Human POLB gene is mutated in high percentage of colorectal tumors.
ABSTRACT: Previous small scale sequencing studies have indicated that DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) variants are present on average in 30% of human tumors of varying tissue origin. Many of these variants have been shown to have aberrant enzyme function in vitro and to induce cellular transformation and/or genomic instability in vivo, suggesting that their presence is associated with tumorigenesis or its progression. In this study, the human POLB gene was sequenced in a collection of 134 human colorectal tumors and was found to contain coding region mutations in 40% of the samples. The variants map to many different sites of the pol ? protein and are not clustered. Many variants are nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions predicted to affect enzyme function. A subset of these variants was found to have reduced enzyme activity in vitro and failed to fully rescue pol ?-deficient cells from methylmethane sulfonate-induced cytotoxicity. Tumors harboring variants with reduced enzyme activity may have compromised base excision repair function, as evidenced by our methylmethane sulfonate sensitivity studies. Such compromised base excision repair may drive tumorigenesis by leading to an increase in mutagenesis or genomic instability.
Project description:A replication study of a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested that a SNP linked to the POLB gene is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This SNP is correlated with decreased expression of Pol ?, a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. To determine whether decreased Pol ? activity results in SLE, we constructed a mouse model of POLB that encodes an enzyme with slow DNA polymerase activity. We show that mice expressing this hypomorphic POLB allele develop an autoimmune pathology that strongly resembles SLE. Of note, the mutant mice have shorter immunoglobulin heavy-chain junctions and somatic hypermutation is dramatically increased. These results demonstrate that decreased Pol ? activity during the generation of immune diversity leads to lupus-like disease in mice, and suggest that decreased expression of Pol ? in humans is an underlying cause of SLE.
Project description:DNA polymerase ? is essential for short-patch base excision repair. We have previously identified 20 somatic pol ? mutations in prostate tumors, many of them missense. In the current article we describe the effect of all of these somatic missense pol ? mutations (p.K27N, p.E123K, p.E232K, p.P242R, p.E216K, p.M236L, and the triple mutant p.P261L/T292A/I298T) on the biochemical properties of the polymerase in vitro, following bacterial expression and purification of the respective enzymatic variants. We report that all missense somatic pol ? mutations significantly affect enzyme function. Two of the pol ? variants reduce catalytic efficiency, while the remaining five missense mutations alter the fidelity of DNA synthesis. Thus, we conclude that a significant proportion (9 out of 26; 35%) of prostate cancer patients have functionally important somatic mutations of pol ?. Many of these missense mutations are clonal in the tumors, and/or are associated with loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. These results suggest that interfering with normal polymerase ? function may be a frequent mechanism of prostate tumor progression. Furthermore, the availability of detailed structural information for pol ? allows understanding of the potential mechanistic effects of these mutants on polymerase function.
Project description:DNA polymerase beta (Pol β) is a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Pol β is mutated in approximately 40% of human tumors in small-scale studies. The 5´-deoxyribose-5-phosphate (dRP) lyase domain of Pol β is responsible for DNA end tailoring to remove the 5' phosphate group. We previously reported that the dRP lyase activity of Pol β is critical to maintain DNA replication fork stability and prevent cellular transformation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the human gastric cancer associated variant of Pol β (L22P) has the ability to promote spontaneous chromosomal instability and carcinogenesis in mice. We constructed a Pol β L22P conditional knock-in mouse model and found that L22P enhances hyperproliferation and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in stomach cells. Moreover, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from L22P mice frequently induce abnormal numbers of chromosomes and centrosome amplification, leading to chromosome segregation errors. Importantly, L22P mice exhibit chronic inflammation accompanied by stomach tumors. These data demonstrate that the human cancer-associated variant of Pol β can contribute to chromosomal instability and cancer development.
Project description:Approximately 30% of human tumors examined for mutations in polymerase beta (pol beta) appear to express pol beta variant proteins (D. Starcevic, S. Dalal, and J. B. Sweasy, Cell Cycle 3:998-1001, 2004). Many of these variants result from a single amino acid substitution. We have previously shown that the K289M and I260M colon and prostate cancer variants, respectively, induce cellular transformation most likely due to sequence-specific mutator activity (S. Dalal et al., Biochemistry 44:15664-15673, 2005; T. Lang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:6074-6079, 2004; J. B. Sweasy et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:14350-14355, 2005). In the work described here, we show that the E295K gastric carcinoma pol beta variant acts in a dominant-negative manner by interfering with base excision repair. This leads to an increase in sister chromatid exchanges. Expression of the E295K variant also induces cellular transformation. Our data suggest that unfilled gaps are channeled into a homology-directed repair pathway that could lead to genomic instability. The results indicate that base excision repair is critical for maintaining genome stability and could therefore be a tumor suppressor mechanism.
Project description:Human alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase (AAG) initiates base excision repair (BER) of alkylated and deaminated bases in DNA. Here, we assessed the mutability of the AAG substrate binding pocket, and the essentiality of individual binding pocket amino acids for survival of methylation damage. We used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to randomize 19 amino acids, 8 of which interact with substrate bases, and created more than 4.5 million variants. We expressed the mutant AAGs in repair-deficient Escherichia coli and selected for protection against the cytotoxicity of either methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) or methyl-lexitropsin (Me-lex), an agent that produces 3-methyladenine as the predominant base lesion. Sequence analysis of 116 methylation-resistant mutants revealed no substitutions for highly conserved Tyr(127)and His(136). In contrast, one mutation, L180F, was greatly enriched in both the MMS- and Me-lex-resistant libraries. Expression of the L180F single mutant conferred 4.4-fold enhanced survival at the high dose of MMS used for selection. The homogeneous L180F mutant enzyme exhibited 2.2-fold reduced excision of 3-methyladenine and 7.3-fold reduced excision of 7-methylguanine from methylated calf thymus DNA. Decreased excision of methylated bases by the mutant glycosylase could promote survival at high MMS concentrations, where the capacity of downstream enzymes to process toxic BER intermediates may be saturated. The mutant also displayed 6.6- and 3.0-fold reduced excision of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine and hypoxanthine from oligonucleotide substrates, respectively, and a 1.7-fold increase in binding to abasic site-containing DNA. Our work provides in vivo evidence for the substrate binding mechanism deduced from crystal structures, illuminates the function of Leu(180) in wild-type human AAG, and is consistent with a role for balanced expression of BER enzymes in damage survival.
Project description:DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) is the main polymerase involved in base excision repair (BER), which is a pathway responsible for the repair of tens of thousands of DNA lesions per cell per day. Our recent efforts in sequencing colon tumors showed that 40% of the tumors sequenced possessed a variant in the coding region of the POLB gene; one of these variants is E288K. Expression of the E288K variant in cells leads to an increase in the frequency of mutations at AT base pairs. In vitro, the E288K variant is as active as and binds one-base-gapped DNA with the same affinity as wild-type pol ?. Single-turnover kinetic data for the E288K variant show that its mutator phenotype is specific for misincorporating opposite template A up to 6-fold more than the wild-type enzyme and that this is due to a decrease in the degree of discrimination in nucleotide binding. Molecular modeling suggests that the substitution of Lys at position 288 causes the polymerase to adopt a more open conformation, which may be disrupting the nucleotide binding pocket. This may explain the reduced degree of discrimination at the level of nucleotide binding. The enhanced mutagenesis of the E288K variant could lead to genomic instability and ultimately a malignant tumor phenotype.
Project description:DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) is a key enzyme in DNA base excision repair, and an important factor for maintaining genome integrity and stability. More than 30% of human tumors characterized to date express DNA Pol beta variants, many of which result from a single nucleotide residue substitution. However, in most cases, their precise functional deficiency and relationship to cancer susceptibility are still unknown. In the current work, we show that a polymorphism encoding an arginine to glutamine substitution, R137Q, has lower polymerase activity. The substitution also affects the interaction between Pol beta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). These defects impair the DNA repair capacity of Pol beta in reconstitution assays, as well as in cellular extracts. Expression of wild-type Pol beta in pol beta(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells restored cellular resistance to DNA damaging reagents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), while expression of R137Q in pol beta(-/-) MEF cells failed to do so. These data indicate that polymorphisms in base excision repair genes may contribute to the onset and development of cancers.
Project description:PrimPol is a DNA damage tolerance enzyme possessing both translesion synthesis (TLS) and primase activities. To uncover its potential role in TLS-mediated IgV? hypermutation and define its interplay with other TLS polymerases, PrimPol(-/-) and PrimPol(-/-)/Pol?(-/-)/Pol? (-/-) gene knockouts were generated in avian cells. Loss of PrimPol had no significant impact on the rate of hypermutation or the mutation spectrum of IgV?. However, PrimPol(-/-) cells were sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate, suggesting that it may bypass abasic sites at the IgV? segment by repriming DNA synthesis downstream of these sites. PrimPol(-/-) cells were also sensitive to cisplatin and hydroxyurea, indicating that it assists in maintaining / restarting replication at a variety of lesions. To accurately measure the relative contribution of the TLS and primase activities, we examined DNA damage sensitivity in PrimPol(-/-) cells complemented with polymerase or primase-deficient PrimPol. Polymerase-defective, but not primase-deficient, PrimPol suppresses the hypersensitivity of PrimPol(-/-) cells. This indicates that its primase, rather than TLS activity, is pivotal for DNA damage tolerance. Loss of TLS polymerases, Pol? and Pol? has an additive effect on the sensitivity of PrimPol(-/-) cells. Moreover, we found that PrimPol and Pol?-Pol? redundantly prevented cell death and facilitated unperturbed cell cycle progression. PrimPol(-/-) cells also exhibited increased sensitivity to a wide variety of chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs). PrimPol could perform close-coupled repriming downstream of CTNAs and oxidative damage in vitro. Together, these results indicate that PrimPol's repriming activity plays a central role in reinitiating replication downstream from CTNAs and other specific DNA lesions.
Project description:Mitochondrial genome integrity is fundamental to mammalian cell viability. Since mitochondrial DNA is constantly under attack from oxygen radicals released during ATP production, DNA repair is vital in removing oxidatively generated lesions in mitochondrial DNA, but the presence of a strong base excision repair system has not been demonstrated. Here, we addressed the presence of such a system in mammalian mitochondria involving the primary base lesion repair enzyme DNA polymerase (pol) ?. Pol ? was localized to mammalian mitochondria by electron microscopic-immunogold staining, immunofluorescence co-localization and biochemical experiments. Extracts from purified mitochondria exhibited base excision repair activity that was dependent on pol ?. Mitochondria from pol ?-deficient mouse fibroblasts had compromised DNA repair and showed elevated levels of superoxide radicals after hydrogen peroxide treatment. Mitochondria in pol ?-deficient fibroblasts displayed altered morphology by electron microscopy. These results indicate that mammalian mitochondria contain an efficient base lesion repair system mediated in part by pol ? and thus pol ? plays a role in preserving mitochondrial genome stability.
Project description:ALC1/CHD1L is a member of the SNF2 superfamily of ATPases carrying a macrodomain that binds poly(ADP-ribose). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2 synthesize poly(ADP-ribose) at DNA-strand cleavage sites, promoting base excision repair (BER). Although depletion of ALC1 causes increased sensitivity to various DNA-damaging agents (H2O2, UV, and phleomycin), the role played by ALC1 in BER has not yet been established. To explore this role, as well as the role of ALC1's ATPase activity in BER, we disrupted the ALC1 gene and inserted the ATPase-dead (E165Q) mutation into the ALC1 gene in chicken DT40 cells, which do not express PARP2. The resulting ALC1-/- and ALC1-/E165Q cells displayed an indistinguishable hypersensitivity to methylmethane sulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, and to H2O2, indicating that ATPase plays an essential role in the DNA-damage response. PARP1-/- and ALC1-/-/PARP1-/- cells exhibited a very similar sensitivity to MMS, suggesting that ALC1 and PARP1 collaborate in BER. Following pulse-exposure to H2O2, PARP1-/- and ALC1-/-/PARP1-/- cells showed similarly delayed kinetics in the repair of single-strand breaks, which arise as BER intermediates. To ascertain ALC1's role in BER in mammalian cells, we disrupted the ALC1 gene in human TK6 cells. Following exposure to MMS and to H2O2, the ALC1-/- TK6 cell line showed a delay in single-strand-break repair. We therefore conclude that ALC1 plays a role in BER. Following exposure to H2O2, ALC1-/- cells showed compromised chromatin relaxation. We thus propose that ALC1 is a unique BER factor that functions in a chromatin context, most likely as a chromatin-remodeling enzyme.