Apolipoprotein A-IV improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin secretion.
ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is secreted by the small intestine in response to fat absorption. Here we demonstrate a potential role for apoA-IV in regulating glucose homeostasis. ApoA-IV-treated isolated pancreatic islets had enhanced insulin secretion under conditions of high glucose but not of low glucose, suggesting a direct effect of apoA-IV to enhance glucose-stimulated insulin release. This enhancement involves cAMP at a level distal to Ca(2+) influx into the ? cells. Knockout of apoA-IV results in compromised insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance compared with WT mice. Challenging apoA-IV(-/-) mice with a high-fat diet led to fasting hyperglycemia and more severe glucose intolerance associated with defective insulin secretion than occurred in WT mice. Administration of exogenous apoA-IV to apoA-IV(-/-) mice improved glucose tolerance by enhancing insulin secretion in mice fed either chow or a high-fat diet. Finally, we demonstrate that exogenous apoA-IV injection decreases blood glucose levels and stimulates a transient increase in insulin secretion in KKAy diabetic mice. These results suggest that apoA-IV may provide a therapeutic target for the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and treatment of diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Insulin-sensitizing drugs are currently limited, and identifying new candidates is a challenge. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signalling, and its inhibition is anticipated to improve insulin resistance. Here, the pharmacological properties of CX08005, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Recombinant hPTP1B protein was used to study enzyme activity and mode of inhibition. Docking simulation explored the interactions between CX08005 and PTP1B. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) in diet-induced obese (DIO) and KKAy mice; glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and whole-body insulin sensitivity (ISWB ) were also determined. A hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was performed to evaluate insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both whole-body and insulin-sensitive tissues. Furthermore, CX08005's effects on muscle, fat and liver cells were determined in vitro. KEY RESULTS:CX08005 competitively inhibited PTP1B by binding to the catalytic P-loop through hydrogen bonds. In DIO mice, CX08005 ameliorated glucose intolerance dose-dependently (50-200 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ) and decreased the HOMA-IR. In KKAy mice, CX08005 (50 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ) improved glucose intolerance, GSIS, ISWB and hyperglycaemia. CX08005 also enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, increased glucose infusion rate and glucose uptake in muscle and fat in DIO mice (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp test). CX08005 enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes, and increased phosphorylation of IR?/IRS1 and downstream molecules in hepatocytes in a dose- and insulin-dependent manner respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Our results strongly suggest that CX08005 directly enhances insulin action in vitro and in vivo through competitive inhibition of PTP1B.
Project description:Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are a commonly used traditional medicine to treat diabetes in China. Recent studies have confirmed their anti-diabetic effects, but the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. The present study was designed to explore whether PNS decrease hyperglycemia by improving insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms. The anti-diabetic effects of PNS were analyzed in a skeletal myoblast cell line, C2C12, and in high fat diet-induced diabetic KKAy mice. C2C12 cells were treated with PNS (50, 100, and 200 μg·L-1 ) and examined for glucose uptake, cell viability and expression of components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway. KKAy mice were intraperitoneally injected with PNS (200 mg·kg-1 ) for 6 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, serum lipid, glucose and insulin tolerance were measured to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of PNS. Pathological changes, apoptosis and the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were analyzed in KKAy skeletal muscle. PNS significantly increased insulin-induced glucose uptake, but did not affect the cell viability of C2C12 cells. In addition, PNS reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance of KKAy mice. Pathological changes and apoptosis of skeletal muscle were relieved by PNS treatment. Moreover, PNS treatment enhanced expression of mRNA encoding IRS1 and GLUT4, as well as the protein expression of phosphorylated (p) -insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), p-PI3K, p-AKT and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in C2C12 and KKAy mouse muscle. Collectively, these data indicate that PNS reduces hyperglycemia and insulin resistance through up-regulating GLUT4 expression and the IRS1-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, PNS alleviated diabetes skeletal muscle pathological damage. Thus, our data suggest that PNS may be promising anti-diabetic compounds.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Acute administration of the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-1), improves glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The molecular mechanisms mediating this are not known, but in muscle cell cultures, ApoA-1 failed to increase glucose uptake when infected with a dominant-negative AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) virus. We therefore investigated whether AMPK is necessary for ApoA-1-stimulated glucose uptake in intact heart and skeletal muscle in vivo. METHODS:The effect of injection with recombinant human ApoA-1 (rApoA-1) on glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and glucose uptake into skeletal and heart muscle with and without block of insulin secretion by injection of epinephrine (0.1 mg/kg) and propranolol (5 mg/kg), were investigated in 8 weeks high-fat diet-fed (60E%) wild-type and AMPK?2 kinase-dead mice in the overnight-fasted state. In addition, the effect of rApoA-1 on glucose uptake in isolated skeletal muscle ex vivo was studied. RESULTS:rApoA-1 lowered plasma glucose concentration by 1.7 mmol/l within 3 h (6.1 vs 4.4 mmol/l; p < 0.001). Three hours after rApoA-1 injection, glucose tolerance during a 40-min glucose tolerance test (GTT) was improved compared to control (area under the curve (AUC) reduced by 45%, p < 0.001). This was accompanied by an increased glucose clearance into skeletal (+110%; p < 0.001) and heart muscle (+100%; p < 0.001) and an increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion 20 min after glucose injection (+180%; p < 0.001). When insulin secretion was blocked during a GTT, rApoA-1 still enhanced glucose tolerance (AUC lowered by 20% compared to control; p < 0.001) and increased glucose clearance into skeletal (+50%; p < 0.05) and heart muscle (+270%; p < 0.001). These improvements occurred to a similar extent in both wild-type and AMPK?2 kinase-dead mice and thus independently of AMPK?2 activity in skeletal- and heart muscle. Interestingly, rApoA-1 failed to increase glucose uptake in isolated skeletal muscles ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, ApoA-1 stimulates in vivo glucose disposal into skeletal and heart muscle independently of AMPK?2. The observation that ApoA-1 fails to increase glucose uptake in isolated muscle ex vivo suggests that additional systemic effects are required.
Project description:GM3, a precursor for synthesis of a- and b-series gangliosides, is elevated in adipocytes of obese model animals and in sera of obese human patients with type 2 diabetes and/or dyslipidemia. GM3 synthase (GM3S)-KO C57BL/6 mice display enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. However, the pathophysiological roles of GM3 and related gangliosides in the central control of feeding and metabolism remain unclear. We found that a mouse model (KKAy GM3S KO) generated by KO of the GM3S gene in the yellow obese strain, KKAy, displayed significant amelioration of obese phenotype. Whereas KKAy mice were hyperphagic and developed severe obesity, KKAy GM3S KO mice had significantly lower body weight and food intake, and greater glucose and insulin tolerance. The hypothalamic response to intraperitoneal administration of leptin was greatly reduced in KKAy mice, but was retained in KKAy GM3S KO mice. In studies of a cultured mouse hypothalamic neuronal cell line, enhanced leptin-dependent phosphorylation of ERK was observed in GM3S-deficient cells. Furthermore, KKAy GM3S KO mice did show altered coat color, suggesting that GM3S is also involved in melanocortin signaling. Our findings, taken together, indicate that GM3-related gangliosides play key roles in leptin and melanocortin signaling.
Project description:The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and is activated by long-chain fatty acids. Gene deletion studies have shown that GPR40 mediates, at least in part, fatty acid-amplification of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS) but is not implicated in GSIS itself. However, the role of GPR40 in the long-term effects of fatty acids on insulin secretion remains controversial. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR40 plays a role in insulin secretion after high-fat feeding. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD GPR40 knockout (KO) mice on a C57BL/6 background and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 11 weeks. Glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and insulin secretion in response to glucose and Intralipid were assessed during the course of the diet period.GPR40 KO mice had fasting hyperglycemia. They became as obese, glucose intolerant, and insulin resistant as their WT littermates given HFD and developed a similar degree of liver steatosis. Their fasting blood glucose levels increased earlier than those of control mice during the course of the HFD. The remarkable increase in insulin secretory responses to intravenous glucose and Intralipid seen in WT mice after HFD was of much lower magnitude in GPR40 KO mice.GPR40 plays a role not only in fatty acid modulation of insulin secretion, but also in GSIS after high-fat feeding. These observations raise doubts on the validity of a therapeutic approach based on GPR40 antagonism for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Introduction of the yellow obese gene (A(y)) into mice (KKAy) results in obesity and diabetes by 5 weeks of age. METHODS:Using this model of type 2 diabetes, we evaluated male and female 6- to 8-month-old wild-type (WT, n=10) and KKAy (n=22) mice subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) and sacrificed at day (d) 7. RESULTS:Despite similar infarct sizes (50% ± 4% for WT and 49% ± 2% for KKAy, P=not significant), the 7d post-MI survival was 70% (n=7/10) in WT mice and 45% (n=10/22) in KKAy mice (P<.05). Plasma glucose levels were 1.4-fold increased in KKAy mice at baseline compared to WT (P<.05). Glucose levels did not change in WT mice but decreased 38% in KKAy post-MI (P<.05). End-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions post-MI were smaller and fractional shortening improved in the KKAy (5% ± 1% in WT and 10% ± 2% in KKAy, P<.05 for all). The improved cardiac function in KKAy was accompanied by reduced macrophage numbers and collagen I and III levels (both P<.05). Griffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia lectin-I staining for vessel density demonstrated fewer vessels in KKAy infarcts (5.9% ± 0.5%) compared to WT infarcts (7.3% ± 0.1%, P<.05). CONCLUSION:In conclusion, our study in KKAy mice revealed a paradoxical reduced post-MI survival but improved cardiac function through reduced inflammation, extracellular matrix accumulation, and neovascularization in the infarct region. These results indicate a dual-role effect of obesity in the post-MI response.
Project description:Glucagon and insulin are commonly believed to have counteracting effects on blood glucose levels. However, recent studies have demonstrated that glucagon has a physiologic role to activate β-cells and enhance insulin secretion. To date, the actions of glucagon have been studied mostly in fasting or hypoglycemic states, yet it is clear that mixed-nutrient meals elicit secretion of both glucagon and insulin, suggesting that glucagon also contributes to glucose regulation in the postprandial state. We hypothesized that the elevated glycemia seen in the fed state would allow glucagon to stimulate insulin secretion and reduce blood glucose. In fact, exogenous glucagon given under fed conditions did robustly stimulate insulin secretion and lower glycemia. Exogenous glucagon given to fed Gcgr:Glp1rβcell-/- mice failed to stimulate insulin secretion or reduce glycemia, demonstrating the importance of an insulinotropic glucagon effect. The action of endogenous glucagon to reduce glycemia in the fed state was tested with administration of alanine, a potent glucagon secretagogue. Alanine raised blood glucose in fasted WT mice or fed Gcgr:Glp1rβcell-/- mice, conditions where glucagon is unable to stimulate β-cell activity. However, alanine given to fed WT mice produced a decrease in glycemia, along with elevated insulin and glucagon levels. Overall, our data support a model in which glucagon serves as an insulinotropic hormone in the fed state and complements rather than opposes insulin action to maintain euglycemia.
Project description:FK506 binding protein 12.6 kDa (FKBP12.6), a protein that regulates ryanodine Ca(2+) release channels, may act as an important regulator of insulin secretion. In this study, the role of FKBP12.6 in the control of insulin secretion and blood glucose is clarified using FKBP12.6(-/-) mice. FKBP12.6(-/-) mice showed significant fed hyperinsulinemia but exhibited normoglycemia, fasting normoinsulinemia, and normal body weight compared with wild-type (WT) littermate control mice. Deletion of FKBP12.6 resulted in enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) both in vivo and in vitro, a result that is due to enhanced glucose-induced islet Ca(2+) elevation. After a high-fat dietary challenge (HF diet) for 3 mo, FKBP12.6(-/-) mice displayed higher body weight, hyperinsulinemia, and lower fed blood glucose concentrations compared with WT mice. FKBP12.6(-/-) mice displayed hyperinsulinemia, and resistance to HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, suggesting that FKBP12.6 plays an important role in insulin secretion and blood glucose control, and raising the possibility that it may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:We demonstrated that angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor-interacting protein (ATIP) 1 ameliorates inflammation-mediated vascular remodeling independent of the AT2 receptor, leading us to explore the possibility of whether ATIP1 could exert anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in other pathophysiological conditions. We examined the possible anti-inflammatory effects of ATIP1 in adipose tissue associated with amelioration of insulin resistance. In mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration and M1-to-M2 ratio were decreased in ATIP1 transgenic mice (ATIP1-Tg) compared with wild-type mice (WT), with decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in white adipose tissue (WAT), but an increase in interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, 2-[(3)H]deoxy-d-glucose (2-[(3)H]DG) uptake was significantly increased in ATIP1-Tg compared with WT. Next, we examined the roles of ATIP1 in BM-derived hematopoietic cells, employing chimeric mice produced by BM transplantation into irradiated type 2 diabetic mice with obesity, KKAy, as recipients. ATM infiltration and M1-to-M2 ratio were decreased in ATIP1 chimera (ATIP1-tg as BM donor), with improvement of insulin-mediated 2-[(3)H]DG uptake and amelioration of inflammation in WAT. Moreover, serum adiponectin concentration in ATIP1 chimera was significantly higher than that in WT chimera (WT as BM donor) and KKAy chimera (KKAy as BM donor). These results indicate that ATIP1 could exert anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue via macrophage polarization associated with improvement of insulin resistance, and ATIP1 in hematopoietic cells may contribute to these beneficial effects on adipose tissue functions in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Loss of glucose homeostasis during sepsis is associated with increased organ dysfunction and higher mortality. Novel therapeutic strategies to promote euglycemia in sepsis are needed. We have previously shown that early low-level intravenous (IV) dextrose suppresses pancreatic insulin secretion and induces insulin resistance in septic mice, resulting in profound hyperglycemia and worsened systemic inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of low-level dextrose via the enteral route would stimulate intestinal incretin hormone production, potentiate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, and thereby improve glycemic control in the acute phase of sepsis. We administered IV or enteral dextrose to 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice exposed to bacterial endotoxin and measured incretin hormone release, glucose disposal, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Compared with IV administration, enteral dextrose increased circulating levels of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) associated with increased insulin release and insulin sensitivity, improved mean arterial pressure, and decreased proinflammatory cytokines in endotoxemic mice. Exogenous GIP rescued glucose metabolism, improved blood pressure, and increased insulin release in endotoxemic mice receiving IV dextrose, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of GIP signaling abrogated the beneficial effects of enteral dextrose. Thus, stimulation of endogenous GIP secretion by early enteral dextrose maintains glucose homeostasis and attenuates the systemic inflammatory response in endotoxemic mice and may provide a therapeutic target for improving glycemic control and clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis.