that PIN1 binds the phosphorylated Thr<sup>187</sup>-Pro motif in p27 and reduces p27's interaction with cyclin A- or cyclin E-CDK2, leading to increased CDK2 kinase activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that although PIN1 increases p27 levels, it also attenuates p27's inhibitory activity on CDK2 and thereby contributes to increased G<sub>1</sub>-S phase transitions and cell proliferation.
Project description:The proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1) is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase that is up-regulated in several human cancers, facilitates cell cycle progression, and suppresses apoptosis. Previously, it has been reported that the Pim-1 3'-UTR plays important roles in the regulation of Pim-1 mRNA stability. However, the mechanisms explaining how Pim-1 mRNA stability is determined by its 3'-UTR are not well known. Here, we demonstrate that tristetraprolin (TTP) plays a critical role in the regulation of Pim-1 mRNA stability. Our results show that the level of Pim-1 expression is inversely correlated with TTP expression in human cancer cells. Pim-1 mRNA contains two AU-rich elements (ARE1 and ARE2) in the 3'-UTR. TTP bound to ARE2 and enhanced the decay of Pim-1 mRNA. Overexpression of TTP decreased Pim-1 expression and p21 and p27 phosphorylation and inhibited cell growth. Overexpression of Pim-1 cDNA without the 3'-UTR attenuated the inhibitory effects of TTP on p21 phosphorylation and cell growth. In addition, inhibition of p21 by siRNA attenuated the inhibitory effect of TTP on cell growth. Our results suggest that TTP post-transcriptionally down-regulates Pim-1 expression and that the overexpression of TTP may contribute to tumor suppression in part by down-regulating Pim-1 expression.