ADAM10 expression and promoter haplotype in Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is confirmed at autopsy according to the accumulation of brain neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Neuritic plaques contain amyloid-? (A?) and lower levels of A? correspond to an increase in ADAM10 ?-secretase activity. ADAM10 ?-secretase activity produces a soluble amyloid precursor protein (APP) alpha (sAPP?) product and negates the pathological production of A?. In this investigation, it was hypothesized that genetic variation with the ADAM10 promoter is associated with ADAM10 expression levels as well as cerebrospinal fluid sAPP? levels. Results from this investigation suggest that the ADAM10 rs514049-rs653765 C-A promoter haplotype is associated with: (1) higher CSF sAPP? levels in cognitively normal controls compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, (2) higher postmortem brain hippocampus, but not cerebellum, ADAM10 protein levels in subjects with low plaque scores compared with those with high plaque scores, and (3) higher promoter activity for promoter-only reporter constructs compared with promoter 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) constructs in the human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cell line, but not in HepG2 or U118 cell lines. Taken together, these findings suggest that ADAM10 expression is modulated according to a promoter haplotype that is influenced in a brain region- and cell type-specific manner.
Project description:Amyloid-? (A?), the major component of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from sequential proteolytic cleavage of amyloid protein precursor (APP) by secretases. In this study, we found that cystatin C (CysC), a natural cysteine protease inhibitor, is able to reduce A?40 secretion in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). The CysC-induced A?40 reduction was caused by degradation of ?-secretase BACE1 through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. In contrast, we found that CysC promoted secretion of soluble APP? indicating the activated non-amyloidogenic processing of APP in HBMEC. Further results revealed that ?-secretase ADAM10, which was transcriptionally upregulated in response to CysC, was required for the CysC-induced sAPP? secretion. Knockdown of SIRT1 abolished CysC-triggered ADAM10 upregulation and sAPP? production. Taken together, our results demonstrated that exogenously applied CysC can direct amyloidogenic APP processing to non-amyloidgenic pathway in brain endothelial cells, mediated by proteasomal degradation of BACE1 and SIRT1-mediated ADAM10 upregulation. Our study unveils previously unrecognized protective role of CysC in APP processing.
Project description:ADAM10 is a metalloproteinase acting on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) as an alpha-secretase in neurons. Its enzymatic activity results in secretion of a neuroprotective APP cleavage product (sAPP-alpha) and prevents formation of the amyloidogenic A-beta peptides, major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elevated ADAM10 levels appeared to contribute to attenuation of A-beta-plaque formation and learning and memory deficits in AD mouse models. Therefore, it has been assumed that ADAM10 might represent a valuable target in AD therapy. Here we screened a FDA-approved drug library and identified disulfiram as a novel ADAM10 gene expression enhancer. Disulfiram increased ADAM10 production as well as sAPP-alpha in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells and additionally prevented A-beta aggregation in an in vitro assay in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, acute disulfiram treatment of Alzheimer model mice induced ADAM10 expression in peripheral blood cells, reduced plaque-burden in the dentate gyrus and ameliorated behavioral deficits. Alcohol-dependent patients are subjected to disulfiram-treatment to discourage alcohol-consumption. In such patients, enhancement of ADAM10 by disulfiram-treatment was demonstrated in peripheral blood cells. Our data suggest that disulfiram could be repurposed as an ADAM10 enhancer and AD therapeutic. However, efficacy and safety has to be analyzed in Alzheimer patients in the future.
Project description:The generation of A?, the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is precluded by ?-secretase cleavage within the A? domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We identified two rare mutations (Q170H and R181G) in the prodomain of the metalloprotease, ADAM10, that cosegregate with late-onset AD (LOAD). Here, we addressed the pathogenicity of these mutations in transgenic mice expressing human ADAM10 in brain. In Tg2576 AD mice, both mutations attenuated ?-secretase activity of ADAM10 and shifted APP processing toward ?-secretase-mediated cleavage, while enhancing A? plaque load and reactive gliosis. We also demonstrated ADAM10 expression potentiates adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is reduced by the LOAD mutations. Mechanistically, both LOAD mutations impaired the molecular chaperone activity of ADAM10 prodomain. Collectively, these findings suggest that diminished ?-secretase activity, owing to LOAD ADAM10 prodomain mutations, leads to AD-related pathology, strongly supporting ADAM10 as a promising therapeutic target for this devastating disease.
Project description:The expression of contactin-associated protein 1 (Caspr1) in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), one of the major cellular components of the neurovascular unit (NVU), has been revealed recently. However, the physiological role of Caspr1 in BMECs remains unclear. We previously reported the nonamyloidogenic processing of amyloid protein precursor (APP) pathway in the human BMECs (HBMECs). In this study, we found Caspr1 depletion reduced the levels of soluble amyloid protein precursor ? (sAPP?) in the supernatant of HBMECs, which could be rescued by expression of full-length Caspr1. Our further results showed that ADAM9, the ?-secretase essential for processing of APP to generate sAPP?, was decreased in Caspr1-depleted HBMECs. The reduced sAPP? secretion in Caspr1-depleted HBMECs was recovered by expression of exogenous ADAM9. Then, we identified that Caspr1 specifically regulates the expression of ADAM9, but not ADAM10 and ADAM17, at transcriptional level by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway. Caspr1 knockout attenuated the activation of NF-?B and prevented the nuclear translocation of p65 in brain endothelial cells, which was reversed by expression of full-length Caspr1. The reduced sAPP? production and ADAM9 expression upon Caspr1 depletion were effectively recovered by NF-?B agonist. The results of luciferase assays indicated that the NF-?B binding sites are located at -859 bp to -571 bp of ADAM9 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Caspr1 facilitates sAPP? production by transcriptional regulation of ?-secretase ADAM9 in brain endothelial cells.
Project description:Dysregulation of the activity of the disintegrin/metalloproteinase ADAM10 could contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Although a number of genetic studies have focused on the association of ADAM10 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to diseases, no genetic association studies of ADAM10 gene variability with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) have been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential association between ADAM10 promoter polymorphisms and ACI.The associations between rs653765 and rs514049 polymorphisms of the ADAM10 promoter and the possible risk of ACI were assessed among 347 patients with ACI and 299 matched healthy individuals in a case-control study.Overall, there was a significant difference in the genotypes frequencies of rs653765 (P = 0.04) between the ACI and control subjects. In addition, the rs653765 mutated allele of ADAM10 was significantly associated with increased ADAM10 expression in patients with ACI (P = 0.032). In contrast, the allele frequency of rs514049 was not statistically associated with ACI, and the rs514049 variant A > C did not affect the expression of ADAM10 either.Our findings indicate a positive association between the rs653765 polymorphism of ADAM10 and ACI, as well as a negative result for rs514049. In addition, a significant increase in ADAM10 expression was observed in patients with ACI carrying the rs653765 C > T mutation. This new knowledge about ADAM10 might be clinically important and confirm a role for ADAM10 in the pathophysiology of ACI, with potentially important therapeutic implications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Amyloid precursor protein (APP), best known for its association with Alzheimer disease, has recently been implicated in breast cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism involved remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of APP proteolytic cleavage in breast cancer functions. METHODS:The presence of APP proteolytic cleavage products was examined in breast cancer cell lines. The functional roles of APP in breast cancer were studied in vitro and tumor xenograft model using siRNA. The effects of full length APP and the ?-secretase cleaved ectodomain fragment, soluble APP? (sAPP?) were further investigated for their overexpression in breast cancers. The ?-secretase involved was identified. The ?-secretase expression together with APP was examined in clinical breast cancers. RESULTS:We showed that APP underwent proteolytic cleavage in breast cancer cells to generate sAPP?. The sAPP? and full length protein mediated breast cancer migration and proliferation, but in different functional extent. This proteolytic cleavage was mediated by ADAM10. Downregulation of APP and ADAM10 brought about similar functional effects. Overexpression of sAPP? reversed the effects of ADAM10 downregulation. Interestingly, in patients with non-luminal breast cancers, APP and ADAM10 expression correlated with each other and their co-expression was associated with the worst outcome. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrated the contributory role of APP cleavage on its oncogenic roles in breast cancer. ADAM10 was the key ?-secretase. APP and ADAM10 co-expression was associated with worse survival in non-luminal breast cancers. Targeting of APP or its processing by ADAM10 might be a promising treatment option in these cancers.
Project description:Although genetic variants of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to several inflammatory-related diseases, to date little is known about the clinical relationship in the development of sepsis.Two genetic variants in the promoter of ADAM10 were selected to analyze the potential association with the risk of sepsis. A total of 440 sepsis patients and 450 matched healthy individuals in two independent Chinese Han population were enrolled. Pyrosequencing and polymerase chain reaction-length polymorphism was used to determine the genotypes of the rs514049 and rs653765. A real-time qPCR method was used to detect the mRNA level of ADAM10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of substrates CX3CL1, interleukin (IL)-6R, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-6. Luciferase assay was used to analyze the activities of the promoter haplotypes of ADAM10.No statistically significant differences between sepsis cases and controls in the genotype or allele frequencies were observed, suggesting that ADAM10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may not be risk factors for the occurrence of sepsis. A significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of the rs653765 SNP between patients with sepsis subtype and severe sepsis (P?=?0.0014) or severe sepsis/sepsis shock (P?=?0.0037) were observed. Moreover, the rs653765 CC genotype in severe sepsis showed a higher ADAM10 level compared to healthy groups, and the rs653765 CC polymorphism had a strong impact on the production of the ADAM10 substrates CX3CL1, IL-6R and TNF-?. Furthermore, the functional assay showed that ADAM10 C-A haplotype carriers exhibited significantly higher reporter activity compared with the T-A carriers and T-C carriers in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line.Our data initially indicated the ADAM10 rs653765 polymorphism was associated with the development of severe sepsis; the risk CC genotype could functionally affect the expression level of ADAM10 mRNA and was accompanied by the up-regulation of its substrates. Thus, ADAM10 might be clinically important and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the development of sepsis, with potentially important therapeutic implications.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that alpha-processing single transmembrane proteins, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and anti-aging protein Klotho, are likely to be involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The natural phthalide Ligustilide (LIG) has been demonstrated to protect against aging- and amyloid-? (A?)-induced brain dysfunction in animal models. The present study is to investigate the effects of LIG on cognitive deficits and metabolism of both APP and Klotho and its underlying mechanism in AD double-transgenic (APP/PS1) mice and cultured human cells. Our results show that treatment with LIG significantly ameliorated memory impairment and A? levels and plaques burden. Specifically, LIG might act as a potent enhancer of ?-secretase, disintegrin, and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10), leading to upregulation of alpha-processing of both APP and Klotho and subsequent increases in the levels of both soluble APP fragment (sAPP?) and soluble Klotho (sKL) with inhibition of IGF-1/Akt/mTOR signaling in AD mice and cultured cells. Moreover, the specific ADAM10 inhibitor (G1254023X) effectively reversed LIG-induced alpha-processing of both APP and Klotho in vitro, while Klotho gene knockdown by small interfering RNA significantly blunted LIG-mediated inhibition of IGF-1/Akt/mTOR signaling in vitro. Taken together with the reported neuroprotective effects of both sAPP? and sKL as well as autophagy induction by Akt/mTOR pathway inhibition, our findings suggest that neuroprotection of LIG against AD is associated with induction alpha-processing of APP and Klotho and potential A? clearance. Whether LIG might induce A? autophagic clearance and the underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
Project description:Accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) in the brain has been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A? is produced from the A? precursor protein (APP) through the amyloidogenic pathway by ?-, and ?-secretase. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by ?-, and ?-secretase, precluding the production of A?. Thus, stimulating ?-secretase mediated APP processing is considered a therapeutic option not only for decreasing A? production but for increasing neuroprotective sAPP?. We have previously reported that 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine (E144), the active component of Lycoris chejuensis, decreases A? production by attenuating APP level, and retarding APP maturation. It can also improve cognitive function in the AD model mouse. In this study, we further analyzed the activating effect of E144 on ?-secretase. Treatment of E144 increased sAPP?, but decreased ?-secretase products from HeLa cells stably transfected with APP. E144 directly activated ADAM10 and ADAM17 in a substrate-specific manner both in cell-based and in cell-free assays. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis revealed that E144 enhanced the affinities of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) towards the substrate. Consistent with this result, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that interactions of APP with ADAM10 and ADAM17 were increased by E144. Our results indicate that E144 might be a novel agent for AD treatment as a substrate-specific activator of ?-secretase.
Project description:To determine the role of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a representative Chinese sample, we genotyped 362 AD patients and 370 healthy controls for the rs514049A/C and rs653765C/T polymorphisms in the ADAM10 promoter using the SNaPshot technique. We also examined the potential impact of these polymorphisms on the plasma level of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), a decoy receptor whose reduction has been associated with a higher risk of AD. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed using the present study and the largest GWAS from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). No significant differences were found in the distributions of genotypes or alleles between AD patients and control subjects. However, age-at-onset stratification analysis revealed that there were significant differences in the genotypes (P = 0.015) and alleles (P = 0.006) of the rs653765 SNP. Furthermore, patients with the rs653765 CC genotype showed a lower ADAM10 level and a faster cognitive deterioration than those in patients with the CT/TT genotype in late-onset AD (LOAD), and the rs653765 CC polymorphism was able to regulate the production of the ADAM10 substrate sRAGE. In contrast, the rs514049 polymorphism was not statistically associated with AD. In the meta-analysis, we observed that both rs514049 (A allele vs. C allele, P = 0.002) and rs653765 (C allele vs. T allele, P = 0.004) were associated with AD risk. The present study indicated that the rs653765 polymorphism might be associated with the risk and development of LOAD; in particular, the risk genotype, CC, may decrease the expression of ADAM10, influencing the plasma levels of sRAGE, and thus may be correlated with the clinical progression of AD.