Spatio-temporal analysis of tamoxifen-induced bystander effects in breast cancer cells using microfluidics.
ABSTRACT: The bystander effect in cancer therapy is the inhibition or killing of tumor cells that are adjacent to those directly affected by the agent used for treatment. In the case of chemotherapy, little is known as to how much and by which mechanisms bystander effects contribute to the elimination of tumor cells. This is mainly due to the difficulty to distinguish between targeted and bystander cells since both are exposed to the pharmaceutical compound. We here studied the interaction of tamoxifen-treated human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with their neighboring counterparts by exploiting laminar flow patterning in a microfluidic chip to ensure selective drug delivery. The spatio-temporal evolution of the bystander response in non-targeted cells was analyzed by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential under conditions of free diffusion. Our data show that the bystander response is detectable as early as 1 hour after drug treatment and reached effective distances of at least 2.8 mm. Furthermore, the bystander effect was merely dependent on diffusible factors rather than cell contact-dependent signaling. Taken together, our study illustrates that this microfluidic approach is a promising tool for screening and optimization of putative chemotherapeutic drugs to maximize the bystander response in cancer therapy.
Project description:Macrophage-induced bystander effects have been implicated as an important mediator of chromosomal instability and colon cancer triggered by Enterococcus faecalis, a human intestinal commensal bacteria. There is little understanding about how inflammatory cytokines mediate bystander effects, but questions in this area are important because of the pivotal contributions made by inflammatory processes to cancer initiation and progression. Here, we report that the central proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? acts as a diffusible mediator of the bystander effects induced by macrophages, an effect caused by a proliferation of macrophages that trigger epithelial cell production of Netrin-1, a neuronal guidance molecule. TNF-?-mediated bystander assays used a murine coculture system of primary colonic epithelial cells and E. faecalis-infected macrophages (in vitro), with an interleukin 10 (IL-10)-deficient mouse model of colon cancer that involves long-term colonization with E. faecalis (in vivo). In cell cocultures, we observed increased expression of the TNF-? receptor Tnfrsf1b and Netrin-1. These effects were blocked by anti-TNF-? antibody or by pretreatment with an inhibitor of NF-?B signaling. RNAi-mediated attenuation of Tnfrsf1b decreased TNF-?-induced netrin-1 production and augmented epithelial cell apoptosis in culture. Extending these observations, colon biopsies from E. faecalis-colonized IL-10(-/-) mice exhibited crypt hyperplasia and increased staining for macrophages, TNF-?, netrin-1, NF-?B, Tnfrsf1b, and the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen while also displaying a reduction in epithelial cell apoptosis. Together, our results define a pathway for macrophage-induced bystander effects in which TNF-? triggers TNFRSF1b receptor signaling leading to increased production of Netrin-1, crypt hyperplasia, and decreased epithelial cell apoptosis. In elucidating an important commensal-associated proinflammatory mechanism in the intestinal microenvironment, our work highlights the role of Netrin-1 and a specific TNF-? receptor as candidate targets to prevent or treat colorectal cancer.
Project description:Tumor cells exposed to stress-inducing radiotherapy or chemotherapy can send signals to non- or minimally exposed bystander cells. Bystander effects of ionizing radiation are well established, but little is known about such effects in non-ionizing photodynamic therapy (PDT). Our previous studies revealed that several cancer cell types upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) after a moderate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based PDT challenge. The NO signaled for cell resistance to photokilling as well as greater growth, migration and invasion of surviving cells. Based on this work, we hypothesized that diffusible NO produced by PDT-targeted cells in a tumor might elicit pro-growth/migration responses in non-targeted bystander cells. In the present study, we tested this using a novel approach, in which ALA-PDT-targeted human cancer cells on culture dishes (prostate PC3, breast MDA-MB-231, glioma U87, or melanoma BLM) were initially segregated from non-targeted bystanders via impermeable silicone-rimmed rings. Several hours after LED irradiation, rings were removed, and both cell populations analyzed for various post-h? responses. For a moderate and uniform level of targeted cell killing by PDT (~25%), bystander proliferation and migration were both enhanced. Enhancement correlated with iNOS/NO upregulation in surviving targeted cells in the following order: PC3 > MDA-MB-231 > U87 > BLM. If occurring in an actual tumor PDT setting and not suppressed (e.g., by iNOS activity or transcription inhibitors), then such effects could compromise treatment efficacy or even stimulate disease progression if PDT's anti-tumor potency is not great enough.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Enterococcus faecalis is a human intestinal commensal that produces extracellular superoxide and promotes chromosome instability via macrophage-induced bystander effects. We investigated the ability of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a diffusible breakdown product of ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, to mediate these effects. METHODS:4-HNE was purified from E faecalis-infected macrophages; its genotoxicity was assessed in human colon cancer (HCT116) and primary murine colon epithelial (YAMC) cell lines. RESULTS:4-HNE induced G(2)-M cell cycle arrest, led to formation ?H2AX foci, and disrupted the mitotic spindle in both cell lines. Binucleate tetraploid cells that formed after incubation with 4-HNE were associated with the activation of stathmin and microtubule catastrophe. Silencing glutathione S-transferase ?4, a scavenger of 4-HNE, increased the susceptibility of epithelial cells to 4-HNE-induced genotoxicity. Interleukin-10 knockout mice colonized with superoxide-producing E faecalis developed inflammation and colorectal cancer, whereas colonization with a superoxide-deficient strain resulted in inflammation but not cancer. 4-HNE-protein adducts were found in the lamina propria and macrophages in areas of colorectal inflammation. CONCLUSIONS:4-HNE can act as an autochthonous mitotic spindle poison in normal colonic epithelial and colon cancer cells. This finding links the macrophage-induced bystander effects to colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:The immunogenic clonal-fraction threshold in heterogeneous solid-tumor required to induce effective bystander-killing of non-immunogenic subclones is unknown. Pancreatic cancer poses crucial challenges for immune therapeutic interventions due to low mutational-burden and consequent lack of neoantigens. Here, we designed a model to incorporate artificial-neoantigens into genes-of -interest in cancer-cells and to test their potential to actuate bystander-killing. By precisely controlling a neoantigen's abundance in the tumor, we studied the impact of neoantigen frequency on immune-response and immune-escape. Our results showed single, strong, widely-expressed neoantigen could lead to robust antitumor response when over 80% of cancer cells express the neoantigen. Further, immunological assays demonstrated T-cell responses against non-target self-antigen on KRAS-oncoprotein, when we inoculated animals with a high frequency of tumor-cells expressing test-neoantigen. Using nanoparticle-based gene-therapy, we successfully altered tumor-microenvironment by perturbing interleukin-12 and interleukin-10 gene-expression. The subsequent microenvironment-remodeling reduced the neoantigen frequency threshold at which bioluminescent signal intensity for tumor-burden decreased 1.5-log-fold, marking robust tumor-growth inhibition, from 83% to 29%. Our results thus suggest bystander killing is inefficient in immunologically-cold tumors like pancreatic-cancer and requires high neoantigen abundance. However, bystander killing mediated antitumor response can be rescued by adjuvant-immune therapy.
Project description:Radiation induced bystander effects are an important component of the overall response of cells to irradiation and are associated with human health risks. The mechanism responsible includes intra-cellular and inter-cellular signaling by which the bystander response is propagated. However, details of the signaling mechanism are not well defined.We measured the bystander response of Mrad9+/+ and Mrad9-/- mouse embryonic stem cells, as well as human H1299 cells with inherent or RNA interference-mediated reduced RAD9 levels after exposure to 1 Gy ? particles, by scoring chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation, respectively. In addition, we used microarray gene expression analyses to profile the transcriptome of directly irradiated and bystander H1299 cells.We demonstrated that Mrad9 null enhances chromatid aberration frequency induced by radiation in bystander mouse embryonic stem cells. In addition, we found that H1299 cells with reduced RAD9 protein levels showed a higher frequency of radiation induced bystander micronuclei formation, compared with parental cells containing inherent levels of RAD9. The enhanced bystander response in human cells was associated with a unique transcriptomic profile. In unirradiated cells, RAD9 reduction broadly affected stress response pathways at the mRNA level; there was reduction in transcript levels corresponding to genes encoding multiple members of the UVA-MAPK and p38MAPK families, such as STAT1 and PARP1, suggesting that these signaling mechanisms may not function optimally when RAD9 is reduced. Using network analysis, we found that differential activation of the SP1 and NUPR1 transcriptional regulators was predicted in directly irradiated and bystander H1299 cells. Transcription factor prediction analysis also implied that HIF1? (Hypoxia induced factor 1 alpha) activation by protein stabilization in irradiated cells could be a negative predictor of the bystander response, suggesting that local hypoxic stress experienced by cells directly exposed to radiation may influence whether or not they will elicit a bystander response in neighboring cells.
Project description:An important feature of gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy is that prodrug activation can provide diffusible cytotoxic metabolites capable of generating a local bystander effect in tumours. Activation of the aziridinyl dinitrobenzamide CB 1954 by E. coli nitroreductase (NTR) provides a bystander effect assumed to be due to the potently cytotoxic 4-hydroxylamine metabolite. We show that there are four cytotoxic extracellular metabolites of CB 1954 in cultures of NTR-expressing tumour cells (the 2- and 4-hydroxylamines and their corresponding amines). The 4-hydroxylamine is the most cytotoxic in DNA crosslink repair defective cells, but the 2-amino derivative (CB 10-236) is of similar potency to the 4-hydroxylamine in human tumour cell lines. Importantly, CB 10-236 has much superior diffusion properties to the 4-hydroxylamine in multicellular layers grown from the SiHa human cervical carcinoma cell line. These results suggest that the 2-amine, not the 4-hydroxylamine, is the major bystander metabolite when CB 1954 is activated by NTR in tumours. The corresponding dinitrobenzamide nitrogen mustard SN 23862 is reduced by NTR to form a single extracellular metabolite (also the 2-amine), which has superior cytotoxic potency and diffusion properties to the CB 1954 metabolites. These results are consistent with the reported high bystander efficiency of SN 23862 as an NTR prodrug in multicellular layers and tumour xenografts.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of our study was to explore a possible molecular mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) biophotons could elicit bystander responses in reporter cells and resolve the problem of seemingly mutually exclusive mechanisms of a physical UV signal & a soluble factor-mediated bystander signal. METHODS:The human colon carcinoma cell line, HCT116 p53 +/+, was directly irradiated with 0.5 Gy tritium beta particles to induce ultraviolet biophoton emission. Bystander cells were not directly irradiated but were exposed to the emitted UV biophotons. Medium was subsequently harvested from UV-exposed bystander cells. The exosomes extracted from this medium were incubated with reporter cell populations. These reporter cells were then assayed for clonogenic survival and mitochondrial membrane potential with and without prior treatment of the exosomes with RNase. RESULTS:Clonogenic cell survival was significantly reduced in reporter cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells exposed to secondarily-emitted UV. These exosomes also induced significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization in receiving reporter cells. Conversely, exosomes extracted from non-UV-exposed cells did not produce bystander effects in reporter cells. The treatment of exosomes with RNase prior to their incubation with reporter cells effectively abolished bystander effects in reporter cells and this suggests a role for RNA in mediating the bystander response elicited by UV biophotons and their produced exosomes. CONCLUSION:This study supports a role for exosomes released from UV biophoton-exposed bystander cells in eliciting bystander responses and also indicates a reconciliation between the UV-mediated bystander effect and the bystander effect which has been suggested in the literature to be mediated by soluble factors.
Project description:Locally advanced rectal cancer is treated with neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy, however only 22% of patients achieve a complete response. Resistance mechanisms are poorly understood. Radiation-induced Bystander Effect (RIBE) describes the effect of radiation on neighbouring unirradiated cells. We investigated the effects of ex vivo RIBE-induction from normal and rectal cancer tissue on bystander cell metabolism, mitochondrial function and metabolomic profiling. We correlated bystander events to patient clinical characteristics. Ex vivo RIBE-induction caused metabolic alterations in bystander cells, specifically reductions in OXPHOS following RIBE-induction in normal (p?=?0.01) and cancer tissue (p?=?0.03) and reduced glycolysis following RIBE-induction in cancer tissue (p?=?0.01). Visceral fat area correlated with glycolysis (p?=?0.02) and ATP production (p?=?0.03) following exposure of cells to TCM from irradiated cancer biopsies. Leucine levels were reduced in the irradiated cancer compared to the irradiated normal secretome (p?=?0.04). ROS levels were higher in cells exposed to the cancer compared to the normal secretome (p?=?0.04). RIBE-induction ex vivo causes alterations in the metabolome in normal and malignant rectal tissue along with metabolic alterations in bystander cellular metabolism. This may offer greater understanding of the effects of RIBE on metabolism, mitochondrial function and the secreted metabolome.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Signalling events mediated by connexins and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have important roles in bystander effects induced by ionising radiation. However, whether these proteins mediate bystander effects independently or cooperatively has not been investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>Bystander normal human fibroblasts were cocultured with irradiated adenocarcinoma HeLa cells in which specific connexins (Cx) are expressed in the absence of endogenous Cx, before and after COX-2 knockdown, to investigate DNA damage in bystander cells and their progeny.<h4>Results</h4>Inducible expression of gap junctions composed of connexin26 (Cx26) in irradiated HeLa cells enhanced the induction of micronuclei in bystander cells (P<0.01) and reduced the coculture time necessary for manifestation of the effect. In contrast, expression of connexin32 (Cx32) conferred protective effects. COX-2 knockdown in irradiated HeLa Cx26 cells attenuated the bystander response due to connexin expression. However, COX-2 knockdown resulted in enhanced micronucleus formation in the progeny of the bystander cells (P<0.001). COX-2 knockdown delayed junctional communication in HeLa Cx26 cells, and reduced, in the plasma membrane, the physical interaction of Cx26 with MAPKKK, a controller of the MAPK pathway that regulates COX-2 and connexin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Junctional communication and COX-2 cooperatively mediate the propagation of radiation-induced non-targeted effects. Characterising the mediating events affected by both mechanisms may lead to new approaches that mitigate secondary debilitating effects of cancer radiotherapy.
Project description:Intestinal commensal bacteria have recently been shown to trigger macrophages to produce diffusible clastogens (or chromosome-breaking factors) through a bystander effect (BSE) that mediates DNA damage and induces chromosomal instability in neighboring cells. Colon macrophages appear central to colon carcinogenesis and BSE through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The former induces netrin-1, a regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and the latter generates trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an endogenous mutagen. To test whether colon macrophages are key effectors for BSE, we depleted these cells in interleukin-10 knockout mice colonized with Enterococcus faecalis using encapsulated liposomal clodronate (ELC), a bisphosphonate that causes macrophage apoptosis. We observed that E. faecalis polarizes colon macrophages to an M1 phenotype. In addition, depleting these cells suppressed COX-2 and TNF-?, blocked the formation of 4-HNE protein adducts, and inhibited up-regulation of netrin-1-all markers for BSE. Finally, treatment with ELC prevented colitis, ?-catenin activation, and cancer formation. These results show that selected human commensals can polarize colon macrophages to the M1 phenotype and, when activated, serve as the key effector for bacterial-induced BSE. Our findings suggest that depleting M1-polarized macro-phages is a mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of bisphosphonates and that it represents a new strategy for preventing colon cancer induced by intestinal commensals.