HIF2α-Sp1 interaction mediates a deacetylation-dependent FVII-gene activation under hypoxic conditions in ovarian cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1α and HIF2α are major transcription factors required for adaptive responses to hypoxia. HIFs form a complex with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to bind to the regulatory regions of target genes. The acetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is one of the epigenetic marks associated with active chromatin. Indeed, HIFs recruit p300 HAT to hypoxia response elements (HREs) within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report an unusual HIF-mediated transcriptional activation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC). While characterizing coagulation factor VII (FVII) gene induction during hypoxic conditions, we observed that the interaction of HIF2α with Sp1, but not with ARNT, could induce transcription of FVII in a HRE-independent manner. Unexpectedly, this gene activation is associated with histone deacetylation. We found that a class II HDAC, HDAC4, is recruited with HIF2α to the FVII promoter as a co-activator, while p300 HAT negatively regulated this process. Furthermore, this mechanism can be synergistically enhanced via a deacetylation-dependent pathway when cells are simultaneously exposed to hypoxic and serum-free conditions. These results suggest the presence of a stress-responsive transcription mediated by the HIF2α/Sp1/HDAC4 network and explain how CCC shed their procoagulant activity under hypoxia.
Project description:Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome hypoxia is potentially important for targeted therapy. Complexation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocators can enhance gene expression and initiate cellular responses to hypoxia. However, multiple molecular mechanisms may be required for cancer cells to adapt to diverse microenvironments. We previously demonstrated that a physical interaction between the ubiquitously expressed transcription factor Sp1 and HIF2 is a major cause of FVII gene activation in poor prognostic ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) cells under hypoxia. Furthermore, it was found that FVII activation is synergistically enhanced when serum-starved cells are cultured under hypoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated whether HIFs and transcription factor Sp1 cooperate to activate multiple genes in CCC cells under conditions of serum starvation and hypoxia (SSH) and then contribute to malignant phenotypes.To identify genes activated under hypoxic conditions in an Sp1-dependent manner, we first performed cDNA microarray analyses. We further investigated the molecular mechanisms of synergistic gene activations including the associated serum factors by various experiments such as real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The study was further extended to animal experiments to investigate how it contributes to CCC progression in vivo.ICAM1 is one such gene dramatically induced by SSH and is highly induced by SSH and its synergistic activation involves both the mTOR and autonomously activated TNFα-NFκB axes. We identified long chain fatty acids (LCFA) as a major class of lipids that is associated with albumin, a serum factor responsible for synergistic gene activation under SSH. Furthermore, we found that ICAM1 can be induced in vivo to promote tumor growth.Sp1 and HIFs collaborate to activate genes required for the adaptation of CCC cells to severe microenvironments, such as LCFA starvation and hypoxia. This study highlights the importance of transcriptional regulation under lipid starvation and hypoxia in the promotion of CCC tumor growth.
Project description:The hypoxia-inducible factor complex (HIF-?·aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) requires association with several transcription coactivators for a successful cellular response to hypoxic stress. In addition to the conventional global transcription coactivator CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300) that binds to the HIF-? transactivation domain, a new group of transcription coactivators called the coiled-coil coactivators (CCCs) interact directly with the second PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain of ARNT (ARNT PAS-B). These less studied transcription coactivators play essential roles in the HIF-dependent hypoxia response, and CCC misregulation is associated with several forms of cancer. To better understand CCC protein recruitment by the heterodimeric HIF transcription factor, we used x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical methods to investigate the structure of the ARNT PAS-B domain in complex with the C-terminal fragment of a coiled-coil coactivator protein, transforming acidic coiled-coil coactivator 3 (TACC3). We found that the HIF-2? PAS-B domain also directly interacts with TACC3, motivating an NMR data-derived model suggesting a means by which TACC3 could form a ternary complex with HIF-2? PAS-B and ARNT PAS-B via ?-sheet/coiled-coil interactions. These findings suggest that TACC3 could be recruited as a bridge to cooperatively mediate between the HIF-2? PAS-B·ARNT PAS-B complex, thereby participating more directly in HIF-dependent gene transcription than previously anticipated.
Project description:The tumor microenvironment is generally hypoxic because of the limited oxygen supply from inefficient or insufficient vasculature. Hypoxic tumor tissues are also poorly supplied with serum components. We have previously demonstrated that expression of the FVII gene is induced in response to hypoxia in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) cells. This gene activation is synergistically enhanced when cells are simultaneously subjected to serum starvation, and is dependent on the transcription factor Sp1 directly associating with the FVII promoter. We have identified additional genes activated via a similar Sp1-dependent mechanism by conducting cDNA microarray analysis (GSE55565). ICAM1, which encodes intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), is one such gene. ICAM-1 confers an anti-apoptotic effect upon CCC cells in vitro and promotes growth of CCC tumors. Here we describe the transcriptome analysis performed in our recently published study (Koizume et al., 2015). We further show that autonomous activation of the TNFα-NFκB axis is responsible for the synergistic activation of ICAM1 under hypoxic and serum starvation conditions. This study provides additional information as to how CCC cell survival can be facilitated under conditions of serum starvation and hypoxia.
Project description:Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) with activated pseudohypoxic pathways are associated with an immature catecholamine phenotype and carry a higher risk for metastasis. For improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms we investigated the impact of hypoxia and pseudohypoxia on catecholamine biosynthesis in pheochromocytoma cells naturally lacking Hif2α (MPC and MTT) or expressing both Hif1α and Hif2α (PC12). Cultivation under extrinsic hypoxia or in spheroid culture (intrinsic hypoxia) increased cellular dopamine and norepinephrine contents in all cell lines. To distinguish further between Hif1α- and Hif2α-driven effects we expressed Hif2α in MTT and MPC-mCherry cells (naturally lacking Hif2α). Presence of Hif2α resulted in similarly increased cellular dopamine and norepinephrine under hypoxia as in the control cells. Furthermore, hypoxia resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A specific knockdown of Hif1α in PC12 diminished these effects. Pseudohypoxic conditions, simulated by expression of Hif2α under normoxia resulted in increased TH phosphorylation, further stimulated by extrinsic hypoxia. Correlations with PPGL tissue data led us to conclude that catecholamine biosynthesis under hypoxia is mainly mediated through increased phosphorylation of TH, regulated as a short-term response (24-48 h) by HIF1α. Continuous activation of hypoxia-related genes under pseudohypoxia leads to a HIF2α-mediated phosphorylation of TH (permanent status).
Project description:Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that activate expression of multiple gene products and promote tumor adaptation to a hypoxic environment. To become transcriptionally active, HIFs associate with cofactors p300 or CBP. Previously, we found that arylsulfonamides can antagonize HIF transcription in a bioassay, block the p300/HIF-1? interaction, and exert potent anticancer activity in several animal models. In the present work, KCN1-bead affinity pull down, (14)C-labeled KCN1 binding, and KCN1-surface plasmon resonance measurements provide initial support for a mechanism in which KCN1 can bind to the CH1 domain of p300 and likely prevent the p300/HIF-1? assembly. Using a previously reported NMR structure of the p300/HIF-1? complex, we have identified potential binding sites in the p300-CH1 domain. A two-site binding model coupled with IC50 values has allowed establishment of a modest ROC-based enrichment and creation of a guide for future analogue synthesis.
Project description:There is a tremendous need for novel strategies aimed at directly assessing activities of histone modifiers to probe epigenetic determinants associated with disease progression. Here, we developed a high-throughput peptide microarray assay to identify altered histone lysine (de)acetylation activity in prostate cancer (PCa). This microarray-based activity assay revealed up-regulated histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity against specific histone H3 sites in a castrate-resistant (CR) PCa cell line compared to its hormone-sensitive (HS) isogenic counterpart. NAD+-dependent deacetylation assays revealed down-regulated sirtuin activity in validated CR lines. Levels of acetyltransferases GCN5, PCAF, CBP, and p300 were unchanged between matched HS and CR cell lines. However, autoacetylation of p300 at K1499, a modification known to enhance HAT activity and a target of deacetylation by SIRT2, was highly elevated in CR cells, while SIRT2 protein level was reduced in CR cells. Interrogation of HS and matched CR xenograft lines reveals that H3K18 hyperacetylation, increased p300 activity, and decreased SIRT2 expression are associated with progression to CR in 8/12 (66%). Tissue microarray analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of H3K18 is a feature of CRPC. Inhibition of p300 results in lower H3K18ac levels and increased expression of androgen receptors. Thus, a novel histone array identifies altered enzyme activities during the progression to CRPC and may be utilized in a personalized medicine approach. Reduced SIRT2 expression and increased p300 activity lead to a concerted mechanism of hyperacetylation at specific histone lysine sites (H3K9, H3K14, and H3K18) in CRPC.
Project description:The critical role of IL-5 (interleukin-5) in eosinophilic inflammation implicates it as a therapeutic target for allergic diseases. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular basis for the involvement of reversible histone acetylation in IL-5 transcriptional regulation. We provide evidence that HDAC4 (histone deacetylase 4) and p300, a known HAT (histone acetyltransferase), reversibly controlled the activity of the IL-5 promoter in vivo and in vitro, with a concurrent alteration of histone H3 acetylation status at the promoter regions. The nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC4 was shown to play an important role in the suppressive function of HDAC4 in IL-5 gene expression. Point mutation and reporter ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) studies determined that the four transcription factors binding on the IL-5 promoter, i.e. C/EBPbeta (CAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta), GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3), NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) and YY1 (Yin and Yang 1), were essential for the recruitment of HDAC4. Consistent with these observations, HDAC4 was found to form protein complexes with GATA3 and YY1, and to co-exist in the nuclei with GATA3. We propose that the unique regulatory mechanism of IL-5 gene transcription involves the reversible histone modification catalysed by HDAC4 and p300, which are recruited by the transcription factors. The dynamic balance in IL-5 transcriptional regulation is achieved through interactions among HATs/HDACs, histones and transcription factors. These data contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of IL-5 regulation, which is crucial to the development of new therapeutic strategies for IL-5-related allergic diseases.
Project description:Osterix (Osx) is an essential transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. The precise molecular mechanisms of the regulation of Osx expression are not fully understood. In the present study, we found that in cells, both endogenous and exogenous Osx protein increased after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A and hydroxamic acid. Meanwhile, the results of immunoprecipitation indicated that Osx was an acetylated protein and that the CREB binding protein (CBP), and less efficiently p300, acetylated Osx. The interaction and colocalization of CBP and Osx were demonstrated by Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, respectively. In addition, K307 and K312 were identified as the acetylated sites of Osx. By contrast, HDAC4, a histone deacetylase (HDAC), was observed to interact and co-localize with Osx. HDAC4 was demonstrated to mediate the deacetylation of Osx. Moreover, we found that acetylation of Osx enhanced its stability, DNA binding ability and transcriptional activity. Finally, we demonstrated that acetylation of Osx was required for the osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Taken together, our results provide evidence that CBP-mediated acetylation and HDAC4-mediated deacetylation have critical roles in the modification of Osx, and thus are important in osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors induced in a variety of pathophysiological settings, including cancer. We describe the first detailed structure-activity relationship study of small molecules designed to inhibit HIF-2?-ARNT heterodimerization by binding an internal cavity of the HIF-2? PAS-B domain. Through a series of biophysical characterizations of inhibitor-protein interactions (NMR and X-ray crystallography), we have established the structural requirements for artificial inhibitors of the HIF-2?-ARNT PAS-B interaction. These results may serve as a foundation for discovering therapeutic agents that function by a novel mode of action.
Project description:The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that control the adaptive response to toxicants such as dioxins and decreases in available oxygen, respectively. The AHR and HIFs utilize the same heterodimeric partner, the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) for proper function. This requirement raises the possibility that cross-talk exists between these critical signaling systems. Single gene and reporter assays have yielded conflicting results regarding the nature of the competition for ARNT. Therefore, to determine the extent of cross-talk between the AHR and HIFs, a comprehensive analysis was performed using global gene expression analysis. The results identified 767 and 430 transcripts that are sensitive to cobalt chloride and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-rho-dioxin (TCDD) stimulation, respectively, with 308 and 176, respectively, exhibiting sensitivity to cross-talk. The overlap between these two sets consists of 33 unique transcripts, including the classic target genes CYP1A1, carbonic anhydrase IX, and those involved in lipid metabolism and coagulation. Computational analysis of the regulatory region of these genes identified complex relationships between HIFs, AHR, and their respective response elements as well as other DNA motifs, including the SRF, Sp-1, NF-kB, and AP-2 binding sites. These results suggest that HIF-AHR cross-talk is limited to genes with regulatory regions that contain specific motifs and architectures.