Actin cytoskeleton controls movement of intracellular organelles in pancreatic duct epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: In most eukaryotic cells, microtubules and filamentous actin (F-actin) provide tracks on which intracellular organelles move using molecular motors. Here we report that cytoplasmic movement of both mitochondria and lysosomes is slowed by F-actin meshwork formation in pancreatic duct epithelial cells (PDEC). Mitochondria and lysosomes were labeled with fluorescent Mitotracker Red CMXRos and Lysotracker Red DND-99, respectively, and their movements were monitored using epi-fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Mitochondria and lysosomes moving actively at rest stopped rapidly within several seconds after an intracellular Ca(2+) rise induced by activation of P2Y(2) purinergic receptors. The 'freezing' of the organelles was inhibited by blocking the Ca(2+) rise or by pretreatment with latrunculin B, an inhibitor of F-actin formation. Indeed, this freezing effect on the organelles was accompanied by the formation of F-actin in the whole cytoplasm as stained with Alexa 488-phalloidin in fixed PDEC. For real-time monitoring of F-actin formation in live cells, we expressed sGFP-fimbrin actin binding domain2 (fABD2) in PDEC. Rapid recruitment of the fluorescent probe near the nucleus and lysosomes suggested dense F-actin formation around intracellular structures. The development of F-actin paralleled that of organelle freezing. We conclude that rapid Ca(2+)-dependent F-actin formation physically restrains intracellular organelles and reduces their mobility non-selectively in PDEC.
Project description:Delivery of endocytosed macromolecules to mammalian cell lysosomes occurs by direct fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes, resulting in the formation of hybrid organelles from which lysosomes are reformed. The molecular mechanisms of this fusion are analogous to those of homotypic vacuole fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report herein the major roles of the mammalian homolog of yeast Vps18p (mVps18p), a member of the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex. When overexpressed, mVps18p caused the clustering of late endosomes/lysosomes and the recruitment of other mammalian homologs of the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex, plus Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein. The clusters were surrounded by components of the actin cytoskeleton, including actin, ezrin, and specific unconventional myosins. Overexpression of mVps18p also overcame the effect of wortmannin treatment, which inhibits membrane traffic out of late endocytic organelles and causes their swelling. Reduction of mVps18p by RNA interference caused lysosomes to disperse away from their juxtanuclear location. Thus, mVps18p plays a critical role in endosome/lysosome tethering, fusion, intracellular localization and in the reformation of lysosomes from hybrid organelles.
Project description:Background:Current inhaled polymyxin therapy is empirical and often large doses are administered, which can lead to pulmonary adverse effects. There is a dearth of information on the mechanisms of polymyxin-induced lung toxicity and their intracellular localization in lung epithelial cells. Objectives:To investigate the intracellular localization of polymyxins in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Methods:A549 cells were treated with polymyxin B and intracellular organelles (early and late endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes and autophagosomes), ubiquitin protein and polymyxin B were visualized using immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Fluorescence intensities of the organelles and polymyxin B were quantified and correlated for co-localization using ImageJ and Imaris platforms. Results:Polymyxin B co-localized with early endosomes, lysosomes and ubiquitin at 24?h. Significantly increased lysosomal activity and the autophagic protein LC3A were observed after 0.5 and 1.0?mM polymyxin B treatment at 24?h. Polymyxin B also significantly co-localized with mitochondria (Pearson's R?=?0.45) and led to the alteration of mitochondrial morphology from filamentous to fragmented form (n?=?3, P?<?0.001). These results are in line with the polymyxin-induced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway observed in A549 cells. Conclusions:Accumulation of polymyxins on mitochondria probably caused mitochondrial toxicity, resulting in increased oxidative stress and cell death. The formation of autophagosomes and lysosomes was likely a cellular response to the polymyxin-induced stress and played a defensive role by disassembling dysfunctional organelles and proteins. Our study provides new mechanistic information on polymyxin-induced lung toxicity, which is vital for optimizing inhaled polymyxins in the clinic.
Project description:Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) triggers exocytosis of secretory granules in pancreatic duct epithelia. In this study, we find that the signal also controls granule movement. Motions of fluorescently labeled granules stopped abruptly after a [Ca(2+)](i) increase, kinetically coincident with formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) in the whole cytoplasm. At high resolution, the new F-actin meshwork was so dense that cellular structures of granule size appeared physically trapped in it. Depolymerization of F-actin with latrunculin B blocked both the F-actin formation and the arrest of granules. Interestingly, when monitored with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, the immobilized granules still moved slowly and concertedly toward the plasma membrane. This group translocation was abolished by blockers of myosin. Exocytosis measured by microamperometry suggested that formation of a dense F-actin meshwork inhibited exocytosis at small Ca(2+) rises <1 microm. Larger [Ca(2+)](i) rises increased exocytosis because of the co-ordinate translocation of granules and fusion to the membrane. We propose that the Ca(2+)-dependent freezing of granules filters out weak inputs but allows exocytosis under stronger inputs by controlling granule movements.
Project description:The loss of Ca(2+) homeostasis during cerebral ischemia is a hallmark of impending neuronal demise. Accordingly, considerable cellular resources are expended in maintaining low resting cytosolic levels of Ca(2+). These include contributions by a host of proteins involved in the sequestration and transport of Ca(2+), many of which are expressed within intracellular organelles, including lysosomes, mitochondria as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Ca(2+) sequestration by the ER contributes to cytosolic Ca(2+) dynamics and homeostasis. Furthermore, within the ER Ca(2+) plays a central role in regulating a host of physiological processes. Conversely, impaired ER Ca(2+) homeostasis is an important trigger of pathological processes. Here we review a growing body of evidence suggesting that ER dysfunction is an important factor contributing to neuronal injury and loss post-ischemia. Specifically, the contribution of the ER to cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations during ischemia will be considered, as will the signalling cascades recruited as a consequence of disrupting ER homeostasis and function.
Project description:Both mitochondria and lysosomes are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and dysfunction of both organelles has been observed in multiple diseases. Mitochondria are highly dynamic and undergo fission and fusion to maintain a functional mitochondrial network, which drives cellular metabolism. Lysosomes similarly undergo constant dynamic regulation by the RAB7 GTPase, which cycles from an active GTP-bound state into an inactive GDP-bound state upon GTP hydrolysis. Here we have identified the formation and regulation of mitochondria-lysosome membrane contact sites using electron microscopy, structured illumination microscopy and high spatial and temporal resolution confocal live cell imaging. Mitochondria-lysosome contacts formed dynamically in healthy untreated cells and were distinct from damaged mitochondria that were targeted into lysosomes for degradation. Contact formation was promoted by active GTP-bound lysosomal RAB7, and contact untethering was mediated by recruitment of the RAB7 GTPase-activating protein TBC1D15 to mitochondria by FIS1 to drive RAB7 GTP hydrolysis and thereby release contacts. Functionally, lysosomal contacts mark sites of mitochondrial fission, allowing regulation of mitochondrial networks by lysosomes, whereas conversely, mitochondrial contacts regulate lysosomal RAB7 hydrolysis via TBC1D15. Mitochondria-lysosome contacts thus allow bidirectional regulation of mitochondrial and lysosomal dynamics, and may explain the dysfunction observed in both organelles in various human diseases.
Project description:The function of mitochondria and lysosomes has classically been studied separately. However, evidence has now emerged of intense crosstalk between these two organelles, such that the activity or stress status of one organelle may affect the other. Direct physical contacts between mitochondria and the endolysosomal compartment have been reported as a rapid means of interorganelle communication, mediating lipid or other metabolite exchange. Moreover, mitochondrial derived vesicles can traffic obsolete mitochondrial proteins into the endolysosomal system for their degradation or secretion to the extracellular milieu as exosomes, representing an additional mitochondrial quality control mechanism that connects mitochondria and lysosomes independently of autophagosome formation. Here, we present what is currently known about the functional and physical communication between mitochondria and lysosomes or lysosome-related organelles, and their role in sustaining cellular homeostasis.
Project description:To investigate the properties and intracellular origin of autophagosomes, a procedure for the purification and isolation of these organelles from rat liver has been developed. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with vinblastine to induce autophagosome accumulation; the cells were then homogenized and treated with the cathepsin C substrate glycyl-l-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide to cause osmotic disruption of the lysosomes. Nuclei were removed by differential centrifugation, and the postnuclear supernatant was fractionated on a discontinuous Nycodenz density gradient. The autophagosomes, recognized by their content of autophagocytosed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), could be recovered in an intermediate-density fraction, free from cytosol and mitochondria. Finally, the autophagosomes were separated from the endoplasmic reticulum and other membranous elements by centrifugation in a Percoll colloidal density gradient, followed by flotation in iodixanol to remove the Percoll particles. The final autophagosome preparation represented a 24-fold purification of autophagocytosed LDH relative to intact cells, with a 12% recovery. The purified autophagosomes contained sequestered cytoplasm with a normal ultrastructure, including mitochondria, peroxisomes and endoplasmic reticulum in the same proportions as in intact cells. However, immunoblotting indicated a relative absence of cytoskeletal elements (tubulin, actin and cytokeratin), which may evade autophagic sequestration. The autophagosomes showed no enrichment in protein markers typical of lysosomes (acid phosphatase, cathepsin B, lysosomal glycoprotein of 120 kDa), endosomes (early-endosome-associated protein 1, cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, asialoglycoprotein receptor) or endoplasmic reticulum (esterase, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa, protein disulphide isomerase), suggesting that the sequestering membranes are not derived directly from any of these organelles, but rather represent unique organelles (phagophores).
Project description:Most intracellular Ca(2+) signals result from opening of Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and they are reversed by active transport across these membranes or by shuttling Ca(2+) into mitochondria. Ca(2+) channels in lysosomes contribute to endo-lysosomal trafficking and Ca(2+) signalling, but the role of lysosomal Ca(2+) uptake in Ca(2+) signalling is unexplored. Inhibition of lysosomal Ca(2+) uptake by dissipating the H(+) gradient (using bafilomycin A1), perforating lysosomal membranes (using glycyl-L-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide) or lysosome fusion (using vacuolin) increased the Ca(2+) signals evoked by receptors that stimulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)] formation. Bafilomycin A1 amplified the Ca(2+) signals evoked by photolysis of caged Ins(1,4,5)P(3) or by inhibition of ER Ca(2+) pumps, and it slowed recovery from them. Ca(2+) signals evoked by store-operated Ca(2+) entry were unaffected by bafilomycin A1. Video-imaging with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that lysosomes were motile and remained intimately associated with the ER. Close association of lysosomes with the ER allows them selectively to accumulate Ca(2+) released by Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors.
Project description:Chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) have been developed to orchestrate protein dimerization and translocation. Here we present a novel photocleavable HaloTag- and SNAP-tag-reactive CID (MeNV-HaXS) with excellent selectivity and intracellular reactivity. Excitation at 360?nm cleaves the methyl-6-nitroveratryl core of MeNV-HaXS. MeNV-HaXS covalently links HaloTag- and SNAP-tag fusion proteins, and enables targeting of selected membranes and intracellular organelles. MeNV-HaXS-mediated translocation has been validated for plasma membrane, late endosomes, lysosomes, Golgi, mitochondria, and the actin cytoskeleton. Photocleavage of MeNV-HaXS liberates target proteins and provides access to optical manipulation of protein relocation with high spatiotemporal and subcellular precision. MeNV-HaXS supports kinetic studies of protein dynamics and the manipulation of subcellular enzyme activities, which is exemplified for Golgi-targeted cargo and the assessment of nuclear import kinetics.
Project description:Lysosomes are cellular organelles primarily involved in degradation and recycling processes. During lysosomal exocytosis, a Ca²?-regulated process, lysosomes are docked to the cell surface and fuse with the plasma membrane (PM), emptying their content outside the cell. This process has an important role in secretion and PM repair. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB) regulates lysosomal exocytosis. TFEB increases the pool of lysosomes in the proximity of the PM and promotes their fusion with PM by raising intracellular Ca²? levels through the activation of the lysosomal Ca²? channel MCOLN1. Induction of lysosomal exocytosis by TFEB overexpression rescued pathologic storage and restored normal cellular morphology both in vitro and in vivo in lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Our data indicate that lysosomal exocytosis may directly modulate cellular clearance and suggest an alternative therapeutic strategy for disorders associated with intracellular storage.