Polymorphisms in complement system genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: The complement system plays an important role in inflammatory and immune responses, and recent evidence has suggested that it may also play a role in lymphomagenesis. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in complement system genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a population-based case-control study conducted among women in Connecticut. Tag SNPs in 30 complement genes were genotyped in 432 Caucasian incident cases and 494 frequency-matched controls. A gene-based analysis that adjusted for the number of tag SNPs genotyped in each gene showed a significant association with NHL overall (P = 0.04) as well as with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (P = 0.01) for the C1RL gene. A SNP-based analysis showed that a C>T base substitution for C1RL rs3813729 (odds ratio (OR)(CT) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-0.87, P(trend) = 0.0062) was associated with a decreased risk of overall NHL, as well as for DLBCL (OR(CT) = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.20-0.73; P(trend) = 0.0034). Additionally, SNPs (C2 rs497309, A>C and C3 rs344550, G>C) in two complement genes were positively associated with marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and C1QG was associated with CLL/SLL, but these results were based on a limited number of cases. Our results suggest a potential role of the complement system in susceptibility to NHL; however, our results should be viewed as exploratory and further replication is needed to clarify these preliminary findings.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may influence the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) given their important roles in recognizing microbial pathogens and stimulating multiple immune pathways. We conducted an investigation of TLR gene variants in a pooled analysis including three population-based case-control studies of NHL (1946 cases and 1808 controls). Thirty-six tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2, TLR4 and the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster were genotyped. Two TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 variants in moderate linkage disequilibrium were significantly associated with NHL: rs10008492 [odds ratio for CT genotype (OR(CT)) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.30; OR(TT) 1.40, 95% CI 1.15-1.71; P(trend) = 0.001] and rs4833103 (OR(AC) 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.88; OR(AA) 0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.90; P(trend) = 0.002; P(dominant) = 0.0002). Associations with these SNPs were consistent across all the three studies and did not appreciably differ by histologic subtype. We found little evidence of association between TLR2 variation and all NHL, although the rare variant rs3804100 was significantly associated with marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), both overall (OR(CT/CC) 1.89, 95% CI 1.27-2.81; P(dominant) = 0.002) and in two of the three studies. No associations with TLR4 variants were observed. This pooled analysis provides strong evidence that variation in the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 region is associated with NHL risk and suggests that TLR2 variants may influence susceptibility to MZL.
Project description:CXCR5 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5; also known as Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BCR1)] is expressed on mature B-cells, subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and skin-derived migratory dendritic cells. Together with its ligand, CXCL13, CXCR5 is involved in guiding B-cells into the B-cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs as well as T-cell migration. This study evaluated the role of common germline genetic variation in CXCR5 in the risk and prognosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) using a clinic-based study of 1,521 controls and 2,694 NHL cases including 710 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 586 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 588 follicular lymphoma (FL), 137 mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 230 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), and 158 peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Of the ten CXCR5 tag SNPs in our study, five were associated with risk of NHL, with rs1790192 having the strongest association (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.30; p = 0.0003). This SNP was most strongly associated with the risk of FL (OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.25-1.66; p = 3.1 × 10(-7)), with a lower degree of association with DLBCL (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33; p = 0.04) and PTCL (OR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.02-1.64; p = 0.04) but no association with the risk of MCL or MZL. For FL patients that were observed as initial disease management, the number of minor alleles of rs1790192 was associated with better event-free survival (HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.87; p = 0.004). These results provide additional evidence for a role of host genetic variation in CXCR5 in lymphomagenesis, particularly for FL.
Project description:Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, p = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, p = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.
Project description:Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is associated with the B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), preferentially marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). While chronic antigenic stimulation is a main determinant of lymphomagenesis in marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), a putative role of HCV infection of B-cells is supported by in vitro studies. We performed a pathological study within the "ANRS HC-13 LymphoC" observational study focusing on in situ expression of the oncogenic HCV non structural 3 (NS3) protein. Lympho-C study enrolled 116 HCV-positive patients with B-NHL of which 86 histological samples were collected for centralized review. Main histological subtypes were DLBCL (36%) and MZL (34%). Almost half of DLBCL (12/26) were transformed from underlying small B-cell lymphomas. NS3 immunostaining was found positive in 17 of 37 tested samples (46%). There was a striking association between NS3 detection and presence of high grade lymphoma features: 12 out of 14 DLBCL were NS3+ compared to only 4 out of 14 MZL (p = 0.006). Moreover, 2 among the 4 NS3+ MZL were enriched in large cells. Remarkably, this study supports a new mechanism of transformation with a direct oncogenic role of HCV proteins in the occurrence of high-grade B lymphomas.
Project description:Infectious agents have been identified in the etiology of certain non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes and solid tumors. The impact of this shared etiology on risk for second cancers in NHL survivors has not been comprehensively studied. We used US population-based cancer registry data to quantify risk of solid malignancies associated with infectious etiology among 127 044 adult 1-year survivors of the 4 most common NHL subtypes diagnosed during 2000 to 2014 (mean follow-up, 4.5-5.2 years). Compared with the general population, elevated risks for liver, stomach, and anal cancers were observed among diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) survivors (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.31; SIR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.94; SIR, 3.71; 95% CI, 2.52-5.27, respectively) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL; SIR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.34-2.83; SIR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.02-3.74; SIR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.02-4.64, respectively) but not follicular lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Anal cancer risk was particularly elevated among DLBCL survivors with HIV (SIR, 68.34; 95% CI, 37.36-114.66) vs those without (SIR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.22-3.34). The observed patterns are consistent with shared associations between these cancers and hepatitis C virus, Helicobacter pylori, and HIV, respectively. In contrast, risks for cervical and oropharyngeal/tonsil cancers were not elevated among survivors of any NHL subtype, possibly because of the lack of NHL association with human papillomavirus or population-wide screening practices (for cervical cancer). In summary, patterns of elevated second cancer risk differed by NHL subtype. Our results suggest shared infectious etiology has implications for subsequent cancer risks among DLBCL and MZL survivors, which may help inform surveillance for these survivors.
Project description:The pattern-recognition pathway plays an important role in infection recognition and immune responses, and previous studies have suggested an association between genetic variation in innate immunity genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We evaluated NHL risk associated with genetic variation in pattern-recognition genes using data from a case-control study of NHL conducted in Connecticut women. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 27 pattern-recognition genes were genotyped in 432 Caucasian incident NHL cases and 494 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) for NHL and common NHL subtypes in relation to individual SNPs and haplotypes. A gene-based analysis that adjusted for the number of tagSNPs genotyped in each gene showed a significant association with overall NHL for the MBP gene (P = 0.028), with the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtype for the MASP2 gene (P = 0.011), and with the follicular lymphoma (FL) subtype for DEFB126 (P = 0.041). A SNP-based analysis showed that MBP rs8094402 was associated with decreased risks of overall NHL (allele risk OR = 0.72, P-trend = 0.0018), DLBCL (allele risk OR = 0.72, P-trend = 0.036), and FL (allele risk OR = 0.67, P-trend = 0.021), while MASP2 rs12711521 was associated with a decreased risk of DLBCL (allele risk OR = 0.57, P-trend = 0.0042). We also observed an increased risk of FL for DEFB126 rs6054706 (allele risk OR = 1.39, P-trend = 0.033). Our results suggest that genetic variation in pattern-recognition genes is associated with the risk of NHL or specific NHL subtypes, but these preliminary findings require replication in larger studies.
Project description:Genetic variation in immune-related genes, such as IL10 and TNF, have been associated with the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in Caucasian populations. To test the hypothesis that IL10 and TNF polymorphisms may be associated with NHL risk in Asian populations, we genotyped 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL10 and TNF/LTA loci in three independent case-control studies (2635 cases and 4234 controls). IL10 rs1800871, rs1800872, and rs1800896 were genotyped in all three studies, while 5 of the remaining SNPs were genotyped in two studies, and 12 in a single study. IL10 rs1800896 was associated with B cell lymphoma [per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.45; p trend = 0.003], specifically diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (per-allele OR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.08-1.53; p trend = 0.004), as well as T cell lymphoma (per-allele OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.13-1.82; p trend = 0.003). TNF rs1800629, which was genotyped in only two of our studies, was also associated with B cell lymphoma (per-allele OR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.64-0.91; p trend = 0.003), specifically DLBCL (per-allele OR = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.55-0.86; p trend = 0.001). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in IL10 and TNF may also play a role in lymphomagenesis in Asian populations.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a malignancy of lymphocytes, and there is growing evidence for a role of germline genetic variation in immune genes in NHL etiology.To identify susceptibility immune genes, we conducted a 2-stage analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 1,253 genes using the Immune and Inflammation Panel. In Stage 1, we genotyped 7,670 SNPs in 425 NHL cases and 465 controls, and in Stage 2 we genotyped the top 768 SNPs on an additional 584 cases and 768 controls. The association of individual SNPs with NHL risk from a log-additive model was assessed using the OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI).In the pooled analysis, only the TAP2 coding SNP rs241447 (minor allele frequency = 0.26; Thr655Ala) at 6p21.3 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.17-1.53) achieved statistical significance after accounting for multiple testing (P = 3.1 × 10(-5)). The TAP2 SNP was strongly associated with follicular lymphoma (FL, OR = 1.82, 95%CI 1.46-2.26; p = 6.9 × 10(-8)), and was independent of other known loci (rs10484561 and rs2647012) from this region. The TAP2 SNP was also associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.77; P = 0.011), but not chronic lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.08; 95% CI 0.88-1.32). Higher TAP2 expression was associated with the risk allele in both FL and DLBCL tumors.Genetic variation in TAP2 was associated with NHL risk overall, and FL risk in particular, and this was independent of other established loci from 6p21.3.Genetic variation in antigen presentation of HLA class I molecules may play a role in lymphomagenesis.