Guaranteed violation of a Bell inequality without aligned reference frames or calibrated devices.
ABSTRACT: Bell tests - the experimental demonstration of a Bell inequality violation - are central to understanding the foundations of quantum mechanics, and are a powerful diagnostic tool for the development of quantum technologies. To date, Bell tests have relied on careful calibration of measurement devices and alignment of a shared reference frame between two parties - both technically demanding tasks. We show that neither of these operations are necessary, violating Bell inequalities (i) with certainty using unaligned, but calibrated, measurement devices, and (ii) with near-certainty using uncalibrated and unaligned devices. We demonstrate generic quantum nonlocality with randomly chosen measurements on a singlet state of two photons, implemented using a reconfigurable integrated optical waveguide circuit. The observed results demonstrate the robustness of our schemes to imperfections and statistical noise. This approach is likely to have important applications both in fundamental science and quantum technologies, including device-independent quantum key distribution.
Project description:Recently quantum nonlocality has been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Among which, Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type. Bell's nonlocality for quantum states is usually detected by violation of some Bell's inequalities, such as Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits. Steering is a manifestation of nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell's nonlocality. This peculiar feature has led to a curious quantum phenomenon, the one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The one-way steering was an important open question presented in 2007, and positively answered in 2014 by Bowles et al., who presented a simple class of one-way steerable states in a two-qubit system with at least thirteen projective measurements. The inspiring result for the first time theoretically confirms quantum nonlocality can be fundamentally asymmetric. Here, we propose another curious quantum phenomenon: Bell nonlocal states can be constructed from some steerable states. This novel finding not only offers a distinctive way to study Bell's nonlocality without Bell's inequality but with steering inequality, but also may avoid locality loophole in Bell's tests and make Bell's nonlocality easier for demonstration. Furthermore, a nine-setting steering inequality has also been presented for developing more efficient one-way steering and detecting some Bell nonlocal states.
Project description:Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a d-dimensional bipartite system (d ≥ 2) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for d-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension. Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of dimensionality d = 16 with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. We also estimate that our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of d > 4000. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite systems of large dimensionality and their application in quantum information processing.
Project description:The launch of a satellite capable of distributing entanglement through long distances and the first loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities are milestones indicating a clear path for the establishment of quantum networks. However, nonlocality in networks with independent entanglement sources has only been experimentally verified in simple tripartite networks, via the violation of bilocality inequalities. Here, by using a scalable photonic platform, we implement star-shaped quantum networks consisting of up to five distant nodes and four independent entanglement sources. We exploit this platform to violate the chained n-locality inequality and thus witness, in a device-independent way, the emergence of nonlocal correlations among the nodes of the implemented networks. These results open new perspectives for quantum information processing applications in the relevant regime where the observed correlations are compatible with standard local hidden variable models but are non-classical if the independence of the sources is taken into account.
Project description:Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a form of quantum nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. Although Schrödinger already mooted the idea in 1935, steering still defies a complete understanding. In analogy to "all-versus-nothing" proofs of Bell nonlocality, here we present a proof of steering without inequalities rendering the detection of correlations leading to a violation of steering inequalities unnecessary. We show that, given any two-qubit entangled state, the existence of certain projective measurement by Alice so that Bob's normalized conditional states can be regarded as two different pure states provides a criterion for Alice-to-Bob steerability. A steering inequality equivalent to the all-versus-nothing proof is also obtained. Our result clearly demonstrates that there exist many quantum states which do not violate any previously known steering inequality but are indeed steerable. Our method offers advantages over the existing methods for experimentally testing steerability, and sheds new light on the asymmetric steering problem.
Project description:We study the nonlocality of arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. By computing the maximal violation of a set of multi-setting Bell inequalities, an analytical and computable lower bound has been derived for general two-qubit states. This bound gives the necessary condition that a two-qubit state admits no local hidden variable models. The lower bound is shown to be better than that from the CHSH inequality in judging the nonlocality of some quantum states. The results are generalized to the case of high dimensional quantum states, and a sufficient condition for detecting the non-locality has been presented.
Project description:The Bell state plays a significant role in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, such as the nonlocality of the quantum world. The Bell-state analysis is of vice importance in quantum communication. Existing Bell-state analysis protocols usually focus on the Bell-state encoding in the physical qubit directly. In this paper, we will describe an alternative approach to realize the near complete logic Bell-state analysis for the polarized concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state with two logic qubits. We show that the logic Bell-state can be distinguished in two steps with the help of the parity-check measurement (PCM) constructed by the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. This approach can be also used to distinguish arbitrary C-GHZ state with N logic qubits. As both the recent theoretical and experiment work showed that the C-GHZ state has its robust feature in practical noisy environment, this protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communication based on the logic-qubit entanglement.
Project description:Bell correlations are a foundational demonstration of how quantum entanglement contradicts the classical notion of local realism. Rigorous validation of quantum nonlocality have only been achieved between solid-state electron spins, internal states of trapped atoms, and photon polarisations, all weakly coupling to gravity. Bell tests with freely propagating massive particles, which could provide insights into the link between gravity and quantum mechanics, have proven to be much more challenging to realise. Here we use a collision between two Bose-Einstein condensates to generate spin entangled pairs of ultracold helium atoms, and measure their spin correlations along uniformly rotated bases. We show that correlations in the pairs agree with the theoretical prediction of a Bell triplet state, and observe a quantum mechanical witness of Bell correlations with [Formula: see text] significance. Extensions to this scheme could find promising applications in quantum metrology, as well as for investigating the interplay between quantum mechanics and gravity.
Project description:Quantum mechanics admits correlations that cannot be explained by local realistic models. The most studied models are the standard local hidden variable models, which satisfy the well-known Bell inequalities. To date, most works have focused on bipartite entangled systems. We consider correlations between three parties connected via two independent entangled states. We investigate the new type of so-called "bilocal" models, which correspondingly involve two independent hidden variables. These models describe scenarios that naturally arise in quantum networks, where several independent entanglement sources are used. Using photonic qubits, we build such a linear three-node quantum network and demonstrate nonbilocal correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality tailored for bilocal models. Furthermore, we show that the demonstration of nonbilocality is more noise-tolerant than that of standard Bell nonlocality in our three-party quantum network.
Project description:Bell's theorem plays a crucial role in quantum information processing and thus several experimental investigations of Bell inequalities violations have been carried out over the years. Despite their fundamental relevance, however, previous experiments did not consider an ingredient of relevance for quantum networks: the fact that correlations between distant parties are mediated by several, typically independent sources. Here, using a photonic setup, we investigate a quantum network consisting of three spatially separated nodes whose correlations are mediated by two distinct sources. This scenario allows for the emergence of the so-called non-bilocal correlations, incompatible with any local model involving two independent hidden variables. We experimentally witness the emergence of this kind of quantum correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality under the fair-sampling assumption. Our results provide a proof-of-principle experiment of generalizations of Bell's theorem for networks, which could represent a potential resource for quantum communication protocols.
Project description:The existence of observables that are incompatible or not jointly measurable is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, which lies at the root of a number of nonclassical phenomena, such as uncertainty relations, wave--particle dual behavior, Bell-inequality violation, and contextuality. However, no intuitive criterion is available for determining the compatibility of even two (generalized) observables, despite the overarching importance of this problem and intensive efforts of many researchers. Here we introduce an information theoretic paradigm together with an intuitive geometric picture for decoding incompatible observables, starting from two simple ideas: Every observable can only provide limited information and information is monotonic under data processing. By virtue of quantum estimation theory, we introduce a family of universal criteria for detecting incompatible observables and a natural measure of incompatibility, which are applicable to arbitrary number of arbitrary observables. Based on this framework, we derive a family of universal measurement uncertainty relations, provide a simple information theoretic explanation of quantitative wave--particle duality, and offer new perspectives for understanding Bell nonlocality, contextuality, and quantum precision limit.