Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot in Allium tuberosum Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we characterized sporadically occurring sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Roth.) in farm fields in Sacheon, Korea. The initial symptom of the disease was water-soaked, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. Further, mycelial mats spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia formed on the scaly stem and leaves. The sclerotia were globoid, 1~3 mm, and white to brown. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) was 30℃. The diameter of the hypae ranged from 4 to 8 µm. Clamp connection was observed on PDA medium after 5 days of incubation. Based on the mycological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot in Chinese chive caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.
Project description:Sclerotium rot was found on Cymbidium orchids at Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, in July, 2010. Symptoms occurred on low leaves, which turned yellowish, after which the entire plant wilted. Severely infected plants were blighted and eventually died. White mycelial mats and sclerotia appeared on pseudobulbs. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report of new Sclerotium rot on Cymbidium spp. caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.
Project description:Stem rot was found for the first time on the Asiatic dayflower plant (Commelina communis L.) in Korea. A detailed description of this Korean specimen is given, along with its rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. The fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo based on mycological characteristics and molecular data.
Project description:Mycoviruses associated with hypovirulence are potential biological control agents and could be useful to study the pathogenesis of fungal host pathogens. Sclerotium rolfsii, a pathogenic fungus, causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops. In this study, we isolated a series of dsRNAs from a debilitated S. rolfsii strain, BLH-1, which had pronounced phenotypic aberrations including reduced pathogenicity, mycelial growth and deficient sclerotia production. Virus-curing and horizontal transmission experiments that eliminated or transmitted, respectively, all dsRNA elements showed that the dsRNAs were involved in the hypovirulent traits of BLH-1. Ultrastructure examination also showed hyphae fracture and cytoplasm or organelle degeneration in BLH-1 hyphal cells compared to the virus-free strain. Three assembled cDNA contigs generated from the cDNA library cloned from the purified dsRNA indicated that strain BLH-1 was infected by at least three novel mycoviruses. One has similarity to the hypovirulence-associated Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 (SsHV2) in the family Hypoviridae, and the other two are related to two different unclassified dsRNA mycovirus families. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. rolfsii hypovirulence that was correlated with its associated dsRNA.
Project description:Fruit rot is the principal phytopathological problem of pipiana pumpkin (Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber) in the state of Guerrero. The aims of this research were to 1) identify the causal agent of southern blight on pumpkin fruits by morphological, pathogenic, and molecular analysis (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2); 2) evaluate in vitro Trichoderma spp. strains and chemical fungicides; and 3) evaluate under rainfed field conditions, the strains that obtained the best results in vitro, combined with fungicides during two crop cycles. Number of commercial and non-commercial fruits at harvest, and seed yield (kg ha-1) were registered. Morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization identified Sclerotium rolfsii as the causal agent of rot in pipiana pumpkin fruits. Now, in vitro conditions, the highest inhibition of S. rolfsii were obtained by Trichoderma virens strain G-41 (70.72%), T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 (69%), and the fungicides metalaxyl (100%), pyraclostrobin (100%), quintozene (100%), cyprodinil + fludioxonil (100%), and prochloraz (100%). Thiophanate-methyl only delayed growth (4.17%). In field conditions, during the spring-summer 2015 cycle, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 + metalaxyl, and T. asperellum + cyprodinil + fludioxonil, favored the highest number of fruits and seed yield in the crop.
Project description:Glyoxylate dehydrogenase (glyoxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase) was purified 600-fold in three steps from crude extracts of the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Corticium rolfsii Curzi). Two of the purification steps involved dye-affinity chromatography. The enzyme is a tetramer of Mr 250 000, with identical subunits of Mr 57 000. Inhibition studies suggest that there is one essential thiol group per active site.
Project description:Plants being sessile are under constant threat of multiple abiotic and biotic stresses within its natural habitat. A combined stress involving an abiotic and a biotic factor reportedly increases susceptibility of the plants to pathogens. The emerging threat, collar rot disease of chickpea (caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.) is reported to be influenced by soil moisture condition (SMC). Hence, we studied the influence of differential SMC viz. upper optimum (100%), optimum (80%), lower optimum (60%), and limiting (40%) soil moisture conditions on colonization and collar rot development over the course of infection in two chickpea cultivars, Annigeri (susceptible to collar rot) and ICCV 05530 (moderately resistant to collar rot). Disease incidence was found to be directly proportional to increase in soil moisture (R2 = 0.794). Maximum incidence was observed at 80% SMC, followed by 100 and 60% SMC. Expression of genes (qPCR analysis) associated with host cell wall binding (lectin) and degradation viz. endopolygalacturonase-2, endoglucosidase, and cellobiohydrolase during collar rot development in chickpea were relatively less at limiting soil moisture condition (40%) as compared to optimum soil moisture condition (80%). As compared to individual stress, the expression of defense response genes in chickpea seedlings were highly up-regulated in seedlings challenged with combined stress. Our qPCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes in chickpea during interaction with S. rolfsii at low SMC was primarily responsible for delayed disease reaction. Involvement of moisture and biotic stress-related genes in combined stress showed a tailored defense mechanism.
Project description:Stenotrophomonas sp. is emerging as a popular microbe of global concern with various potential ecological roles. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using this bacterial strain has shown promising applications in life sciences. However, there is no report on efficient agricultural applications of biosynthesized AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. In this regard, successful biosynthesis of AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) was monitored by Uv-visible spectrum showing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 440 nm. The biosynthesized AgNPs were spherical with an average mean size of ~12 nm. The antifungal efficacy of biosynthesized AgNPs against foliar and soil-borne phytopathogens was observed. The inhibitory impact of AgNPs (2, 4, 10 μg/ml) on conidial germination was recorded under in vitro conditions. Interestingly, sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii exposed to AgNPs failed to germinate on PDA medium and in soil system. Moreover, AgNPs treatment successfully managed collar rot of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii under greenhouse conditions. The reduced sclerotia germination, phenolic acids induction, altered lignification and H2O2 production was observed to be the probable mechanisms providing protection to chickpea against S. rolfsii. Our data revealed that AgNPs treated plants are better equipped to cope with pathogen challenge pointing towards their robust applications in plant disease management.
Project description:Sclerotium rolfsii, which causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops, is a devastating plant pathogen worldwide. Mycoviruses that induce hypovirulence in phytopathogenic fungi are potential biological control resources against fungal plant diseases. However, in S. rolfsii, mycoviruses are rarely reported. In a previous study, we found a hypovirulent strain carrying a diverse pattern of dsRNAs. Here, we utilized the RNA_Seq technique to detect viral sequences. Deep sequencing, RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing validation analyses revealed that this strain harbors various new viral species that show affinity to the distinctly established and proposed families Benyviridae, Endornaviridae, Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae, and Fusagraviridae. Moreover, some viral sequences that could not be assigned to any of the existing families or orders were also identified and showed similarities to the Alphavirus, Ourmiavirus, phlegivirus-like and Curvularia thermal tolerance virus-like groups. In addition, we also conducted deep sequencing analysis of small RNAs in the virus-infecting fugal strain. The results indicated that the Dicer-mediated gene silencing mechanism was present in S. rolfsii. This is the first report of viral diversity in a single S. rolfsii fungal strain, and the results presented herein might provide insight into the taxonomy and evolution of mycoviruses and be useful for the exploration of mycoviruses as biocontrol agents.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The plant pathogenic basidiomycete Sclerotium rolfsii produces the industrially exploited exopolysaccharide scleroglucan, a polymer that consists of (1 --> 3)-beta-linked glucose with a (1 --> 6)-beta-glycosyl branch on every third unit. Although the physicochemical properties of scleroglucan are well understood, almost nothing is known about the genetics of scleroglucan biosynthesis. Similarly, the biosynthetic pathway of oxalate, the main by-product during scleroglucan production, has not been elucidated yet. In order to provide a basis for genetic and metabolic engineering approaches, we studied scleroglucan and oxalate biosynthesis in S. rolfsii using different transcriptomic approaches. RESULTS: Two S. rolfsii transcriptomes obtained from scleroglucan-producing and scleroglucan-nonproducing conditions were pooled and sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing technique yielding approximately 350,000 reads. These could be assembled into 21,937 contigs and 171,833 singletons, for which 6,951 had significant matches in public protein data bases. Sequence data were used to obtain first insights into the genomics of scleroglucan and oxalate production and to predict putative proteins involved in the synthesis of both metabolites. Using comparative transcriptomics, namely Agilent microarray hybridization and suppression subtractive hybridization, we identified approximately 800 unigenes which are differently expressed under scleroglucan-producing and non-producing conditions. From these, candidate genes were identified which could represent potential leads for targeted modification of the S. rolfsii metabolism for increased scleroglucan yields. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented in this paper provide for the first time genomic and transcriptomic data about S. rolfsii and demonstrate the power and usefulness of combined transcriptome sequencing and comparative microarray analysis. The data obtained allowed us to predict the biosynthetic pathways of scleroglucan and oxalate synthesis and to identify important genes putatively involved in determining scleroglucan yields. Moreover, our data establish the first sequence database for S. rolfsii, which allows research into other biological processes of S. rolfsii, such as host-pathogen interaction.
Project description:Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential.Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis.Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica. 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%).This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii.