Full-length IL-33 promotes inflammation but not Th2 response in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion.
ABSTRACT: Expression of IL-33 is elevated in patients with pulmonary diseases, and full-length (not proteolytically processed) IL-33 is the predominant form in the lungs in health and disease. To determine whether activation of IL-33 is needed for functional effects, activities of full-length mouse and mature mouse (mm) forms of IL-33 were compared in vivo. Replication-deficient adenoviral constructs were used for gene delivery. Both isoforms caused pulmonary infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils, whereas mm IL-33 also caused pulmonary eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia and increased expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, MCP-1, and KC. The different effects were not associated with differential release from IL-33-producing cells or by differences in subcellular distributions of IL-33 isoforms. Germline deficiency of the cell surface receptor chain ST2 abrogated the mm IL-33-induced Th2-associated effects (pulmonary eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, and increased IL-4 and IL-5), yet the lymphocytic infiltration induced by full-length mouse IL-33 or mm IL-33 was not fully abrogated by the absence of ST2. The similar effects of IL-33 isoforms were associated with comparable regulation of gene expression, notably matrix metalloproteinases 3, 10, and 13. Thus, full-length IL-33 is functionally active in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion, and its effects are partially different from those of mature IL-33. The different effects of these isoforms, particularly the pro-Th2 effects of mature IL-33, are due to differential utilization of the IL-33R chain ST2, whereas their similar effects result from regulation of gene expression.
Project description:Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is highly expressed in barrier sites, acting via the suppression of tumorigenicity 2 receptor (ST2). IL-33/ST2 axis has long been known to play a pivotal role in immunity and cell homeostasis by promoting wound healing and tissue repair. However, it is also involved in the loss of balance between extensive inflammation and tissue regeneration lead to remodeling, the hallmark of fibrosis. The aim of the current review is to critically evaluate the available evidence regarding the role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in organ fibrosis. The role of the axis in tissue remodeling is better understood considering its crucial role reported in organ development and regeneration. Generally, the IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway has mainly anti-inflammatory/anti-proliferative effects; however, chronic tissue injury is responsible for pro-fibrogenetic responses. Regarding pulmonary fibrosis mature IL-33 enhances pro-fibrogenic type 2 cytokine production in an ST2- and macrophage-dependent manner, while full-length IL-33 is also implicated in the pulmonary fibrotic process in an ST2-independent, Th2-independent fashion. In liver fibrosis, evidence indicate that when acute and massive liver damage occurs, the release of IL-33 might act as an activator of tissue-protective mechanisms, while in cases of chronic injury IL-33 plays the role of a hepatic fibrotic factor. IL-33 signaling has also been involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Moreover, IL-33 could be used as an early marker for ulcer-associated activated fibroblasts and myofibroblast trans-differentiation; thus one cannot rule out its potential role in inflammatory bowel disease-associated fibrosis. Similarly, the upregulation of the IL-33/ST2 axismay contribute to tubular cell injury and fibrosis via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of various cell types in the kidneys. Of note, IL-33 exerts a cardioprotective role via ST2 signaling, while soluble ST2 has been demonstrated as a marker of myocardial fibrosis. Finally, IL-33 is a crucial cytokine in skin pathology responsible for abnormal fibroblast proliferation, leukocyte infiltration and morphologic differentiation of human endothelial cells. Overall, emerging data support a novel contribution of the IL-33/ST2 pathway in tissue fibrosis and highlight the significant role of the Th2 pattern of immune response in the pathophysiology of organ fibrosis.
Project description:IL-33 through its receptor ST2 protects the heart from myocardial infarct and hypertrophy in animal models but, paradoxically, increases autoimmune disease. In this study, we examined the effect of IL-33 or ST2 administration on autoimmune heart disease.We used pressure-volume relationships and isoproterenol challenge to assess the effect of recombinant (r) IL-33 or rST2 (eg, soluble ST2) administration on the development of autoimmune coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in male BALB/c mice. The rIL-33 treatment significantly increased acute perimyocarditis (P=0.006) and eosinophilia (P=1.3×10(-5)), impaired cardiac function (maximum ventricular power, P=0.0002), and increased ventricular dilation (end-diastolic volume, P=0.01). The rST2 treatment prevented eosinophilia and improved heart function compared with rIL-33 treatment (ejection fraction, P=0.009). Neither treatment altered viral replication. The rIL-33 treatment increased IL-4, IL-33, IL-1?, and IL-6 levels in the heart during acute myocarditis. To determine whether IL-33 altered cardiac function on its own, we administered rIL-33 to undiseased mice and found that rIL-33 induced eosinophilic pericarditis and adversely affected heart function. We used cytokine knockout mice to determine that this effect was due to IL-33-mediated signaling but not to IL-1? or IL-6.We show for the first time to our knowledge that IL-33 induces eosinophilic pericarditis, whereas soluble ST2 prevents eosinophilia and improves systolic function, and that IL-33 independently adversely affects heart function through the IL-33 receptor.
Project description:IL-33 is a novel member of the IL-1 family and ligand for the IL-1 receptor-related protein, ST2. Recent evidence suggests that the IL-33/ST2 axis plays a critical role in several autoimmune and inflammatory disorders; however, its role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been clearly defined. We characterized IL-33 and ST2 expression and modulation after conventional anti-TNF therapy in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and investigated the role of IL-33 in SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice, a mixed Th1/Th2 model of IBD. Our results showed a specific increase of mucosal IL-33 in active UC, localized primarily to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and colonic inflammatory infiltrates. Importantly, increased expression of full-length IL-33, representing the most bioactive form, was detected in UC epithelium, whereas elevated levels of cleaved IL-33 were present in IBD serum. ST2 isoforms were differentially modulated in UC epithelium, and sST2, a soluble decoy receptor with anti-inflammatory properties, was also elevated in IBD serum. Infliximab (anti-TNF) treatment of UC decreased circulating IL-33 and increased sST2, whereas stimulation of HT-29 IEC confirmed IL-33 and sST2 regulation by TNF. Similarly, IL-33 significantly increased and correlated with disease severity, and potently induced IL-5, IL-6, and IL-17 from mucosal immune cells in SAMP mice. Taken together, the IL-33/ST2 system plays an important role in IBD and experimental colitis, is modulated by anti-TNF therapy, and may represent a specific biomarker for active UC.
Project description:Interleukin(IL)-33 is an epithelial alarmin important for eosinophil maturation, activation and survival. The aim of this study was to examine the association between IL-33, its receptor expression and airway eosinophilic inflammation in non-atopic COPD.IL-33 concentrations were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from healthy non-smokers, asthmatics and non-atopic COPD subjects using ELISA. Serum and sputum samples were collected from healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers and non-atopic COPD patients. Based on sputum eosinophil count, COPD subjects were divided into subgroups with airway eosinophilic inflammation (sputum eosinophils >?3%) or without (sputum eosinophils ?3%). IL-33 and soluble form of IL-33 receptor (sST2) protein concentrations were measured in serum and sputum supernatants using ELISA. ST2 mRNA expression was measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and sputum cells by qPCR. Hemopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) expressing ST2 and intracellular IL-5 were enumerated in blood and induced sputum by means of flow cytometry.IL-33 levels in EBC were increased in COPD patients to a similar extent as in asthma and correlated with blood eosinophil count. Furthermore, serum and sputum IL-33 levels were higher in COPD subjects with sputum eosinophilia than in those with a sputum eosinophil count ?3% (p?<?0.001 for both). ST2 mRNA was overexpressed in sputum cells obtained from COPD patients with airway eosinophilic inflammation compared to those without sputum eosinophilia (p?<?0.01). Similarly, ST2?+?IL-5+ HPC numbers were increased in the sputum of COPD patients with airway eosinophilia (p?<?0.001).Our results indicate that IL-33 is involved in the development of eosinophilic airway inflammation in non-atopic COPD patients.
Project description:Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-33 are epithelium-derived proallergic cytokines that contribute to allergic diseases. Although the involvement of TSLP in allergic rhinitis (AR) is suggested, the exact role of TSLP in AR is poorly understood. Furthermore, the relative contribution of TSLP and IL-33 in nasal allergic responses has not been described. In this study, we examined the roles of TSLP and IL-33 in AR by analyzing acute and chronic AR models. Acute AR mice were intraperitoneally immunized with ragweed, then intranasally challenged with ragweed pollen for four consecutive days. Chronic AR mice were nasally administrated ragweed pollen on consecutive days for 3 weeks. In both models, TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-deficient mice showed defective sneezing responses and reduced serum ragweed-specific IgE levels compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Analyses of bone-marrow chimeric mice demonstrated that hematopoietic cells were responsible for defective sneezing in TSLPR-deficient mice. In addition, Fc?RI(+)-cell-specific TSLPR-deficient mice showed partial but significant reduction in sneezing responses. Of note, Th2 activation and nasal eosinophilia were comparable between WT and TSLPR-deficient mice. ST2- and IL-33-deficient mice showed defective Th2 activation and nasal eosinophilia to acute, but not chronic, ragweed exposure. TSLPR and ST2 double-deficient mice showed defective Th2 activation and nasal eosinophilia even after chronic ragweed exposure. These results demonstrate that TSLPR signaling is critical for the early phase response of AR by controlling the IgE-mast-cell/basophil pathway. The IL-33/ST2 pathway is central to nasal Th2 activation during acute allergen exposure, but both TSLPR and ST2 contribute to Th2 responses in chronically allergen-exposed mice.
Project description:The new interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokine IL-33 is synthesized as a 30-kDa precursor. Like pro-IL-1beta, human pro-IL-33 was reported to be cleaved by caspase-1 to generate an 18-kDa fragment, which is sufficient to activate signaling by the IL-33 receptor T1/ST2. However, the proposed caspase-1 cleavage site is poorly conserved between species. In addition, it is not clear whether caspase-1 cleavage of pro-IL-33 occurs in vivo and whether, as for IL-1beta, this cleavage is a prerequisite for IL-33 secretion and bioactivity. In this study, we further investigated caspase-1 cleavage of mouse and human pro-IL-33 and assessed the potential bioactivity of the IL-33 precursor. We observed the generation of a 20-kDa IL-33 fragment in cell lysates, which was enhanced by incubation with caspase-1. However, in vitro assays of mouse and human pro-IL-33 indicated that IL-33 is not a direct substrate for this enzyme. Consistently, caspase-1 activation in THP-1 cells induced cleavage of pro-IL-1beta but not of pro-IL-33, and activated THP-1 cells released full-length pro-IL-33 into culture supernatants. Finally, addition of full-length pro-IL-33 induced T1/ST2-dependent IL-6 secretion in mast cells. However, we observed in situ processing of pro-IL-33 in mast cell cultures, and it remains to be determined whether full-length pro-IL-33 itself indeed represents the bioactive species. In conclusion, our data indicate that pro-IL-33 is not a direct substrate for caspase-1. In addition, our results clearly show that caspase-1 cleavage is not required for pro-IL-33 secretion and bioactivity, highlighting major differences between IL-1beta and IL-33.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity augments pulmonary responses to ozone. We have reported that IL-33 contributes to these effects of obesity in db/db mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether IL-33 also contributes to obesity-related changes in the response to ozone in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS:Male wildtype C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient in ST2, the IL-33 receptor, were placed on chow or high fat diets for 12?weeks from weaning. Because the microbiome has been implicated in obesity-related changes in the pulmonary response to ozone, mice were either housed with other mice of the same genotype (same housed) or with mice of the opposite genotype (cohoused). Cohousing transfers the gut microbiome from one mouse to its cagemates. RESULTS:Diet-induced increases in body mass were not affected by ST2 deficiency or cohousing. In same housed mice, ST2 deficiency reduced ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and neutrophil recruitment in chow-fed but not HFD-fed mice even though ST2 deficiency reduced bronchoalveolar lavage IL-5 in both diet groups. In chow-fed mice, cohousing abolished ST2-related reductions in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and neutrophil recruitment, but in HFD-fed mice, no effect of cohousing on these responses to ozone was observed. In chow-fed mice, ST2 deficiency and cohousing caused changes in the gut microbiome. High fat diet-feeding caused marked changes in the gut microbiome and overrode both ST2-related and cohousing-related differences in the gut microbiome observed in chow-fed mice. CONCLUSION:Our data indicate a role for IL-33 in pulmonary responses to ozone in chow-fed but not high fat diet-fed mice and are consistent with the hypothesis that these diet-related differences in the role of IL-33 are the result of changes in the gut microbiome.
Project description:ST2 is an IL-1 receptor family member with transmembrane (ST2L) and soluble (sST2) isoforms. sST2 is a mechanically induced cardiomyocyte protein, and serum sST2 levels predict outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction or chronic heart failure. Recently, IL-33 was identified as a functional ligand of ST2L, allowing exploration of the role of ST2 in myocardium. We found that IL-33 was a biomechanically induced protein predominantly synthesized by cardiac fibroblasts. IL-33 markedly antagonized angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Although IL-33 activated NF-kappaB, it inhibited angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-induced phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-kappa B alpha (I kappa B alpha) and NF-kappaB nuclear binding activity. sST2 blocked antihypertrophic effects of IL-33, indicating that sST2 functions in myocardium as a soluble decoy receptor. Following pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), ST2(-/-) mice had more left ventricular hypertrophy, more chamber dilation, reduced fractional shortening, more fibrosis, and impaired survival compared with WT littermates. Furthermore, recombinant IL-33 treatment reduced hypertrophy and fibrosis and improved survival after TAC in WT mice, but not in ST2(-/-) littermates. Thus, IL-33/ST2 signaling is a mechanically activated, cardioprotective fibroblast-cardiomyocyte paracrine system, which we believe to be novel. IL-33 may have therapeutic potential for beneficially regulating the myocardial response to overload.
Project description:IL-33 is a chromatin-associated cytokine of the IL-1 family that has recently been linked to many diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. IL-33 signals through the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and drives production of pro-inflammatory and T helper type 2-associated cytokines in mast cells, T helper type 2 lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, invariant natural killer T cells, and natural killer cells. It is currently believed that IL-33, like IL-1beta and IL-18, requires processing by caspase-1 to a mature form (IL-33(112-270)) for biological activity. Contrary to the current belief, we report here that full-length IL-33(1-270) is active and that processing by caspase-1 results in IL-33 inactivation, rather than activation. We show that full-length IL-33(1-270) binds and activates ST2, similarly to IL-33(112-270), and that cleavage by caspase-1 does not occur at the site initially proposed (Ser(111)), but rather after residue Asp(178) between the fourth and fifth predicted beta-strands of the IL-1-like domain. Surprisingly, the caspase-1 cleavage site (DGVD(178)G) is similar to the consensus site of cleavage by caspase-3, and IL-33 is also a substrate for this apoptotic caspase. Interestingly, we found that full-length IL-33, which is constitutively expressed to high levels by endothelial cells in most normal human tissues, can be released in the extracellular space after endothelial cell damage or mechanical injury. We speculate that IL-33 may function, similarly to the prototypical alarmins HMGB1 and IL-1alpha, as an endogenous danger signal to alert cells of the innate immune system of tissue damage during trauma or infection.
Project description:Despite the importance of inflammation in cancer, the role of the cytokine IL-33, and its receptor ST2, in colon cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-33, and its receptor isoforms (ST2 and ST2L), in colon cancer.Serum levels of IL-33 and sST2 were determined with ELISA. ST2 and IL-33 expression was detected with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ST2 expression in CT26 cells was stably suppressed using ST2-specific shRNA. Cytokine and chemokine gene expression was detected with qRT-PCR.Human colon tumours showed lower expression of ST2L as compared with adjacent non-tumour tissue (P<0.01). Moreover, the higher the tumour grade, the lower the expression of ST2L (P=0.026). Colon cancer cells expressed ST2 and IL-33 in vitro. Functional analyses showed that stimulation of tumour cells with IL-33 induced the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). Knockdown of ST2 in murine colon cancer cells resulted in enhanced tumour growth (P<0.05) in BALB/c mice in vivo. This was associated with a decrease in macrophage infiltration, with IL-33-induced macrophage recruitment reduced by antagonising CCL2 in vitro.The IL-33/ST2 signalling axis may have a protective role in colon carcinogenesis.