New insights into Escherichia coli metabolism: carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism and carbon recycling responses during growth on glycerol.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Glycerol has enhanced its biotechnological importance since it is a byproduct of biodiesel synthesis. A study of Escherichia coli physiology during growth on glycerol was performed combining transcriptional-proteomic analysis as well as kinetic and stoichiometric evaluations in the strain JM101 and certain derivatives with important inactivated genes. RESULTS: Transcriptional and proteomic analysis of metabolic central genes of strain JM101 growing on glycerol, revealed important changes not only in the synthesis of MglB, LamB and MalE proteins, but also in the overexpression of carbon scavenging genes: lamB, malE, mglB, mglC, galP and glk and some members of the RpoS regulon (pfkA, pfkB, fbaA, fbaB, pgi, poxB, acs, actP and acnA). Inactivation of rpoS had an important effect on stoichiometric parameters and growth adaptation on glycerol. The observed overexpression of poxB, pta, acs genes, glyoxylate shunt genes (aceA, aceB, glcB and glcC) and actP, suggested a possible carbon flux deviation into the PoxB, Acs and glyoxylate shunt. In this scenario acetate synthesized from pyruvate with PoxB was apparently reutilized via Acs and the glyoxylate shunt enzymes. In agreement, no acetate was detected when growing on glycerol, this strain was also capable of glycerol and acetate coutilization when growing in mineral media and derivatives carrying inactivated poxB or pckA genes, accumulated acetate. Tryptophanase A (TnaA) was synthesized at high levels and indole was produced by this enzyme, in strain JM101 growing on glycerol. Additionally, in the isogenic derivative with the inactivated tnaA gene, no indole was detected and acetate and lactate were accumulated. A high efficiency aromatic compounds production capability was detected in JM101 carrying pJLBaroG(fbr)tktA, when growing on glycerol, as compared to glucose. CONCLUSIONS: The overexpression of several carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism genes and the absence of acetate accumulation occurred in JM101 cultures growing on glycerol. To explain these results it is proposed that in addition to the glycolytic metabolism, a gluconeogenic carbon recycling process that involves acetate is occurring simultaneously in this strain when growing on glycerol. Carbon flux from glycerol can be efficiently redirected in JM101 strain into the aromatic pathway using appropriate tools.
Project description:The phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate transferase system (PTS) transports glucose in Escherichia coli. Previous work demonstrated that strains lacking PTS, such as PB11, grow slow on glucose. PB11 has a reduced expression of glycolytic, and upregulates poxB and acs genes as compared to the parental strain JM101, when growing on glucose. The products of the latter genes are involved in the production of AcetylCoA. Inactivation of rpoS that codes for the RNA polymerase sigma(38) subunit, reduces further (50%) growth of PB11, indicating that sigma(38) plays a central role in the expression of central metabolism genes in slowly growing cells. In fact, transcription levels of glycolytic genes is reduced in strain PB11rpoS(-) as compared to PB11. In this report we studied the role of sigma(70) and sigma(38) in the expression of the complete glycolytic pathway and poxB and acs genes in certain PTS(-) strains and their rpoS(-) derivatives. We determined the transcription start sites (TSSs) and the corresponding promoters, in strains JM101, PB11, its derivative PB12 that recovered its growth capacity, and in their rpoS(-) derivatives, by 5'RACE and pyrosequencing. In all these genes the presence of sequences resembling sigma(38) recognition sites allowed the proposition that they could be transcribed by both sigma factors, from overlapping putative promoters that initiate transcription at the same site. Fourteen new TSSs were identified in seventeen genes. Besides, more than 30 putative promoters were proposed and we confirmed ten previously reported. In vitro transcription experiments support the functionality of putative dual promoters. Alternatives that could also explain lower transcription levels of the rpoS(-) derivatives are discussed. We propose that the presence if real, of both sigma(70) and sigma(38) dependent promoters in all glycolytic genes and operons could allow a differential transcription of these central metabolism genes by both sigma subunits as an adaptation response to carbon limitation.
Project description:We isolated an Escherichia coli mutant strain that suppresses the glycolate-negative phenotype of a strain deficient in both GlcA and LldP transporters of this compound. This suppressing phenotype was assigned to yjcG, a gene whose function was previously unknown, which was found to encode a membrane protein able to transport glycolate. On the basis of sequence similarity, the yjcG gene product was classified as a member of the sodium:solute symporter family. Northern experiments revealed that yjcG is cotranscribed with its neighbor, acs, encoding acetyl coenzyme A synthetase, which is involved in the scavenging acetate. The fortuitous presence of an IS2 element in acs, which impaired yjcG expression by polarity in our parental strain, allowed us to conclude that the alternative glycolate carrier became active after precise excision of IS2 in the suppressed strain. The finding that yjcG encodes a putative membrane carrier for glycolate and the cotranscription of yjcG with acs suggested that the primary function of the yjcG gene product (proposed gene name, actP) could be acetate transport and allowed us to define an operon involved in acetate metabolism. The time course of [1,2-(14)C]acetate uptake and the results of a concentration kinetics analysis performed with cells expressing ActP or cells deficient in ActP supported the the hypothesis that this carrier is an acetate transporter and suggested that there may be another transport system for this monocarboxylate.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>E. coli B (BL21), unlike E.coli K-12 (JM109) is insensitive to glucose concentration and, therefore, grows faster and produces less acetate than E. coli K-12, especially when growing to high cell densities at high glucose concentration. By performing genomic analysis, it was demonstrated that the cause of this difference in sensitivity to the glucose concentration is the result of the differences in the central carbon metabolism activity. We hypothesized that the global transcription regulator Cra (FruR) is constitutively expressed in E. coli B and may be responsible for the different behaviour of the two strains. To investigate this possibility and better understand the function of Cra in the two strains, cra - negative E. coli B (BL21) and E. coli K-12 (JM109) were prepared and their growth behaviour and gene expression at high glucose were evaluated using microarray and real-time PCR.<h4>Results</h4>The deletion of the cra gene in E. coli B (BL21) minimally affected the growth and maximal acetate accumulation, while the deletion of the same gene in E.coli K-12 (JM109) caused the cells to stop growing as soon as acetate concentration reached 6.6 g/L and the media conductivity reached 21 mS/cm. ppsA (gluconeogenesis gene), aceBA (the glyoxylate shunt genes) and poxB (the acetate producing gene) were down-regulated in both strains, while acs (acetate uptake gene) was down-regulated only in E.coli B (BL21). These transcriptional differences had little effect on acetate and pyruvate production. Additionally, it was found that the lower growth of E. coli K-12 (JM109) strain was the result of transcription inhibition of the osmoprotectant producing bet operon (betABT).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The transcriptional changes caused by the deletion of cra gene did not affect the activity of the central carbon metabolism, suggesting that Cra does not act alone; rather it interacts with other pleiotropic regulators to create a network of metabolic effects. An unexpected outcome of this work is the finding that cra deletion caused transcription inhibition of the bet operon in E. coli K-12 (JM109) but did not affect this operon transcription in E. coli B (BL21). This property, together with the insensitivity to high glucose concentrations, makes this the E. coli B (BL21) strain more resistant to environmental changes.
Project description:Specific growth rate dependent gene expression changes of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 were determined by microarray and real time PCR analyses. The bacteria were cultivated on glucose limited minimal medium using the accelerostat method (A-stat), where starting from steady state conditions in a chemostat culture, dilution rate is constantly increased. At specific growth rate (μ) 0.47 h-1, E. coli had focused its metabolism to glucose utilization by down-regulation of alternative substrate transporters expression compared to μ = 0.3 h-1. It was found that acetic acid accumulation began at μ = 0.34 ± 0.01 h-1 and two acetate synthesis pathways (phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (pta-ackA) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB)) contributed to the synthesis at the beginning of overflow metabolism, i.e. onset of acetate excretion. On the other hand, poxB, pta and ackA expression patterns suggest that pyruvate oxidase may be the only enzyme synthesizing acetate at μ = 0.47 h-1. Down-regulation of acs-yjcH-actP operon, the resulting loss of glucose and acetate co-utilization between specific growth rates 0.3 h-1 – 0.42 h-1 and acetic acid accumulation from μ = 0.34 ± 0.01 h-1 allows one to surmise that the acetate utilization operon expression might play an important role in overflow metabolism. Overall design: DNA microarray analysis was performed from three A-stat cultivations, for which one has a technical replicate.
Project description:Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a facultative intracellular pathogen, and intracellular persistence in macrophages is essential for APEC extraintestinal dissemination. Until now, there is still no systematic interpretation of APEC intracellular proliferation. Intracellular survival factors, especially involved in pathometabolism, need to be further revealed. Acetate plays critical roles in supporting energy homeostasis and acts as a metabolic signal in the inflammatory response of eukaryotes. In this study, we identified that APEC acs-yjcH-actP operon, encoding acetate assimilation system, presented the host-induced transcription during its proliferation in macrophages. Our result showed that this acetate assimilation system acted as a novel intracellular survival factor to promote APEC replication within macrophages. Furthermore, deletion of acs-yjcH-actP operon in APEC decreased its cytotoxic level to macrophages. qRT-PCR results showed that the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12β, and TNF-α) and iNOS in FY26∆acs-yjcH-actP infected macrophages were obviously down-regulated compared to that in wild-type FY26 infected cells. Deletion of actP/yjcH/acs genes attenuated APEC virulence and colonization capability in avian lungs in vivo for colibacillosis infection models. And acetate assimilation system acted as a virulence factor and conferred a fitness advantage during APEC early colonization. Taken together, our research unravelled the metabolic requirement of APEC intracellular survival/replication within macrophages, and acetate metabolic requirement acted as an important strategy of APEC pathometabolism. The intracellular acetate consumption during facultative intracellular bacteria replication within macrophages promoted immunomodulatory disorders, resulting in excessively pro-inflammatory responses of host macrophages.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cyanobacteria are promising hosts for the production of various industrially important compounds such as succinate. This study focuses on introduction of the glyoxylate shunt, which is naturally present in only a few cyanobacteria, into Synechocystis PCC 6803. In order to test its impact on cell metabolism, engineered strains were evaluated for succinate accumulation under conditions of light, darkness and anoxic darkness. Each condition was complemented by treatments with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme, and acetate, both in nitrogen replete and deplete medium.<h4>Results</h4>We were able to introduce genes encoding the glyoxylate shunt, aceA and aceB, encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase respectively, into a strain of Synechocystis PCC 6803 engineered to overexpress phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Our results show that complete expression of the glyoxylate shunt results in higher extracellular succinate accumulation compared to the wild type control strain after incubation of cells in darkness and anoxic darkness in the presence of nitrate. Addition of the inhibitor 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone increased succinate titers in all the conditions tested when nitrate was available. Addition of acetate in the presence of the inhibitor further increased the succinate accumulation, resulting in high levels when phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was overexpressed, compared to control strain. However, the highest succinate titer was obtained after dark incubation of an engineered strain with a partial glyoxylate shunt overexpressing isocitrate lyase in addition to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, with only 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone supplementation to the medium.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Heterologous expression of the glyoxylate shunt with its central link to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) for acetate assimilation provides insight on the coordination of the carbon metabolism in the cell. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase plays an important role in directing carbon flux towards the TCA cycle.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The genome of the important industrial host Bacillus subtilis does not encode the glyoxylate shunt, which is necessary to utilize overflow metabolites, like acetate or acetoin, as carbon source. In this study, the operon encoding the isocitrate lyase (aceB) and malate synthase (aceA) from Bacillus licheniformis was transferred into the chromosome of B. subtilis. The resulting strain was examined in respect to growth characteristics and qualities as an expression host. RESULTS: Our results show that the modified B. subtilis strain is able to grow on the C2 compound acetate. A combined transcript, protein and metabolite analysis indicated a functional expression of the native glyoxylate shunt of B. lichenifomis in B. subtilis. This metabolically engineered strain revealed better growth behavior and an improved activity of an acetoin-controlled expression system. CONCLUSIONS: The glyoxylate shunt of B. licheniformis can be functionally transferred to B. subtilis. This novel strain offers improved properties for industrial applications, such as growth on additional carbon sources and a greater robustness towards excess glucose feeding.
Project description:Specific growth rate dependent gene expression changes of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 were determined by microarray and real time PCR analyses. The bacteria were cultivated on glucose limited minimal medium using the accelerostat method (A-stat), where starting from steady state conditions in a chemostat culture, dilution rate is constantly increased. At specific growth rate (μ) 0.47 h-1, E. coli had focused its metabolism to glucose utilization by down-regulation of alternative substrate transporters expression compared to μ = 0.3 h-1. It was found that acetic acid accumulation began at μ = 0.34 ± 0.01 h-1 and two acetate synthesis pathways (phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (pta-ackA) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB)) contributed to the synthesis at the beginning of overflow metabolism, i.e. onset of acetate excretion. On the other hand, poxB, pta and ackA expression patterns suggest that pyruvate oxidase may be the only enzyme synthesizing acetate at μ = 0.47 h-1. Down-regulation of acs-yjcH-actP operon, the resulting loss of glucose and acetate co-utilization between specific growth rates 0.3 h-1 – 0.42 h-1 and acetic acid accumulation from μ = 0.34 ± 0.01 h-1 allows one to surmise that the acetate utilization operon expression might play an important role in overflow metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed from three A-stat cultivations, for which one has a technical replicate.
Project description:The glyoxylate shunt (GS), involving isocitrate lyase (encoded by aceA) and malate synthase G (encoded by glcB), is known to play important roles under several conditions including oxidative stress, antibiotic defense, or certain carbon source metabolism (acetate and fatty acids). Comparative growth analyses of wild type (WT), aceA, and glcB null-strains revealed that aceA, but not glcB, is essential for cells to grow on either acetate (1%) or hexadecane (1%) in Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1. Interestingly. the aceA knockout strain was able to grow slower in 0.1% acetate than the parent strain. Northern Blot analysis showed that the expression of aceA was dependent on the concentration of acetate or H2O2, while glcB was constitutively expressed. Up-regulation of stress response-related genes and down-regulation of main carbon metabolism-participating genes in a ?aceA mutant, compared to that in the parent strain, suggested that an ?aceA mutant is susceptible to acetate toxicity, but grows slowly in 0.1% acetate. However, a ?glcB mutant showed no growth defect in acetate or hexadecane and no susceptibility to H2O2, suggesting the presence of an alternative pathway to eliminate glyoxylate toxicity. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, encoded by a ldh) could possibly mediate the conversion from glyoxylate to oxalate based on our RNA-seq profiles. Oxalate production during hexadecane degradation and impaired growth of a ?ldh?glcB double mutant in both acetate and hexadecane-supplemented media suggested that LDH is a potential detoxifying enzyme for glyoxylate. Our constructed LDH-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain also showed an important role of LDH under lactate, acetate, and glyoxylate metabolisms. The LDH-overexpressing E. coli strain, but not wild type strain, produced oxalate under glyoxylate condition. In conclusion, the GS is a main player, but alternative glyoxylate pathways exist during acetate and hexadecane metabolism in A. oleivorans DR1.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Acetate metabolism in Escherichia coli plays an important role in the control of the central metabolism and in bioprocess performance. The main problems related to the use of E. coli as cellular factory are i) the deficient utilization of carbon source due to the excretion of acetate during aerobic growth, ii) the inhibition of cellular growth and protein production by acetate and iii) the need for cofactor recycling (namely redox coenzymes and free CoASH) to sustain balanced growth and cellular homeostasis. RESULTS: This work analyzes the effect of mutations in the acetate excretion/assimilation pathways, acetyl-CoA synthethase (acs) and phosphotransacetylase (pta), in E. coli BW25113 grown on glucose or acetate minimal media. Biomass and metabolite production, redox (NADH/NAD+) and energy (ATP) state, enzyme activities and gene expression profiles related to the central metabolism were analyzed. The knock-out of pta led to a more altered phenotype than that of acs. Deletion of pta reduced the ability to grow on acetate as carbon source and strongly affected the expression of several genes related to central metabolic pathways. CONCLUSION: Results showed that pta limits biomass yield in aerobic glucose cultures, due to acetate production (overflow metabolism) and its inefficient use during glucose starvation. Deletion of pta severely impaired growth on acetate minimal medium and under anaerobiosis due to decreased acetyl-coenzyme A synthethase, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenic activities, leading to lower growth rate. When acetate is used as carbon source, the joint expression of pta and acs is crucial for growth and substrate assimilation, while pta deletion severely impaired anaerobic growth. Finally, at an adaptive level, pta deficiency makes the strain more sensitive to environmental changes and de-regulates the central metabolism.