Morphological and molecular diagnosis of anisakid nematode larvae from cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
ABSTRACT: Anisakid nematode larvae from Trichiurus lepturus off coast of Rio de Janeiro were studied using light, laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy, in addition to a molecular approach. Mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 2 (mtDNA cox-2), partial 28S (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships between the nematode taxa. The morphological and genetic profiles confirmed that, of the 1,030 larvae collected from the 64 fish examined, 398 were analysed, of which 361 were Hysterothylacium sp. and 37 were Anisakis typica. Larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were not identified to the species level due to the absence of similar sequences for adult parasites; however, the ITS sequence clustered in the phylogenetic tree with sequences of H. deardorffoverstreetorum, whereas an mtDNA cox-2 and LSU concatenated phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of two clades, both of them under the same name as the larval H. deardorffoverstreetorum. Data on the occurrence of parasites during the winter and summer months were compared using the t-test. The greatest prevalence and intensity of infection were recorded for larval Hysterothylacium, with a prevalence of 51.56% and an intensity of up to 55 parasites per fish. The larval Anisakis exhibit a higher abundance and intensity of infection in the winter months, and those of Hysterothylacium during the summer. However, the t-test indicated no significant differences between the abundance and intensity of infection recorded during the months of collection for either of these larval nematodes. All sequences generated in this study were deposited in GenBank.
Project description:The whitespotted conger Conger myriaster (Brevoort) (Anguilliformes: Congridae) is an extremely marketable food fish, commonly consumed as sashimi or sushi in some Asian countries (i.e. Japan, Korea and China). Conger myriaster is also suspected as being an extremely important source of human anisakidosis. However, there is currently very little information on the levels of infection with ascaridoid nematode parasites in this economically important marine fish. The aims of the present study are to determine the species composition, prevalence and mean intensity of ascaridoid parasites of C. myriaster caught in the Zhoushan Fishery.A total of 1142 third-stage ascaridoid larvae were isolated from 204 C. myriaster. The overall prevalence of infection was 100% (mean intensity 5.6). Nine species of such larvae were accurately identified using integrative taxonomic techniques involving both morphological and genetic data; these included Anisakis pegreffii, A. typica and A. simplex (sensu stricto) × A. pegreffii, Hysterothylacium fabri, H. aduncum, H. sinense, H. amoyense, H. zhoushanense and Raphidascaris lophii. Although high levels of infection and species richness were revealed in C. myriaster, most of the ascaridoid parasites (1135 individuals) were collected from the body cavity and visceral organs of the fish and only seven individuals of A. pegreffii were found in the musculature.This study represents the first report C. myriaster from the Zhoushan Fishery being heavily infected with third-stage ascaridoid larvae. Among the ascaridoid larvae parasitic in this fish, an important etiological agent of human anisakidosis, A. pegreffii (L3), represents the predominant species. The genus Hysterothylacium has the highest species richness, with H. fabri (L3) being the most prevalent species. This high level of infection of A. pegreffii (L3) in C. myriaster suggests a high risk of anisakidosis or associated allergies for people consuming raw or poorly cooked fish originating from this marine area. These findings provide important basic information on the occurrence and infection parameters of ascaridoid nematodes in this economically important marine fish. They also have significant implications for the prevention and control of human anisakidosis when conger eels from the Zhoushan Fishery are consumed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Red Vent Syndrome (RVS), a haemorrhagic inflammation of the vent region in Atlantic salmon, is associated with high abundance of Anisakis simplex (s.s.) third-stage larvae (L3) in the vent region. Despite evidence suggesting that increasing A. simplex (s.s.) intensity is a causative factor in RVS aetiology, the definitive cause remains unclear. METHODS:A total of 117 Atlantic salmon were sampled from commercial fisheries on the East, West, and North coasts of Scotland and examined for ascaridoid parasites. Genetic identification of a subsample of Anisakis larvae was performed using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. To assess the extent of differentiation of feeding grounds and dietary composition, stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen was carried out on Atlantic salmon muscle tissue. RESULTS:In the present study, the obtained ITS rDNA sequences matched A. simplex (s.s.) sequences deposited in GenBank at 99-100%. Not all isolated larvae (n?=?30,406) were genetically identified. Therefore, the morphotype found in this study is referred to as A. simplex (sensu lato). Anisakis simplex (s.l.) was the most prevalent (100%) nematode with the highest mean intensity (259.9?±?197.3), in comparison to Hysterothylacium aduncum (66.7%, 6.4?±?10.2) and Pseudoterranova decipiens (s.l.) (14.5%, 1.4?±?0.6). The mean intensity of A. simplex (s.l.) represents a four-fold increase compared to published data (63.6?±?31.9) from salmon captured in Scotland in 2009. Significant positive correlations between A. simplex (s.l.) larvae intensities from the body and the vent suggest that they play a role in the emergence of RVS. The lack of a significant variation in stable isotope ratios of Atlantic salmon indicates that diet or feeding ground are not driving regional differences in A. simplex (s.l.) intensities. CONCLUSIONS:This paper presents the most recent survey for ascaridoid parasites of wild Atlantic salmon from three coastal regions in Scotland. A significant rise in A. simplex (s.l.) intensity could potentially increase both natural mortality rates of Atlantic salmon and possible risks for salmon consumers due to the known zoonotic role of A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii within the A. simplex (s.l.) species complex.
Project description:Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease induced by anisakid nematodes, and endoscopic inspection is used for a diagnosis or remedy for it. Anisakis simplex, Anisakis physeteris, and Pseudoterranova decipiens had been reported to be the major species causing human infections, particularly, in Japan. However, in Korea, recent studies strongly suggested that Anisakis pegreffii is the major species of human infections. To support this suggestion, we collected anisakid larvae (n=20) from 20 human patients who were undergone gastrointestinal endoscopy at a health check-up center in Korea, and molecular identification was performed on the larvae using PCR-RFLP analysis and gene sequencing of rDNA ITS regions and mtDNA cox2. In addition, anisakid larvae (n=53) collected from the sea eel (Astroconger myriaster) were also examined for comparison with those extracted from humans. The results showed that all human samples (100%) were identified as A. pegreffii, whereas 90.7% of the samples from the sea eel were A. pegreffii with the remaining 9.3% being Hysterothylacium aduncum. Our study confirmed that A. pegreffii is the predominant species causing human anisakiasis in Korea, and this seems to be due to the predominance of this larval type in the fish (sea eels) popularly consumed by the Korean people. The possibility of human infection with H. aduncum in Korea is also suggested.
Project description:Anisakidosis is a zoonotic parasitosis induced by members of the family Anisakidae. The anisakid genera includes <i>Anisakis, Pseudoterranova, Hysterothylacium</i> and <i>Contracaecum</i>. The final definitive hosts of these nematodes are marine mammals with a complex life cycle. These nematode parasites use different crustaceans and fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts and humans are accidental hosts. Human anisakiasis, the infections caused by members of the genus <i>Anisakis,</i> occurs<i>,</i> when seafoods, particularly fish, contaminated with the infective stage (third stage larvae [L3]) of this parasite, are consumed. Pseudoterranovosis, on the other hand is induced by members of the genus <i>Pseudoterranova.</i> These two genera of anisakids have been implicated in human disease globally. There is a rise in reports of gastro-intestinal infections accompanied by allergic reactions caused by <i>Anisakis simplex</i> and <i>Anisakis pegreffii</i>. This review provides an update on current knowledge on <i>Anisakis</i> as a food-borne parasite with special focus on the increasingly reported diversity of fish and crustacean hosts, allergens and immunological cross-reactivity with invertebrate proteins rendering this parasite a significant public health issue.
Project description:Ascaridoid nematodes comprise a wide range of heteroxenous parasites infecting top fish predators and marine mammals as definitive hosts, with crustaceans, squids, and fishes acting as intermediate/paratenic hosts. Limited data exist on the species and role of several intermediate and paratenic hosts in the life cycle of these parasites. In the aim of adding knowledge on the role of squid species in their life cycle, we have here investigated the larval ascaridoid nematodes collected from the deep-sea umbrella squid Histioteuthis bonnelli and the reverse jewel squid Histioteuthis reversa captured in the Central Mediterranean Sea (Tyrrhenian Sea). Morphological study and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (mtDNA cox2) gene locus revealed the occurrence of Anisakis physeteris and of an unidentified species of the genus Lappetascaris. Sequence analysis revealed that specimens of Lappetascaris from both squid species matched at 100% sequences previously deposited in GenBank from larval ascaridoids collected in octopuses of the genus Eledone of the Mediterranean Sea. The Bayesian inference tree topology obtained from the analysis of the fragments amplified showed that Lappetascaris specimens were included in a major clade comprising Hysterothylacium species collected in fishes of the families Xiphiidae and Istiophoridae. As regards the site of infection in the squid host species, A. physeteris larvae predominated (60.7%) in the gonads, while those of Lappetascaris (76.3%) were found infecting the mantle musculature. The overall high values of parasitic load suggest both squid species as transmitting hosts of third stage larvae of Lappetascaris to top predator fishes, as well as the umbrella squid as an intermediate/paratenic host in the life cycle of A. physeteris in the Mediterranean Sea.
Project description:The study aims to perform, for the first time, the molecular identification of anisakid larvae in commercial fish from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean off the Peru coast, and to provide data on their infection level by fishing ground, fish host, and site of infection. Fish specimens (N = 348) from the northern and the central coast of Peru were examined for parasites. The fish fillets were examined by the UV-press method. Anisakis spp. larvae (N = 305) were identified by mtDNA cox2 sequences analysis and by the ARMS-PCR of the locus nas10 nDNA. Two hundred and eighty-eight Anisakis Type I larvae corresponded to Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 17 Anisakis Type II larvae clustered in a phylogenetic lineage distinct from Anisakis physeteris deposited in GenBank, and corresponding to a phylogenetic lineage indicated as Anisakis sp. 2, previously detected in fish from both Pacific and Atlantic waters. Anisakis pegreffii was found to infect both the flesh and viscera, while Anisakis sp. 2 occurred only in the viscera. The average parasitic burden with A. pegreffii in the examined fish species from the two fishing grounds was significantly higher than that observed with Anisakis sp. 2. The results obtained contribute to improve the knowledge on the distribution and occurrence of Anisakis species in Southeastern Pacific waters and their implications in seafood safety for the local human populations.
Project description:Ascaridoid nematodes are widespread in marine fishes. Despite their major socioeconomic importance, mechanisms associated to the fish-borne zoonotic disease anisakiasis are still obscure. RNA-Seq and de-novo assembly were herein applied to RNA extracted from larvae and dissected pharynx of Hysterothylacium aduncum (HA), a non-pathogenic nematode. Assembled transcripts in HA were annotated and compared to the transcriptomes of the zoonotic species Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (AS) and Anisakis pegreffii (AP). Approximately 60,000,000 single-end reads were generated for HA, AS and AP. Transcripts in HA encoded for 30,254 putative peptides while AS and AP encoded for 20,574 and 20,840 putative peptides, respectively. Differential gene expression analyses yielded 471, 612 and 526 transcripts up regulated in the pharynx of HA, AS and AP. The transcriptomes of larvae and pharynx of HA were enriched in transcripts encoding collagen, peptidases, ribosomal proteins and in heat-shock motifs. Transcripts encoding proteolytic enzymes, anesthetics, inhibitors of primary hemostasis and virulence factors, anticoagulants and immunomodulatory peptides were up-regulated in AS and AP pharynx. This study represents the first transcriptomic characterization of a marine parasitic nematode commonly recovered in fish and probably of negligible concern for public health.
Project description:Anisakidae, marine nematodes, are underrecognized fish-borne zoonotic parasites. Studies on factors that could trigger parasites to actively migrate out of the fish are very limited. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of different environmental conditions (temperature, CO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub>) on larval motility (in situ movement) and mobility (migration) in vitro. Larvae were collected by candling or enzymatic digestion from infected fish, identified morphologically and confirmed molecularly. Individual larvae were transferred to a semi-solid Phosphate Buffered Saline agar, and subjected to different temperatures (6 ?, 12 ?, 22 ?, 37 ?) at air conditions. Moreover, different combinations of CO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub> with N<sub>2</sub> as filler were tested, at both 6 °C and 12 °C. Video recordings of larvae were translated into scores for larval motility and mobility. Results showed that temperature had significant influence on larval movements, with the highest motility and mobility observed at 22 ? for Anisakis spp. larvae and 37 ? for Pseudoterranova spp. larvae. During the first 10 min, the median migration of Anisakis spp. larvae was 10 cm at 22 ?, and the median migration of Pseudoterranova spp. larvae was 3 cm at 37 ?. Larval mobility was not significantly different under the different CO<sub>2</sub> or O<sub>2</sub> conditions at 6 °C and 12 ?. It was concluded that temperature significantly facilitated larval movement with the optimum temperature being different for Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp., while CO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub> did not on the short term. This should be further validated in parasite-infected/spiked fish fillets.
Project description:Parasites belonging to the Anisakis genera are organisms of interest for human health because they are responsible for the Anisakiasis zoonosis, caused by the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish. Furthermore, several authors have reported this parasite to be a relevant inducer of acute or chronic allergic diseases. In this work, a rapid commercial system based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) was optimised and validated for the sensitive and rapid detection of Anisakis spp. DNA in processed fish products. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay for processed fish samples experimentally infected with Anisakis spp. larvae and DNA were determined. The LAMP system proposed in this study was able to give positive amplification for all the processed fish samples artificially contaminated with Anisakis spp., giving sensitivity values equal to 100%. Specificity tests provided no amplification for the Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova, or Hysterothylacium genera and uninfected samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of the LAMP assay proposed was 102 times lower than the real-time PCR method compared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the application of the LAMP assay for the detection of Anisakis spp. in processed fish products. The results obtained indicate that the LAMP assay validated in this work could be a reliable, easy-to-use, and convenient tool for the rapid detection of Anisakis DNA in fish product inspection.
Project description:The objective of this study is to determine the infection status of nematode larvae and record epidemiological molecular data in commercial fish from the southeast Pacific off the central coast of Peru. Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by <i>Anisakis</i> larvae, parasites of relevance in the fishery resources that have negative impact on public health. Between January 2012 to December 2014, 345 specimens of four fish species (<i>Trachurus symmetricus murphyi</i>, <i>Scomber japonicus peruanus</i>, <i>Merluccius gayi peruanus</i> and <i>Seriolella violacea</i>) were examined for <i>Anisakis</i> sp. larvae. A total of 997 <i>Anisakis</i> sp. larvae were found in the body cavity of 196 fish (total prevalence 53.7%, total mean intensity 5.08). After morphological analysis, 958 (96.08%) larvae were identified as Type I and 39 (3.92%) as Type II. Specimens were identified by molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome <i>c</i> oxidase subunit II (<i>cox</i>2) gene, confirming that <i>A. pegreffii</i> is the predominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis off the Peru Central Coast. In addition, we revealed the occurrence of <i>A. physeteris</i> (s.l.) in <i>S. japonicus peruanus</i> (P = 18.0%; MI = 2.17). Therefore, the results obtained in the present study improve the knowledge of the occurrence of <i>Anisakis</i> species in the commercial fish from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean, highlighting the importance of considering a potential hazard for humans and the necessity of further research in other fishes of greater preference by the Peruvian population.