Fluorescent metal nanoshell and CK19 detection on single cell image.
ABSTRACT: In this article, we report the synthesis strategy and optical properties of a novel type of fluorescence metal nanoshell when it was used as imaging agent for fluorescence cell imaging. The metal nanoshells were made with 40 nm silica cores and 10nm silver shells. Unlike typical fluorescence metal nanoshells which contain the organic dyes in the cores, novel metal nanoshells were composed of Cy5-labelled monoclonal anti-CK19 antibodies (mAbs) on the external surfaces of shells. Optical measurements to the single nanoparticles showed that in comparison with the metal free labelled mAbs, the mAb-Ag complexes displayed significantly enhanced emission intensity and dramatically shortened lifetime due to near-field interactions of fluorophores with metal. These metal nanoshells were found to be able to immunoreact with target cytokeratin 19 (CK19) molecules on the surfaces of LNCAP and HeLa cells. Fluorescence cell images were recorded on a time-resolved confocal microscope. The emissions from the metal nanoprobes could be clearly isolated from the cellular autofluorescence backgrounds on the cell images as either individuals or small clusters due to their stronger emission intensities and shorter lifetimes. These emission signals could also be precisely counted on single cell images. The count number may provide an approach for quantifying the target molecules in the cells.
Project description:We reported the preparation of lifetime-tunable fluorescent metal nanoshells and used them as lifetime imaging agents for potential detection of multiple target molecules by a single cell imaging scan. These metal nanoshells were generated to have 40 nm silica cores and 10 nm silver shells. Three kinds of metal-ligand complexes tris(5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) (Ru(NH(2)-Phen)(3) (2+)), tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)(3) (2+)), and tris(2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine))ruthenium(II) (Ru(dpp)(3) (2+)) that have similar excitation and emission wavelengths but different lifetimes were respectively encapsulated in the cores of metal nanoshells for the purpose of fluorescence. Compared with the metal-free silica spheres, these metal nanoshells were found to display enhanced emission intensities and shortened lifetimes due to near-field interactions of Ru(II) complexes with the metal shells. The shortened lifetimes of these metal nanoshells were definitely unique relevant to the Ru(II) complexes: 10 ns for the Ru(Phen-NH(2))(3) (2+)-Ag nanoshells, 45 ns for the Ru(bpy)(3) (2+)-Ag nanoshells, and 200 ns for the Ru(dpp)(3) (2+)-Ag nanoshells. These lifetimes were longer than the lifetime of cellular autofluorescence (2 - 5 ns), so the emission signals of these metal nanoshells could be distinctly isolated from the cellular background on the lifetime cell images. Moreover, these lifetimes were also different from one another, resulting in the emission signals of three metal nanoshells could be distinguished from one another on the cell images. This feature may offer an opportunity to detect multiple target molecules in a single cell imaging scan when the metal nanoshells are bound with various targets in the cells.
Project description:This article details the preparation of hollow gold-silver nanoshells (GS-NSs) coated with tunably thin silica shells for use in plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic applications. Hollow GS-NSs were synthesized via the galvanic replacement of silver nanoparticles. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks of the GS-NSs were tuned over the range of visible light to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths by adjusting the ratio of silver nanoparticles to gold salt solution to obtain three distinct types of GS-NSs with LSPR peaks centered near 500, 700, and 900 nm. Varying concentrations of (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane and sodium silicate solution afforded silica shell coatings of controllable thicknesses on the GS-NS cores. For each type of GS-NS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images verified our ability to grow thin silica shells having three different thicknesses of silica shell (~2, ~10, and ~15 nm) on the GS-NS cores. Additionally, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra confirmed the successful coating of the GS-NSs with SiO2 shells having controlled thicknesses. Extinction spectra of the as-prepared nanoparticles indicated that the silica shell has a minimal effect on the LSPR peak of the gold-silver nanoshells.
Project description:Metal nanoparticle probes were used as molecular imaging agents to detect the expression levels and spatial distributions of the CCR5 receptors on the cell surfaces. Alexa Fluor 647-labeled anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were covalently bound to 20 nm silver nanoparticles to synthesize the mAb-metal complexes. We measured the single nanoparticle emission of the mAb-metal complexes, showing that the complexes displayed enhanced intensities and reduced lifetimes in comparison with the metal-free mAbs. Six HeLa cell lines with various CCR5 expressions were incubated with the mAb-metal complexes for the target-specific binding to the cell surfaces. Fluorescence cell images were recorded on a time-resolved confocal microscope. The collected images expressed clear CCR5 expression-dependent optical properties. Two regression curves were obtained on the basis of the emission intensity and lifetime over the entire cell images against the number of the CCR5 expression on the cells. The emission from the single mAb-metal complexes could be distinctly identified from the cellular autofluorescence on the cell images. The CCR5 spatial distributions on the cells were analyzed on the cell images and showed that the low-expression cells have the CCR5 receptors as individuals or small clusters but the high expression cells have them as the dense and discrete clusters on the cell surfaces.
Project description:TiO2 is exceptionally useful, but it remains a great challenge to develop a universal method to coat TiO2 nanoshells on different functional materials. We report a one-pot, low-temperature, and facile method that can rapidly form mesoporous TiO2 shells on various inorganic, organic, and inorganic-organic composite materials, including silica-based, metal, metal oxide, organic polymer, carbon-based, and metal-organic framework nanomaterials via a cooperative assembly-directed strategy. In constructing hollow, core-shell, and yolk-shell geometries, both amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanoshells are demonstrated with excellent control. When used as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, these crystalline TiO2 nanoshells composed of very small nanocrystals exhibit remarkably long-term cycling stability over 1000 cycles. The electrochemical properties demonstrate that these TiO2 nanoshells are promising anode materials.
Project description:A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission).
Project description:Au and Ag nanoshells are of interest for a wide range of applications. The plasmon resonance of such nanoshells is the property of interest and can be tuned in a broad spectral regime, ranging from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared. To date, a large number of manuscripts have been published on the optics of such nanoshells. Few of these, however, address the effect of particle size distribution and metal shell imperfections on the plasmon resonance. Both are inherent to the chemical synthesis of metal nanoshells and therefore to a large extent unavoidable. It is of vital importance to understand their effect on the plasmon resonance, since this determines the scope and limitations of the technology and may have a direct impact on the application of such particles. Here, we elucidate the effect of particle size distribution and imperfections in the metal shell on the plasmon resonance of Au and Ag nanoshells. The size of the polystyrene core and the thickness of the Au and Ag shells are systematically varied to study their influence on the plasmon resonance, and the results are compared to values obtained through optical simulations using extended Mie theory and finite element method. Discrepancies between theory and practice are studied in detail and discussed extensively. Quantitative information on the minimum thickness of the metal shell, which is required to realize a satisfactory plasmon resonance of a metal nanoshell, is provided for Au and Ag.
Project description:Phospholipid nanoshells, for example, liposomes, provide a versatile enabling platform for the development of nanometer-sized biosensors and molecular delivery systems. Utilization of phospholipid nanoshells is limited by the inherent instability in complex biological environments, where the phospholipid nanoshell may disassemble and degrade, thus releasing the contents and destroying sensor function. Polymer scaffold stabilization (PSS), wherein the phospholipid nanoshells are prepared by partitioning reactive monomers into the lipid bilayer lamella followed by radical polymerization, has emerged to increase phospholipid nanoshell stability. In this work, we investigated the effects of three different radical initiator conditions to fabricate stable PSS-phospholipid nanoshells yet retain the activity of encapsulated model fluorescent sensor proteins. To identify nondestructive initiation conditions, UV photoinitiation, neutral redox initiation, and thermal initiation were investigated as a function of PSS-phospholipid nanoshell stabilization and fluorescence emission intensity of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and tandem dimer Tomato (td-Tomato). All three initiator approaches yielded comparably stable PSS-phospholipid nanoshells, although slight variations in PSS-phospholipid nanoshell size were observed, ranging from ca. 140 nm for unstabilized phospholipid nanoshells to 300-500 nm for PSS-phospholipid nanoshells. Fluorescence emission intensity of encapsulated eGFP was completely attenuated under thermal initiation (0% vs control), moderately attenuated under UV photoinitiation (40 ± 4% vs control), and unaffected by neutral redox initiation (97 ± 3% vs control). Fluorescence emission intensity of encapsulated td-Tomato was significantly attenuated under thermal initiation (13 ± 3% vs control), moderately attenuated UV photoinitiation (64 ± 5% vs control), and unaffected by neutral redox initiation (98% ± 4% vs control). Therefore, the neutral redox initiation method provides a significant advancement toward the preparation of protein-functionalized PSS-phospholipid nanoshells. These results should help to guide future applications and designs of biosensor platforms using PSS-phospholipid nanoshells and other polymer systems employing protein transducers.
Project description:Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell surface protein required for HIV-1 infection. It is important to detect the amount and observe the spatial distribution of the CCR5 receptors on the cell surfaces. In this report, we describes the metal nanoparticles which were specially designed as molecular fluorescent probes for imaging of CCR5 receptors on the T-lymphocytic PM1 cell surfaces. These CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) metal complexes were prepared by labeling mAbs with Alexa Fluor 680 followed by covalent binding the labeled mAbs on the 20 nm silver nanoparticles. Compared with the labeled mAbs without metal, the mAb-metal complexes were found to display enhanced emission intensity and shortened lifetime due to interactions between fluorophores and metal. The mAb-metal complexes were incubated with the PM1 cell lines. The confocal fluorescent intensity and lifetime cell images were recorded on single cells. It was observed that the mAb-metal complexes could be clearly distinguished from the cellular autofluorescence. By analyzing a pool of cell images, we observed that most CCR5 receptors appeared as clusters on the cell surfaces. The fluorophore-metal complexes developed in this report are generally useful for detection of cell surface receptors and provide a new class of probe to study the interaction between the CCR5 receptors with viral gp120 during HIV infections.
Project description:A novel method for the fluorescence detection of proteins in cells is described in the present study. Proteins are labelled by the selective biosynthetic incorporation of 5-hydroxytryptophan and the label is detected via selective two-photon excitation of the hydroxyindole and detection of its fluorescence emission at 340 nm. The method is demonstrated in this paper with images of a labelled protein in yeast cells.
Project description:X-gal staining is a common procedure used in the histochemical monitoring of gene expression by light microscopy. However, this procedure does not permit the direct confocal acquisition of images, thus preventing the identification of labelled cells on the depth (Z) axis of tissue sections and leading sometimes to erroneous conclusions in co-localization and gene expression studies. Here we report a technique, based on X-gal fluorescence emission and mathematically-based optical correction, to obtain high quality fluorescence confocal images. This method, combined with immunofluorescence, makes it possible to unequivocally identify X-gal-labelled cells in tissue sections, emerging as a valuable tool in gene expression and cell tracing analysis.