Genome plasticity and systems evolution in Streptomyces.
ABSTRACT: Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation.We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication.Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A better understanding of the LSE gene families will, on the other hand, bring a wealth of new insights into the mechanisms underlying strain-specific phenotypes, such as the production of novel antibiotics, pathogenesis, and adaptive response to environmental challenges.
Project description:The genome sequences of eight Streptomyces phages are presented, four of which were isolated for this study. Phages R4, TG1, Hau3, and SV1 were isolated previously and have been exploited as tools for understanding and genetically manipulating Streptomyces spp. We also extracted five apparently intact prophages from recent Streptomyces spp. genome projects and, together with six phage genomes in the database, we analyzed all 19 Streptomyces phage genomes with a view to understanding their relationships to each other and to other actinophages, particularly the mycobacteriophages. Fifteen of the Streptomyces phages group into four clusters of related genomes. Although the R4-like phages do not share nucleotide sequence similarity with other phages, they clearly have common ancestry with cluster A mycobacteriophages, sharing many protein homologues, common gene syntenies, and similar repressor-stoperator regulatory systems. The R4-like phage Hau3 and the prophage StrepC.1 (from Streptomyces sp. strain C) appear to have hijacked a unique adaptation of the streptomycetes, i.e., use of the rare UUA codon, to control translation of the essential phage protein, the terminase. The Streptomyces venezuelae generalized transducing phage SV1 was used to predict the presence of other generalized transducing phages for different Streptomyces species.
Project description:Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea's genetic data sources.
Project description:Genome sequences of marine streptomycetes are valuable for the discovery of useful enzymes and bioactive compounds by genome mining. However, publicly available complete genome sequences of marine streptomycetes are still limited. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a marine streptomycete Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582. Species delineation based on the pairwise digital DNA-DNA hybridization and genome comparison ANI (average nucleotide identity) value showed that Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 possesses a unique genome that is clearly different from all of the other available genomes. Bioactivity tests showed that Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 produces metabolites with anti-complement activities, which are useful for treatment of numerous diseases that arise from inappropriate activation of the human complement system. Analysis of the genome reveals no biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) which shows even low similarity to that of the known anti-complement agents was detected in the genome, indicating that Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 may produce novel anti-complement agents of microbial origin. Four BGCs which are potentially involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptides were disrupted, but no decrease of anti-complement activities was observed, suggesting that these four BGCs are not involved in biosynthesis of the anti-complement agents. In addition, LC-MS/MS analysis and subsequent alignment through the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) platform led to the detection of novel peptides produced by the strain. Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 grows rapidly and is salt tolerant, which benefits efficient secondary metabolite production via seawater-based fermentation. Our results indicate that Streptomyces sp. S063 has great potential to produce novel bioactive compounds, and also is a good host for heterologous production of useful secondary metabolites for drug discovery.
Project description:Determining transcriptional and translational regulatory elements in GC-rich Streptomyces genomes is essential to elucidating the complex regulatory networks that govern secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) expression. However, information about such regulatory elements has been limited for Streptomyces genomes. To address this limitation, a high-quality genome sequence of ?-lactam antibiotic-producing Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27 064 is completed, which contains 7163 newly annotated genes. This provides a fundamental reference genome sequence to integrate multiple genome-scale data types, including dRNA-Seq, RNA-Seq and ribosome profiling. Data integration results in the precise determination of 2659 transcription start sites which reveal transcriptional and translational regulatory elements, including -10 and -35 promoter components specific to sigma (?) factors, and 5'-untranslated region as a determinant for translation efficiency regulation. Particularly, sequence analysis of a wide diversity of the -35 components enables us to predict potential ?-factor regulons, along with various spacer lengths between the -10 and -35 elements. At last, the primary transcriptome landscape of the ?-lactam biosynthetic pathway is analyzed, suggesting temporal changes in metabolism for the synthesis of secondary metabolites driven by transcriptional regulation. This comprehensive genetic information provides a versatile genetic resource for rational engineering of secondary metabolite BGCs in Streptomyces.
Project description:Two component sensor-response regulator systems (TCSs) are very common in the genomes of the Streptomyces species that have been fully sequenced to date. It has been suggested that this large number is an evolutionary response to the variable environment that Streptomyces encounter in soil. Notwithstanding this, TCSs are also more common in the sequenced genomes of other Actinomycetales when these are compared to the genomes of most other eubacteria. In this study, we have used DNA/DNA genome microarray analysis to compare fourteen Streptomyces species and one closely related genus to Streptomyces coelicolor in order to identify a core group of such systems. This core group is compared to the syntenous and non-syntenous TCSs present in the genome sequences of other Actinomycetales in order to separate the systems into those present in Actinomycetales in general, the Streptomyces specific systems and the species specific systems. Horizontal transfer does not seem to play a very important role in the evolution of the TCS complement analyzed in this study. However, cognate pairs do not necessarily seem to evolve at the same pace, which may indicate the evolutionary responses to environmental variation may be reflected differently in sequence changes within the two components of the TCSs. The overall analysis allowed subclassification of the orphan TCSs and the TCS cognate pairs and identification of possible targets for further study using gene knockouts, gene overexpression, reporter genes and yeast two hybrid analysis. DNA/DNA comparative analysis using the University of Surrey PCR Microarray chip
Project description:Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty.
Project description:Keratinases present promising biotechnological applications, due to their ability to degrade keratin. <i>Streptomyces</i> appears as one of the main sources of these enzymes, but complete genome sequences of keratinolytic bacteria are still limited. This article reports the complete genomes of three marine-derived streptomycetes that show different levels of feather keratin degradation, with high (strain G11C), low (strain CHD11), and no (strain Vc74B-19) keratinolytic activity. A multi-step bioinformatics approach is described to explore genes encoding putative keratinases in these genomes. Despite their differential keratinolytic activity, multiplatform annotation reveals similar quantities of ORFs encoding putative proteases in strains G11C, CHD11, and Vc74B-19. Comparative genomics classified these putative proteases into 140 orthologous groups and 17 unassigned orthogroup peptidases belonging to strain G11C. Similarity network analysis revealed three network communities of putative peptidases related to known keratinases of the peptidase families S01, S08, and M04. When combined with the prediction of cellular localization and phylogenetic reconstruction, seven putative keratinases from the highly keratinolytic strain <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. G11C are identified. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-step bioinformatics analysis that complements comparative genomics with phylogeny and cellular localization prediction, for the prediction of genes encoding putative keratinases in streptomycetes.
Project description:Marine streptomycetes are rich sources of natural products with novel structures and interesting biological activities, and genome mining of marine streptomycetes facilitates rapid discovery of their useful products. In this study, a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. M10 was revealed to share a 99.02% 16S rDNA sequence identity with that of Streptomyces marokkonensis Ap1T, and was thus named S.?marokkonensis M10. To further evaluate its biosynthetic potential, the 7,207,169?bps of S.?marokkonensis M10 genome was sequenced. Genomic sequence analysis for potential secondary metabolite-associated gene clusters led to the identification of at least three polyketide synthases (PKSs), six non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs), one hybrid NRPS-PKS, two lantibiotic and five terpene biosynthetic gene clusters. One type I PKS gene cluster was revealed to share high nucleotide similarity with the candicidin/FR008 gene cluster, indicating the capacity of this microorganism to produce polyene macrolides. This assumption was further verified by isolation of two polyene family compounds PF1 and PF2, which have the characteristic UV adsorption at 269, 278, 290?nm (PF1) and 363, 386 and 408?nm (PF2), respectively. S.?marokkonensis M10 is therefore a new source of polyene metabolites. Further studies on S.?marokkonensis M10 will provide more insights into natural product biosynthesis potential of related streptomycetes. This is also the first report to describe the genome sequence of S.?marokkonensis-related strain.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their life styles; some species are free living, others are symbiotic, and others are human pathogens. This diversity makes this family a useful set of model organisms for studying bacterial evolution. This evolution is driven by several forces, among them gene duplication and lateral gene transfer, which are believed to provide raw material for functional redundancy and novelty. The resultant gene copy increase in one genome is then detected as lineage-specific expansion (LSE).<h4>Results</h4>Here we present the results of a detailed comparison of the genomes of eleven Vibrionaceae strains that have distinct life styles and distinct phenotypes. The core genome shared by all eleven strains is composed of 1,882 genes, which make up about 31%-50% of the genome repertoire. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been specifically expanded in one unique lineage of the eleven strains. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified in the eleven Vibrionaceae strains, with 1-11% of the whole genomes composed lineage specific radiations. These LSEs occurred in two distinct patterns: the first type yields one or more copies of a single gene; we call this a single gene expansion. The second pattern has a high evolutionary impact, as the expansion involves two or more gene copies in a block, with the duplicated block located next to the original block (a contiguous block expansion) or at some distance from the original block (a discontiguous block expansion). We showed that LSEs involve genes that are tied to defense and pathogenesis mechanisms as well as in the fundamental life cycle of Vibrionaceae species.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results provide evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within the family Vibrionaceae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for lineage-specific adaptations of each Vibrionaceae pathogen or nonpathogen strain. Such lineage specific expansions could reveal components in bacterial systems that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can be tied to responses to environmental challenges, interesting phenotypes, or adaptive pathogenic responses to host challenges.
Project description:A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts.