Small ribosomal protein RPS0 stimulates translation initiation by mediating 40S-binding of eIF3 via its direct contact with the eIF3a/TIF32 subunit.
ABSTRACT: The ribosome translates information encoded by mRNAs into proteins in all living cells. In eukaryotes, its small subunit together with a number of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) is responsible for locating the mRNA's translational start to properly decode the genetic message that it carries. This multistep process requires timely and spatially coordinated placement of eIFs on the ribosomal surface. In our long-standing pursuit to map the 40S-binding site of one of the functionally most complex eIFs, yeast multisubunit eIF3, we identified several interactions that placed its major body to the head, beak and shoulder regions of the solvent-exposed side of the 40S subunit. Among them is the interaction between the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the a/TIF32 subunit of eIF3 and the small ribosomal protein RPS0A, residing near the mRNA exit channel. Previously, we demonstrated that the N-terminal truncation of 200 residues in tif32-?8 significantly reduced association of eIF3 and other eIFs with 40S ribosomes in vivo and severely impaired translation reinitiation that eIF3 ensures. Here we show that not the first but the next 200 residues of a/TIF32 specifically interact with RPS0A via its extreme C-terminal tail (CTT). Detailed analysis of the RPS0A conditional depletion mutant revealed a marked drop in the polysome to monosome ratio suggesting that the initiation rates of cells grown under non-permissive conditions were significantly impaired. Indeed, amounts of eIF3 and other eIFs associated with 40S subunits in the pre-initiation complexes in the RPS0A-depleted cells were found reduced; consistently, to the similar extent as in the tif32-?8 cells. Similar but less pronounced effects were also observed with the viable CTT-less mutant of RPS0A. Together we conclude that the interaction between the flexible RPS0A-CTT and the residues 200-400 of the a/TIF32-NTD significantly stimulates attachment of eIF3 and its associated eIFs to small ribosomal subunits in vivo.
Project description:We found that mutating the RNP1 motif in the predicted RRM domain in yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunit b/PRT1 (prt1-rnp1) impairs its direct interactions in vitro with both eIF3a/TIF32 and eIF3j/HCR1. The rnp1 mutation in PRT1 confers temperature-sensitive translation initiation in vivo and reduces 40S-binding of eIF3 to native preinitiation complexes. Several findings indicate that the rnp1 lesion decreases recruitment of eIF3 to the 40S subunit by HCR1: (i) rnp1 strongly impairs the association of HCR1 with PRT1 without substantially disrupting the eIF3 complex; (ii) rnp1 impairs the 40S binding of eIF3 more so than the 40S binding of HCR1; (iii) overexpressing HCR1-R215I decreases the Ts(-) phenotype and increases 40S-bound eIF3 in rnp1 cells; (iv) the rnp1 Ts(-) phenotype is exacerbated by tif32-Delta6, which eliminates a binding determinant for HCR1 in TIF32; and (v) hcr1Delta impairs 40S binding of eIF3 in otherwise wild-type cells. Interestingly, rnp1 also reduces the levels of 40S-bound eIF5 and eIF1 and increases leaky scanning at the GCN4 uORF1. Thus, the PRT1 RNP1 motif coordinates the functions of HCR1 and TIF32 in 40S binding of eIF3 and is needed for optimal preinitiation complex assembly and AUG recognition in vivo.
Project description:The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the a/Tif32 subunit of budding yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) interacts with eIF3 subunits j/Hcr1 and b/Prt1 and can bind helices 16 to 18 of 18S rRNA, suggesting proximity to the mRNA entry channel of the 40S subunit. We have identified substitutions in the conserved Lys-Glu-Arg-Arg (KERR) motif and in residues of the nearby box6 element of the a/Tif32 CTD that impair mRNA recruitment by 43S preinitiation complexes (PICs) and confer phenotypes indicating defects in scanning and start codon recognition. The normally dispensable CTD of j/Hcr1 is required for its binding to a/Tif32 and to mitigate the growth defects of these a/Tif32 mutants, indicating physical and functional interactions between these two domains. The a/Tif32 CTD and the j/Hcr1 N-terminal domain (NTD) also interact with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) in b/Prt1, and mutations in both subunits that disrupt their interactions with the RRM increase leaky scanning of an AUG codon. These results, and our demonstration that the extreme CTD of a/Tif32 binds to Rps2 and Rps3, lead us to propose that the a/Tif32 CTD directly stabilizes 43S subunit-mRNA interaction and that the b/Prt1-RRM-j/Hcr1-a/Tif32-CTD module binds near the mRNA entry channel and regulates the transition between scanning-conducive and initiation-competent conformations of the PIC.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) messenger RNAs contain related (HCV-like) internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) that promote 5'-end independent initiation of translation, requiring only a subset of the eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) needed for canonical initiation on cellular mRNAs. Initiation on HCV-like IRESs relies on their specific interaction with the 40S subunit, which places the initiation codon into the P site, where it directly base-pairs with eIF2-bound initiator methionyl transfer RNA to form a 48S initiation complex. However, all HCV-like IRESs also specifically interact with eIF3 (refs 2, 5-7, 9-12), but the role of this interaction in IRES-mediated initiation has remained unknown. During canonical initiation, eIF3 binds to the 40S subunit as a component of the 43S pre-initiation complex, and comparison of the ribosomal positions of eIF3 and the HCV IRES revealed that they overlap, so that their rearrangement would be required for formation of ribosomal complexes containing both components. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a 40S ribosomal complex containing eIF3 and the CSFV IRES. Remarkably, although the position and interactions of the CSFV IRES with the 40S subunit in this complex are similar to those of the HCV IRES in the 40S-IRES binary complex, eIF3 is completely displaced from its ribosomal position in the 43S complex, and instead interacts through its ribosome-binding surface exclusively with the apical region of domain III of the IRES. Our results suggest a role for the specific interaction of HCV-like IRESs with eIF3 in preventing ribosomal association of eIF3, which could serve two purposes: relieving the competition between the IRES and eIF3 for a common binding site on the 40S subunit, and reducing formation of 43S complexes, thereby favouring translation of viral mRNAs.
Project description:Human translation initiation relies on the combined activities of numerous ribosome-associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). The largest factor, eIF3, is an ?800 kDa multiprotein complex that orchestrates a network of interactions with the small 40S ribosomal subunit, other eIFs, and mRNA, while participating in nearly every step of initiation. How these interactions take place during the time course of translation initiation remains unclear. Here, we describe a method for the expression and affinity purification of a fluorescently-tagged eIF3 from human cells. The tagged eIF3 dodecamer is structurally intact, functions in cell-based assays, and interacts with the HCV IRES mRNA and the 40S-IRES complex in vitro. By tracking the binding of single eIF3 molecules to the HCV IRES RNA with a zero-mode waveguides-based instrument, we show that eIF3 samples both wild-type IRES and an IRES that lacks the eIF3-binding region, and that the high-affinity eIF3-IRES interaction is largely determined by slow dissociation kinetics. The application of single-molecule methods to more complex systems involving eIF3 may unveil dynamics underlying mRNA selection and ribosome loading during human translation initiation.
Project description:The eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays an important role in translation initiation, acting as a docking site for several eIFs that assemble on the 40S ribosomal subunit. Here, we use mass spectrometry to probe the subunit interactions within the human eIF3 complex. Our results show that the 13-subunit complex can be maintained intact in the gas phase, enabling us to establish unambiguously its stoichiometry and its overall subunit architecture via tandem mass spectrometry and solution disruption experiments. Dissociation takes place as a function of ionic strength to form three stable modules eIF3(c:d:e:l:k), eIF3(f:h:m), and eIF3(a:b:i:g). These modules are linked by interactions between subunits eIF3b:c and eIF3c:h. We confirmed our interaction map with the homologous yeast eIF3 complex that contains the five core subunits found in the human eIF3 and supplemented our data with results from immunoprecipitation. These results, together with the 27 subcomplexes identified with increasing ionic strength, enable us to define a comprehensive interaction map for this 800-kDa species. Our interaction map allows comparison of free eIF3 with that bound to the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (HCV-IRES) RNA. We also compare our eIF3 interaction map with related complexes, containing evolutionarily conserved protein domains, and reveal the location of subunits containing RNA recognition motifs proximal to the decoding center of the 40S subunit of the ribosome.
Project description:Reinitiation is a gene-specific translational control mechanism characterized by the ability of some short upstream uORFs to retain post-termination 40S subunits on mRNA. Its efficiency depends on surrounding cis-acting sequences, uORF elongation rates, various initiation factors, and the intercistronic distance. To unravel effects of cis-acting sequences, we investigated previously unconsidered structural properties of one such a cis-enhancer in the mRNA leader of GCN4 using yeast genetics and biochemistry. This leader contains four uORFs but only uORF1, flanked by two transferrable 5' and 3' cis-acting sequences, and allows efficient reinitiation. Recently we showed that the 5' cis-acting sequences stimulate reinitiation by interacting with the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the eIF3a/TIF32 subunit of the initiation factor eIF3 to stabilize post-termination 40S subunits on uORF1 to resume scanning downstream. Here we identify four discernible reinitiation-promoting elements (RPEs) within the 5' sequences making up the 5' enhancer. Genetic epistasis experiments revealed that two of these RPEs operate in the eIF3a/TIF32-dependent manner. Likewise, two separate regions in the eIF3a/TIF32-NTD were identified that stimulate reinitiation in concert with the 5' enhancer. Computational modeling supported by experimental data suggests that, in order to act, the 5' enhancer must progressively fold into a specific secondary structure while the ribosome scans through it prior uORF1 translation. Finally, we demonstrate that the 5' enhancer's stimulatory activity is strictly dependent on and thus follows the 3' enhancer's activity. These findings allow us to propose for the first time a model of events required for efficient post-termination resumption of scanning. Strikingly, structurally similar RPE was predicted and identified also in the 5' leader of reinitiation-permissive uORF of yeast YAP1. The fact that it likewise operates in the eIF3a/TIF32-dependent manner strongly suggests that at least in yeasts the underlying mechanism of reinitiation on short uORFs is conserved.
Project description:Canonical mRNA translation in eukaryotes begins with the formation of the 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC). Its assembly requires binding of initiator Met-tRNA<sub>i</sub><sup>Met</sup> and several eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to the small ribosomal subunit (40S). Compared to their mammalian hosts, trypanosomatids present significant structural differences in their 40S, suggesting substantial variability in translation initiation. Here, we determine the structure of the 43S PIC from Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease. Our structure shows numerous specific features, such as the variant eIF3 structure and its unique interactions with the large rRNA expansion segments (ESs) 9<sup>S</sup>, 7<sup>S</sup>, and 6<sup>S</sup>, and the association of a kinetoplastid-specific DDX60-like helicase. It also reveals the 40S-binding site of the eIF5 C-terminal domain and structures of key terminal tails of several conserved eIFs underlying their activities within the PIC. Our results are corroborated by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays in both human and T. cruzi and mass spectrometry data.
Project description:eIF3 is a large multiprotein complex serving as an essential scaffold promoting binding of other eIFs to the 40S subunit, where it coordinates their actions during translation initiation. Perhaps due to a high degree of flexibility of multiple eIF3 subunits, a high-resolution structure of free eIF3 from any organism has never been solved. Employing genetics and biochemistry, we previously built a 2D interaction map of all five yeast eIF3 subunits. Here we further improved the previously reported in vitro reconstitution protocol of yeast eIF3, which we cross-linked and trypsin-digested to determine its overall shape in 3D by advanced mass-spectrometry. The obtained cross-links support our 2D subunit interaction map and reveal that eIF3 is tightly packed with its WD40 and RRM domains exposed. This contrasts with reported cryo-EM structures depicting eIF3 as a molecular embracer of the 40S subunit. Since the binding of eIF1 and eIF5 further fortified the compact architecture of eIF3, we suggest that its initial contact with the 40S solvent-exposed side makes eIF3 to open up and wrap around the 40S head with its extended arms. In addition, we mapped the position of eIF5 to the region below the P- and E-sites of the 40S subunit.
Project description:The cricket paralysis virus intergenic region internal ribosomal entry site (CrPV IGR IRES) can assemble translation initiation complexes by binding to 40S subunits without Met-tRNA(Met)(i) and initiation factors (eIFs) and then by joining directly with 60S subunits, yielding elongation-competent 80S ribosomes. Here, we report that eIF1, eIF1A and eIF3 do not significantly influence IRES/40S subunit binding but strongly inhibit subunit joining and the first elongation cycle. The IRES can avoid their inhibitory effect by its ability to bind directly to 80S ribosomes. The IRES's ability to bind to 40S subunits simultaneously with eIF1 allowed us to use directed hydroxyl radical cleavage to map its position relative to the known position of eIF1. A connecting loop in the IRES's pseudoknot (PK) III domain, part of PK II and the entire domain containing PK I are solvent-exposed and occupy the E site and regions of the P site that are usually occupied by Met-tRNA(Met)(i).
Project description:Eukaryotic translation initiation requires the recruitment of the large, multiprotein eIF3 complex to the 40S ribosomal subunit. We present X-ray structures of all major components of the minimal, six-subunit Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF3 core. These structures, together with electron microscopy reconstructions, cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry, and integrative structure modeling, allowed us to position and orient all eIF3 components on the 40S?eIF1 complex, revealing an extended, modular arrangement of eIF3 subunits. Yeast eIF3 engages 40S in a clamp-like manner, fully encircling 40S to position key initiation factors on opposite ends of the mRNA channel, providing a platform for the recruitment, assembly, and regulation of the translation initiation machinery. The structures of eIF3 components reported here also have implications for understanding the architecture of the mammalian 43S preinitiation complex and the complex of eIF3, 40S, and the hepatitis C internal ribosomal entry site RNA.