Identification of SLC26A3 mutations in a Korean patient with congenital chloride diarrhea.
ABSTRACT: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder with the hallmark of persistent watery Cl(-)-rich diarrhea from birth. Mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene, which encodes a coupled Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger in the ileum and colon, are known to cause CLD. Although there are a few reports of CLD patients in Korea, none of these had been confirmed by genetic analysis. Here, we describe the case of a Korean infant with clinical features of CLD. Using direct sequencing analysis, we identified 2 sequence variants: a missense variant of unknown significance (c.525G>C; p.Arg175 Ser) and a splicing mutation (c.2063-1G>T) in the SLC26A3 gene; these had been inherited from the father and mother, respectively. Whilst CLD is rare, its main symptom, diarrhea, is very common in infants. Hence, the diagnosis of CLD can prove difficult. Mutational analysis of the SLC26A3 gene should be considered as a viable method to confirm a diagnosis of CLD in Korean infants with persistent diarrhea.
Project description:Congenital chloride-losing diarrhea (CLD) is a genetic disorder causing watery stool and dehydration. Mutations in SLC26A3 (solute carrier 26 family member 3), which functions as a coupled Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger, cause CLD. SLC26A3 is a membrane protein predicted to contain 12 transmembrane-spanning alpha-helices and a C-terminal STAS (sulfate transporters and anti-sigma-factor) domain homologous to the bacterial anti-sigma-factor antagonists. The STAS domain is required for SLC26A3 Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange function and for the activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by SLC26A3. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which four CLD-causing mutations (DeltaY526/7, I544N, I675/6ins, and G702Tins) in the STAS domain lead to disease. In a heterologous mammalian expression system biochemical, immunohistochemical, and ion transport experiments suggest that the four CLD mutations cause SLC26A3 transporter misfolding and/or mistrafficking. Expression studies with the isolated STAS domain suggest that the I675/6ins and G702Tins mutations disrupt the STAS domain directly, whereas limited proteolysis experiments suggest that the DeltaY526/7 and I544N mutations affect a later step in the folding and/or trafficking pathway. The data suggest that these CLD-causing mutations cause disease by at least two distinct molecular mechanisms, both ultimately leading to loss of functional protein at the plasma membrane.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long, severe diarrhea with intestinal Cl- malabsorption. It results from a reduced activity of the down regulated in adenoma exchanger (DRA), due to mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Currently available therapies are not able to limit the severity of diarrhea in CLD. Conflicting results have been reported on the therapeutic efficacy of oral butyrate. METHODS: We investigated the effect of oral butyrate (100 mg/kg/day) in seven CLD children with different SLC26A3 genotypes. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained to assess the effect of butyrate on the expression of the two main Cl- transporters: DRA and putative anion transporter-1 (PAT-1). RESULTS: A variable clinical response to butyrate was observed regarding the stool pattern and fecal ion loss. The best response was observed in subjects with missense and deletion mutations. Variable response to butyrate was also observed on SLC26A3 (DRA) and SLC26A6 (PAT1) gene expression in nasal epithelial cells of CLD patients. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a genotype-dependency for butyrate therapeutic efficacy in CLD. The effect of butyrate is related in part on a different modulation of the expression of the two main apical membrane Cl- exchangers of epithelial cells, members of the SLC26 anion family. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical trial Registry ACTRN12613000450718.
Project description:Clinical efficacy of probiotics in treating various forms of diarrhea has been clearly established. However, mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics are not completely defined. Diarrhea is caused either by decreased absorption or increased secretion of electrolytes and solutes in the intestine. In this regard, the electroneutral absorption of two major electrolytes, Na(+) and Cl(-), occurs mainly through the coupled operation of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) acutely stimulated Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels of the apical anion exchanger SLC26A3 (DRA). However, whether probiotics influence SLC26A3 expression and promoter activity has not been examined. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the long-term effects of LA on SLC26A3 expression and promoter activity. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with LA for 6-24 h resulted in a significant increase in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. DRA mRNA levels were also significantly elevated in response to LA treatment starting as early as 8 h. Additionally, the promoter activity of DRA was increased by more than twofold following 8 h LA treatment of Caco-2 cells. Similar to the in vitro studies, in vivo studies using mice gavaged with LA also showed significantly increased DRA mRNA ( approximately 4-fold) and protein expression in the colonic regions as assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, increase in DRA promoter activity and expression may contribute to the upregulation of intestinal electrolyte absorption and might underlie the potential antidiarrheal effects of LA.
Project description:SLC26A3 (downregulated in adenoma; DRA) is a Cl-/anion exchanger expressed in the luminal membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, where it facilitates electroneutral NaCl absorption. SLC26A3 loss of function in humans or mice causes chloride-losing diarrhea. Here, we identified slc26a3 inhibitors in a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules done in Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells coexpressing slc26a3 and a genetically encoded halide sensor. Structure-activity relationship studies were done on the most potent inhibitor classes identified in the screen: 4,8-dimethylcoumarins and acetamide-thioimidazoles. The dimethylcoumarin DRAinh-A250 fully and reversibly inhibited slc26a3-mediated Cl- exchange with HCO3-, I-, and thiocyanate (SCN-), with an IC50 of ~0.2 ?M. DRAinh-A250 did not inhibit the homologous anion exchangers slc26a4 (pendrin) or slc26a6 (PAT-1), nor did it alter activity of other related proteins or intestinal ion channels. In mice, intraluminal DRAinh-A250 blocked fluid absorption in closed colonic loops but not in jejunal loops, while the NHE3 (SLC9A3) inhibitor tenapanor blocked absorption only in the jejunum. Oral DRAinh-A250 and tenapanor comparably reduced signs of constipation in loperamide-treated mice, with additive effects found on coadministration. DRAinh-A250 was also effective in loperamide-treated cystic fibrosis mice. These studies support a major role of slc26a3 in colonic fluid absorption and suggest the therapeutic utility of SLC26A3 inhibition in constipation.
Project description:Congenital chloride diarrhea is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the intestinal lumenal membrane Cl(-)/HCO(-) 3 exchanger, SLC26A3. We report here the novel SLC26A3 mutation G393W in a Mexican child, the first such report in a patient from Central America. SLC26A3 G393W expression in Xenopus oocytes exhibits a mild hypomorphic phenotype, with normal surface expression and moderately reduced anion transport function. However, expression of HA-SLC26A3 in HEK-293 cells reveals intracellular retention and greatly decreased steady-state levels of the mutant polypeptide, in contrast to peripheral membrane expression of the wildtype protein. Whereas wildtype HA-SLC26A3 is apically localized in polarized monolayers of filter-grown MDCK cells and Caco2 cells, mutant HA-SLC26A3 G393W exhibits decreased total polypeptide abundance, with reduced or absent surface expression and sparse punctate (or absent) intracellular distribution. The WT protein is similarly localized in LLC-PK1 cells, but the mutant fails to accumulate to detectable levels. We conclude that the chloride-losing diarrhea phenotype associated with homozygous expression of SLC26A3 G393W likely reflects lack of apical surface expression in enterocytes, secondary to combined abnormalities in polypeptide trafficking and stability. Future progress in development of general or target-specific folding chaperonins and correctors may hold promise for pharmacological rescue of this and similar genetic defects in membrane protein targeting.
Project description:Chloride absorption and bicarbonate excretion through exchange by the solute carrier family 26 member 3 (SLC26A3) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are crucial for many tissues including sperm and epithelia of the male reproductive tract. Homozygous SLC26A3 mutations cause congenital chloride diarrhea with male subfertility, while homozygous CFTR mutations cause cystic fibrosis with male infertility. Some homozygous or heterozygous CFTR mutations only manifest as male infertility. Accordingly, we studied the influence of SLC26A3 on idiopathic infertility by sequencing exons of SLC26A3 in 283 infertile and 211 control men. A heterozygous mutation c.2062?G?>?C (p.Asp688His) appeared in nine (3.2%) infertile men, and additionally, in two (0.9%) control men, whose samples revealed a sperm motility defect. The p.Asp688His mutation is localized in the CFTR-interacting STAS domain of SLC26A3 and enriched in Finland, showing a significant association with male infertility in comparison with 6,572 Finnish (P?<?0.05) and over 120,000 global alleles (P?<?0.0001) (ExAC database). Functional studies showed that while SLC26A3 is a strong activator of CFTR-dependent anion transport, SLC26A3-p.Asp688His mutant retains normal Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity but suppresses CFTR, despite unaffected domain binding and expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for human male infertility?impaired anion transport by the coupled SLC26A3 and CFTR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital chloride diarrhoea (CLD, OMIM 214700) is a serious inherited defect of intestinal electrolyte absorption transmitted in an autosomal recessive fashion. The major clinical manifestation is diarrhoea with high chloride content which can be balanced by substitution. The molecular pathology involves an epithelial Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger protein, encoded by the solute carrier family 26, member 3 gene (SLC26A3), previously known as CLD or DRA (downregulated in adenomas). To date, almost 30 different mutations in the SLC26A3 gene have been identified throughout the world. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established. PATIENTS/METHODS:Two siblings presenting with CLD were studied for disease history, supplementation, or other treatments, and for mutations in the SLC26A3 gene. RESULTS:Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous I544N mutation in both patients. However, despite the uniform genetic background of CLD in this family, the clinical picture and outcome of the disease were remarkably different between siblings. The older sibling had a late diagnosis and chronic course of the disease whereas the younger one, who was diagnosed soon after birth and immediately received supplementation therapy, grows and develops normally. CONCLUSION:Time of diagnosis, substitution therapy, compliance, and compensatory mechanisms are more important modulators of the clinical picture of CLD than the type of mutation in the SLC26A3 gene.
Project description:Background:Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) in a newborn is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with life-threatening complications, requiring early diagnostics and treatment to prevent severe dehydration and infant mortality. SLC26A3 rs386833481 (c.392C>G; p.P131R) gene polymorphism is an important genetic determinant of CCD. Here, we report the influence of the non-synonymous SLC26A3 variant rs386833481 gene polymorphism on the function of the epithelial barrier and the potential mechanisms of these effects. Results:We found that P131R-SLC26A3 increased dysfunction of the epithelial barrier compared with wild type SLC26A3 in human colonic Caco-2 and mouse colonic CMT-93 cells. When P131R-SLC26A3 was subsequently reverted to wild type, the epithelial barrier function was restored similar to wild type cells. Further study demonstrated that variant P131R-SLC26A3 disrupts function of epithelial barrier through two distinct molecular mechanisms: (a) decreasing SLC26A3 expression through a ubiquitination pathway and (b) disrupting a key interaction with its partner ZO-1/CFTR, thereby increasing the epithelial permeability. Conclusion:Our study provides an important insight of SLC26A3 SNPs in the regulation of the epithelial permeability and indicates that SLC26A3 rs386833481 is likely a causative mutation in the dysfunction of epithelial barrier of CCD, and correction of this SNP or increasing SLC26A3 function could be therapeutically beneficial for chronic diarrhea diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; OMIM 214700) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variations in the solute carrier family 26 member A3 (SLC26A3) gene. Without salt substitution, this chronic diarrheal disorder causes severe dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. Homozygous variants in the nearby gene SLC26A4 disrupt anion exchange in the inner ear and the thyroid, causing Pendred syndrome (PDS; OMIM 274600), which is the most frequent form of syndromic deafness. CASE PRESENTATION:We report an unusual co-occurrence of two rare homozygous mutations in both the SLC26A3 and SLC26A4 genes, causing a rare combination of both CLD and PDS in two siblings. Although the clinical pictures were typical, the combined loss of these anion transporters might modulate the risk of renal injury associated with CLD. CONCLUSIONS:Familial presentation of two rare autosomal recessive disorders with loss of function of different SLC26 anion transporters is described. Independent homozygous variants in the SLC26A3 and SLC26A4 genes cause CLD and PDS in siblings, shedding light on co-occurrence of rare recessive traits in the progeny of consanguineous couples.
Project description:Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is characterized by watery stools with high chloride content beginning prenatally and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Perfusion studies have established a basic defect in ileal and colonic Cl-/HCO3- transport, resulting in defective chloride absorption. The protein and its gene defects have, however, remained uncharacterized. We attempted to exclude candidate genes by considering linkage disequilibrium as well as genetic linkage in a small number of Finnish families. Initial results were suggestive of linkage between CLD and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). Extended analysis in eight families confirmed close linkage to chromosome 7 markers proximal of CFTR, with maximum logarithm of odds scores of 5.11 and 5.06 for D7S501 and D7S496, respectively, at zero recombination. Allelic associations were observed that were striking between CLD and D7S496 and weaker between CLD and D7S501. Multipoint analyses mapped CLD unequivocally at D7S496 with a maximum logarithm of odds score of 9.33. We conclude that the CLD gene maps close to, but is distinct from, CFTR.