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A robust PCR primer design platform applied to the detection of Acidobacteria Group 1 in soil.
ABSTRACT: Environmental biosurveillance and microbial ecology studies use PCR-based assays to detect and quantify microbial taxa and gene sequences within a complex background of microorganisms. However, the fragmentary nature and growing quantity of DNA-sequence data make group-specific assay design challenging. We solved this problem by developing a software platform that enables PCR-assay design at an unprecedented scale. As a demonstration, we developed quantitative PCR assays for a globally widespread, ecologically important bacterial group in soil, Acidobacteria Group 1. A total of 33,684 Acidobacteria 16S rRNA gene sequences were used for assay design. Following 1 week of computation on a 376-core cluster, 83 assays were obtained. We validated the specificity of the top three assays, collectively predicted to detect 42% of the Acidobacteria Group 1 sequences, by PCR amplification and sequencing of DNA from soil. Based on previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Acidobacteria Group 1 species were expected to decrease in response to elevated atmospheric CO(2). Quantitative PCR results, using the Acidobacteria Group 1-specific PCR assays, confirmed the expected decrease and provided higher statistical confidence than the 16S rRNA gene-sequencing data. These results demonstrate a powerful capacity to address previously intractable assay design challenges.
Project description:Investigation of the phylogenetic diversity of Acidobacteria taxa using PCR amplicons from positive control 16S rRNA templates and total genomic DNA extracted from soil and a soil clay fraction Overall design: A ten chip study using PCR amplicons from cloned 16S rRNA genes and from diverse soil 16S rRNAs, with PCR primers specific to the Division Acidobacteria. Each chip measures the signal from 42,194 probes (in triplicate) targeting Acidobacteria division, subdivision, and subclades as well as other bacterial phyla. All samples except one (GSM464591) include 2.5 M betaine in the hybridization buffer. Pair files lost due to a computer crash.
Project description:Investigation of the phylogenetic diversity of Acidobacteria taxa using PCR amplicons from positive control 16S rRNA templates and total genomic DNA extracted from soil and a soil clay fraction A ten chip study using PCR amplicons from cloned 16S rRNA genes and from diverse soil 16S rRNAs, with PCR primers specific to the Division Acidobacteria. Each chip measures the signal from 42,194 probes (in triplicate) targeting Acidobacteria division, subdivision, and subclades as well as other bacterial phyla. All samples except one (GSM464591) include 2.5 M betaine in the hybridization buffer. Pair files lost due to a computer crash.
Project description:There is a lack in our current understanding on the putative interactions of species of the phyla of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with plants. Moreover, progress in this area is seriously hampered by the recalcitrance of members of these phyla to grow as pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether particular members of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are avid colonizers of the rhizosphere. Based on previous work, rhizosphere competence was demonstrated for the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups of Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and it was hypothesized that the rhizosphere is a common habitat for Acidobacteria subdivision 8 (class Holophagae). We assessed the population densities of Bacteria, Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and Acidobacteria subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6 and Holophagae in bulk soil and in the rhizospheres of grass, potato and leek in the same field at different points in time using real-time quantitative PCR. Primers of all seven verrucomicrobial, acidobacterial and holophagal PCR systems were based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultivable representatives of the different groups. Luteolibacter, Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, subdivision 6 acidobacteria and Holophaga showed preferences for one or more rhizospheres. In particular, the Holophaga 16S rRNA gene number were more abundant in the leek rhizosphere than in bulk soil and the rhizospheres of grass and potato. Attraction to, and colonization of, leek roots by Holophagae strain CHC25 was further shown in an experimental microcosm set-up. In the light of this remarkable capacity, we propose to coin strain CHC25 Candidatus Porrumbacterium oxyphilus (class Holophagae, Phylum Acidobacteria), the first cultured representative with rhizosphere competence.
Project description:The abundance and composition of bacteria of the phylum Acidobacteria were surveyed in subsurface sediments from uranium-contaminated sites using amplification of 16S rRNA genes followed by clone/sequence analysis. Analysis of sequences from this study and public databases produced a revised and greatly expanded phylogeny of the Acidobacteria phylum consisting of 26 subgroups.
Project description:The pH strongly influenced the development of colonies by members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria on solid laboratory media. Significantly more colonies of this group formed at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.0. At pH 5.5, 7 to 8% of colonies that formed on plates that were incubated for 4 months were formed by subdivision 1 acidobacteria. These colonies were formed by bacteria that spanned almost the entire phylogenetic breadth of the subdivision, and there was considerable congruence between the diversity of this group as determined by the cultivation-based method and by surveying 16S rRNA genes in the same soil. Members of subdivision 1 acidobacteria therefore appear to be readily culturable. An analysis of published libraries of 16S rRNAs or 16S rRNA genes showed a very strong correlation between the abundance of subdivision 1 acidobacteria in soil bacterial communities and the soil pH. Subdivision 1 acidobacteria were most abundant in libraries from soils with pHs of <6, but rare or absent in libraries from soils with pHs of >6.5. This, together with the selective cultivation of members of the group on lower-pH media, indicates that growth of many members of subdivision 1 acidobacteria is favored by slightly to moderately acidic growth conditions.
Project description:Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant bacteria in soil. Although they have been characterized as versatile heterotrophs, it is unclear if the types and availability of organic resources influence their distribution in soil. The potential for organic resources to select for different acidobacteria was assessed using molecular and cultivation-based approaches with agricultural and managed grassland soils in Michigan. The distribution of acidobacteria varied with the carbon content of soil: the proportion of subdivision 4 sequences was highest in agricultural soils (ca. 41%) that contained less carbon than grassland soils, where the proportions of subdivision 1, 3, 4, and 6 sequences were similar. Either readily oxidizable carbon or plant polymers were used as the sole carbon and energy source to isolate heterotrophic bacteria from these soils. Plant polymers increased the diversity of acidobacteria cultivated but decreased the total number of heterotrophs recovered compared to readily oxidizable carbon. Two phylogenetically novel Acidobacteria strains isolated on the plant polymer medium were characterized. Strains KBS 83 (subdivision 1) and KBS 96 (subdivision 3) are moderate acidophiles with pH optima of 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Both strains grew slowly (? = 0.01 h(-1)) and harbored either 1 (strain KBS 83) or 2 (strain KBS 96) copies of the 16S rRNA encoding gene-a genomic characteristic typical of oligotrophs. Strain KBS 83 is a microaerophile, growing optimally at 8% oxygen. These metabolic characteristics help delineate the niches that acidobacteria occupy in soil and are consistent with their widespread distribution and abundance.
Project description:Acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailing environments are well-characterized ecosystems known to be dominated by organisms involved in iron- and sulfur-cycling. Here we examined the microbiology of industrial soft coal slags that originate from alum leaching, an ecosystem distantly related to AMD environments. Our study involved geochemical analyses, bacterial community profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. The slags still contained high amounts of alum constituents (aluminum, sulfur), which mediated direct and indirect effects on bacterial community structure. Bacterial groups typically found in AMD systems and mine tailings were not present. Instead, the soft coal slags were dominated by uncharacterized groups of Acidobacteria (DA052 [subdivision 2], KF-JG30-18 [subdivision 13]), Actinobacteria (TM214), Alphaproteobacteria (DA111), and Chloroflexi (JG37-AG-4), which have previously been detected primarily in peatlands and uranium waste piles. Shotgun metagenomics allowed us to reconstruct 13 high-quality Acidobacteria draft genomes, of which two genomes could be directly linked to dominating groups (DA052, KF-JG30-18) by recovered 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomics revealed broad carbon utilization capabilities for these two groups of elusive Acidobacteria, including polysaccharide breakdown (cellulose, xylan) and the competence to metabolize C1 compounds (ribulose monophosphate pathway) and lignin derivatives (dye-decolorizing peroxidases). Equipped with a broad range of efflux systems for metal cations and xenobiotics, DA052 and KF-JG30-18 may have a competitive advantage over other bacterial groups in this unique habitat.
Project description:The Acidobacteria is one of the major bacterial phyla in soils and peatlands. The currently explored diversity within this phylum is assigned to 15 class-level units, five of which contain described members. The ecologically relevant traits of acidobacteria from different classes remain poorly understood. Here, we compared the patterns of acidobacterial diversity in sandy soils of tundra, along a gradient of increasing vegetation-unfixed aeolian sand, semi-fixed surfaces with mosses and lichens, and mature soil under fully developed plant cover. The Acidobacteria-affiliated 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from these soils comprised 11 to 33% of total bacterial reads and belonged mostly to members of the classes Acidobacteriia and Blastocatellia, which displayed opposite habitat preferences. The relative abundance of the Blastocatellia was maximal in unfixed sands and declined in soils of vegetated plots, showing positive correlation with soil pH and negative correlation with carbon and nitrogen availability. An opposite tendency was characteristic for the Acidobacteriia. Most Blastocatellia-affiliated reads belonged to as-yet-undescribed members of the family Arenimicrobiaceae, which appears to be characteristic for dry, depleted in organic matter soil habitats. The pool of Acidobacteriia-affiliated sequences, apart from Acidobacteriaceae- and Bryobacteraceae-related reads, had a large proportion of sequences from as-yet-undescribed families, which seem to specialize in degrading plant-derived organic matter. This analysis reveals sandy soils of tundra as a source of novel acidobacterial diversity and provides an insight into the ecological preferences of different taxonomic groups within this phylum.
Project description:The bacterial phylum Acidobacteria has a widespread distribution and is one of the most common and diverse phyla in soil habitats. However, members of this phylum have often been recalcitrant to cultivation methods, hampering the study of this presumably important bacterial group. In this study, we used a cultivation-independent metagenomic approach to recover genomic information from soilborne members of this phylum. A soil metagenomic fosmid library was screened by PCR targeting acidobacterial 16S rRNA genes, facilitating the recovery of 17 positive clones. Recovered inserts appeared to originate from a range of Acidobacteria subdivisions, with dominance of subdivision 6 (10 clones). Upon full-length insert sequencing, gene annotation identified a total of 350 open reading frames (ORFs), representing a broad range of functions. Remarkably, six inserts from subdivision 6 contained a region of gene synteny, containing genes involved in purine de novo biosynthesis and encoding tRNA synthetase and conserved hypothetical proteins. Similar genomic regions had previously been observed in several environmental clones recovered from soil and marine sediments, facilitating comparisons with respect to gene organization and evolution. Comparative analyses revealed a general dichotomy between marine and terrestrial genes in both phylogeny and G+C content. Although the significance of this homologous gene cluster across subdivision 6 members is not known, it appears to be a common feature within a large percentage of all acidobacterial genomic fragments recovered from both of these environments.
Project description:Bacteroidales are fecal anaerobic bacteria that are common in the digestive systems and feces of warm-blooded animals. Some strains of Bacteroidales have been reported to be host-specific. In this study, Bacteroidales strains from chicken feces were examined for their potential use as indicators of chicken fecal contamination. Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from chicken feces were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using these sequences and published Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from human and bovine feces. Primers were designed based on putative chicken feces-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences and the primer pairs were tested for specificity in PCR assays. One set of primers, chBact F1 and chBact R16, specifically amplified DNA from chicken feces in a PCR assay, but did not amplify wild turkey, cat, bovine, or deer fecal DNAs. In addition, DNA from feces contaminated straw-based chicken litter produced a product in the PCR assay. However, DNA from feces contaminated wood shavings-based chicken litter was not amplified. The PCR assay described here may prove a useful tool for the detection of chicken feces and for source tracking in watersheds with fecal contamination.