Reactive oxygen species are second messengers of neurokinin signaling in peripheral sensory neurons.
ABSTRACT: Substance P (SP) is a prominent neuromodulator, which is produced and released by peripheral damage-sensing (nociceptive) neurons; these neurons also express SP receptors. However, the mechanisms of peripheral SP signaling are poorly understood. We report a signaling pathway of SP in nociceptive neurons: Acting predominantly through NK1 receptors and G(i/o) proteins, SP stimulates increased release of reactive oxygen species from the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Reactive oxygen species, functioning as second messengers, induce oxidative modification and augment M-type potassium channels, thereby suppressing excitability. This signaling cascade requires activation of phospholipase C but is largely uncoupled from the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate sensitive Ca(2+) stores. In rats SP causes sensitization of TRPV1 and produces thermal hyperalgesia. However, the lack of coupling between SP signaling and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate sensitive Ca(2+) stores, together with the augmenting effect on M channels, renders the SP pathway ineffective to excite nociceptors acutely and produce spontaneous pain. Our study describes a mechanism for neurokinin signaling in sensory neurons and provides evidence that spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia can have distinct underlying mechanisms within a single nociceptive neuron.
Project description:Pure samples of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and inositol 1,2-cyclic 4,5-trisphosphate were prepared and tested for their ability to mobilize calcium from intracellular stores in a permeabilized Swiss mouse 3T3 cell preparation. In this system inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate mobilizes Ca2+ with a half-maximal dose of 0.3 microM. Inositol 1,2-cyclic 4,5-trisphosphate mobilized Ca2+ to the same extent with a half-maximal dose of 0.3 microM, whereas inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate required a half-maximal dose of approx. 9 microM to give the same effect. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate was ineffective up to 20 microM and at that concentration did not antagonize the mobilization induced by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The relevance of these findings to the function of the inositol tris/tetrakis-phosphate pathway is discussed.
Project description:Signal transduction by the T-cell antigen receptor involves the turnover of polyphosphoinositides and an increase in the concentration of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). This increase in [Ca2+]i is due initially to the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, but is sustained by the influx of extracellular Ca2+. To examine the regulation of sustained antigen-receptor-mediated increases in [Ca2+]i, we studied the relationships between extracellular Ca2+ influx, the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and the contents of inositol polyphosphates after stimulation of the antigen receptor on a human T-cell line, Jurkat. We demonstrate that sustained antigen-receptor-mediated increases in [Ca2+]i are associated with ongoing depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. When antigen-receptor-ligand interactions are disrupted, [Ca2+]i and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate return to basal values over 3 min. Under these conditions, intracellular Ca2+ stores are repleted if extracellular Ca2+ is present. There is a tight temporal relationship between the fall in [Ca2+]i, the return of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to basal values, and the repletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Reversal of the increase in [Ca2+]i preceeds any fall in inositol tetrakisphosphate by 2 min. These studies suggest that sustained antigen-receptor-induced increases in [Ca2+]i, although dependent on extracellular Ca2+ influx, are also regulated by ongoing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. In addition, an elevated concentration of inositol tetrakisphosphate in itself is insufficient to sustain an increase in [Ca2+]i within Jurkat cells.
Project description:In single, Fura 2-loaded RBL-2H3 cells, antigen and thapsigargin depleted the same intracellular pool of Ca2+ in the absence of external Ca2+; provision of external Ca2+ induced immediate increases in levels of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). These increases were dependent on the presence of external Ca2+ and, presumably, on influx of Ca2+ across the cell membrane. Both stimulants enhanced intracellular accumulation of 45Ca2+ through ostensibly similar mechanisms because accumulation was blocked to similar extents by various multivalent cations or by depolarization with K+. Because thapsigargin blocked reuptake of Ca2+ into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate sensitive stores, uptake occurred independently of the refilling of these stores. Uptake was dependent instead on sequestration of 45Ca2+ in a pool of high capacity that was insensitive to thapsigargin, caffeine, GTP and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate but sensitive to ionomycin and mitochondrial inhibitors. The existence of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-insensitive pool was also apparent in permeabilized cells; at 0.1 microM [Ca2+]i, uptake of 45Ca2+ was largely confined (> 80%) to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive pool, but at 2 microM [Ca2+]i uptake was largely (> 60%) into the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-insensitive pool. Provision of mitochondrial inhibitors along with thapsigargin to block uptake into both pools, did not impair the thapsigargin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i or influx of Ca2+, as indicated by changes in Fura 2 fluorescence, but did block the intracellular accumulation of 45Ca2+. The studies illustrate the utility of simultaneous measurements of [Ca2+]i and 45Ca2+ uptake for a full accounting of Ca2+ homoeostasis as exemplified by the ability to distinguish between influx and mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+.
Project description:The acrosome reaction is a prerequisite for fertilization, and its signaling pathway has been investigated for decades. Regardless of the type of inducers present, the acrosome reaction is ultimately mediated by the elevation of cytosolic calcium. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-gated calcium channels are important components of the acrosome reaction signaling pathway and have been confirmed by several researchers. In this study, we used a novel permeabilization tool BioPORTER® and first demonstrated its effectiveness in spermatozoa. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type-1 receptor antibody was introduced into spermatozoa by BioPORTER® and significantly reduced the calcium influx and acrosome reaction induced by progesterone, solubilized zona pellucida, and the calcium ionophore A23187. This finding indicates that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type-1 receptor antibody is a valid inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibitor and provides evidence of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-gated calcium channel involvement in the acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. Moreover, we demonstrated that the transfer of 1,4,5-trisphosphate into spermatozoa induced acrosome reactions, which provides more reliable evidence for this process. In addition, by treating the spermatozoa with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/BioPORTER® in the presence or absence of calcium in the culture medium, we showed that the opening of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-gated calcium channels led to extracellular calcium influx. This particular extracellular calcium influx may be the major process of the final step of the acrosome reaction signaling pathway.
Project description:Active neurons increase their energy supply by dilating nearby arterioles and capillaries. This neurovascular coupling underlies blood oxygen level-dependent functional imaging signals, but its mechanism is controversial. Canonically, neurons release glutamate to activate metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) on astrocytes, evoking Ca2+ release from internal stores, activating phospholipase A2 and generating vasodilatory arachidonic acid derivatives. However, adult astrocytes lack mGluR5, and knockout of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors that release Ca2+ from stores does not affect neurovascular coupling. We now show that buffering astrocyte Ca2+ inhibits neuronally evoked capillary dilation, that astrocyte [Ca2+]i is raised not by release from stores but by entry through ATP-gated channels, and that Ca2+ generates arachidonic acid via phospholipase D2 and diacylglycerol lipase rather than phospholipase A2. In contrast, dilation of arterioles depends on NMDA receptor activation and Ca2+-dependent NO generation by interneurons. These results reveal that different signaling cascades regulate cerebral blood flow at the capillary and arteriole levels.
Project description:Intracellular Ca(2+) distribution and its dynamics are essential for various cellular functions. We show with single HeLa cells that a microscopic heat pulse induces Ca(2+) uptake into intracellular stores during heating and Ca(2+) release from them at the onset of recooling, and the overshoot of Ca(2+) release occurs above the critical value of a temperature change, which decreases from 1.5 to 0.2 degrees C on increasing the experimental temperature from 22 to 37 degrees C. This highly thermosensitive Ca(2+) dynamics is probably attributable to the altered balance between Ca(2+) uptake by endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases and Ca(2+) release via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. These results suggest that Ca(2+) signaling is extremely sensitive to temperature changes, especially around body temperature, in cells expressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors.
Project description:Alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis have been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Ca2+ efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm is controlled by binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to its receptor. Activated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are then rapidly degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Mutations in genes encoding the neuronal isoform of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR1) and genes involved in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor degradation (ERLIN1, ERLIN2) are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and cerebellar ataxia. We provide evidence that mutations in the ubiquitin E3 ligase gene RNF170, which targets inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors for degradation, are the likely cause of autosomal recessive HSP in four unrelated families and functionally evaluate the consequences of mutations in patient fibroblasts, mutant SH-SY5Y cells and by gene knockdown in zebrafish. Our findings highlight inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling as a candidate key pathway for hereditary spastic paraplegias and cerebellar ataxias and thus prioritize this pathway for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.
Project description:Swiss-mouse 3T3 cells permeabilized with saponin were used to study the specificity of the inositol trisphosphate-induced release of 45Ca2+ from their intracellular stores. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate was the most potent compound studied (dose giving half-maximal effect 0.3 microM). 45Ca2+ was also released by inositol 2,4,5-trisphosphate, glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and inositol 4,5-bisphosphate, with doses giving half-maximal effect of respectively 1.6 microM, 1.6 microM and 20 microM, but not by inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (50 microM). These data suggest that the trans-vicinal phosphates on the 4- and 5-positions are essential for the Ca2+-mobilizing effect of inositol trisphosphate, and that in addition there is a requirement for a phosphate group on the opposite side of the molecule, with a preference for the 1-position.
Project description:Chiral sugar derivatives are potential cyclitol surrogates of the Ca2+-mobilizing intracellular messenger d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3]. Six novel polyphosphorylated analogues derived from both d- and l-glucose were synthesized. Binding to Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors [Ins(1,4,5)P3R] and the ability to release Ca2+ from intracellular stores via type 1 Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs were investigated. ?-d-Glucopyranosyl 1,3,4-tris-phosphate, with similar phosphate regiochemistry and stereochemistry to Ins(1,4,5)P3, and ?-d-glucopyranosyl 1,3,4-tris-phosphate are full agonists, being equipotent and 23-fold less potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3, respectively, in Ca2+-release assays and similar to Ins(1,4,5)P3 and 15-fold weaker in binding assays. They can be viewed as truncated analogues of adenophostin A and refine understanding of structure-activity relationships for this Ins(1,4,5)P3R agonist. l-Glucose-derived ligands, methyl ?-l-glucopyranoside 2,3,6-trisphosphate and methyl ?-l-glucopyranoside 2,4,6-trisphosphate, are also active, while their corresponding d-enantiomers, methyl ?-d-glucopyranoside 2,3,6-trisphosphate and methyl ?-d-glucopyranoside 2,4,6-trisphosphate, are inactive. Interestingly, both l-glucose-derived ligands are partial agonists: they are among the least efficacious agonists of Ins(1,4,5)P3R yet identified, providing new leads for antagonist development.