Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in first tier medical journals have evaluated the health effects of diets high in protein. We conducted a rigorous systematic review of RCTs comparing higher- and lower-protein diets. METHODS: We searched several electronic databases up to July 2011 for studies focusing on patient-important outcomes (for example, cardiovascular disease) and secondary outcomes such as risk factors for chronic disease (for example, adiposity). RESULTS: We identified 111 articles reporting on 74 trials. Pooled effect sizes using standardised mean differences (SMDs) were small to moderate and favoured higher-protein diets for weight loss (SMD -0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.56 to -0.17), body mass index (-0.37, CI -0.56 to 0.19), waist circumference (-0.43, CI -0.69 to -0.16), blood pressure (systolic: -0.21, CI -0.32 to -0.09 and diastolic: -0.18, CI -0.29 to -0.06), high-density lipoproteins (HDL 0.25, CI 0.07 to 0.44), fasting insulin (-0.20, CI -0.39 to -0.01) and triglycerides (-0.51, CI -0.78 to -0.24). Sensitivity analysis of studies with lower risk of bias abolished the effect on HDL and fasting insulin, and reduced the effect on triglycerides. We observed nonsignificant effects on total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, C-reactive protein, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and surrogates for bone and kidney health. Adverse gastrointestinal events were more common with high-protein diets. Multivariable meta-regression analysis showed no significant dose response with higher protein intake. CONCLUSIONS: Higher-protein diets probably improve adiposity, blood pressure and triglyceride levels, but these effects are small and need to be weighed against the potential for harms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Very little information on the potential mechanisms of the physical activity interventions effects on adiposity is available. We evaluated the possible mediating factors of a physical activity school-based intervention on the sum of skinfolds in children. METHODS:This is a cluster randomized trial, secondary analysis of the KISS study. Children (n = 499) from the first and fifth grades were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Adiposity was estimated by four skinfolds, aerobic fitness assessed by the shuttle run test, and insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose collected via fasting blood samples. RESULTS:The intervention affected aerobic fitness (0.140 SD, 95% CI 0.011 to 0.270), triglycerides (0.217 SD, 95% CI -0.409 to -0.025), cholesterol/HDL ratio (-0.191 SD, 95% CI -0.334 to -0.047), glucose (-0.330 SD, 95% CI -0.538 to -0.121), and skinfolds (-0.122 SD, 95% CI -0.189 to -0.056). No intervention effect on insulin was found. We observed that changes in aerobic fitness impacted children's triglycerides and cholesterol/HDL ratio and consecutively the glucose levels mediating 30% of the intervention effect on skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings provided evidence of the positive metabolic distress caused by a physical activity intervention on adiposity levels in children.
Project description:Low concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] may be associated with cardiometabolic disorders; however, little is known about their relation to intermediate metabolic and lipid markers.We investigated the relation of serum 25(OH)D concentrations to fasting insulin, glucose, dyslipidemia, adiposity, and prevalent metabolic syndrome.We conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 292 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y in the Women's Health Initiative Calcium-Vitamin D (WHI-CaD) trial. Data were collected from 3 nested case-control studies that measured baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Inverse probability weighting was used to approximate parameter estimates for the WHI-CaD population.In weighted linear regression models adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, month of blood draw, region, case-control status, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and history of cardiometabolic risk factors, there was an inverse association of serum 25(OH)D with adiposity [body mass index (BMI): β = -1.12 ± 0.30, P = 0.0002; waist circumference: β = -3.57 ± 0.49, P < 0.0001; waist-hip ratio: β = -0.01 ± 0.002, P < 0.0001], triglycerides (β = -0.10 ± 0.02, P < 0.0001), and triglyceride:HDL-cholesterol ratio (β = -0.11 ± 0.03, P = 0.0003). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome for the highest (≥52 nmol/L) compared with the lowest (<35 nmol/L) tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.56). Significant associations remained after adjustment for BMI. We observed no significant associations with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or homeostatic model assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β).Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations may be inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, triglyceride:HDL-cholesterol ratio, and metabolic syndrome but are not associated with LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, or HOMA-β in postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.
Project description:Uncontrolled type-1 diabetes (T1DM) can lead to dyslipidaemia and albuminuria, which may promote cardiovascular injuries. However, some lipidemic factors could be useful in predicting cardiac dysfunction. Seventy-eight adolescents under insulin treatment due to a 6-year history of T1DM and were retrospectively examined. Glycemia, lipidemia, and albuminuria were measured in addition to development of cardiovascular abnormalities Both girls and boys showed higher HbA1c and fasting blood glucose and 27.1% females and 33.3% males exhibited microalbuminuria though their plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL lipoproteins were in the normal range. They exhibited a preserved systolic function, but 50% of females and 66.6% of males had developed diastolic failures. Interestingly, girls with diastolic dysfunction showed significantly lower concentrations of HDL and higher TC/HDL and TG/HDL ratios. In fact, low HDL levels (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.99; p = 0.029) and high TC/HDL (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.9-5.45; p = 0.016) and TG/HDL (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.12-6.71; p = 0.028) ratios associated with the development of diastolic complications. The cut-off values for HDL, TC/HDL, and TG/HDL were 49 mg/dL, 3.0 and 1.85, respectively. HDL and TC/HDL and TG/HDL ratios may be useful for predicting diastolic dysfunction in girls with uncontrolled T1DM.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Dietary interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are important for preventing long-term complications. Although a healthy diet is crucial, there is still uncertainty about the optimal macronutrient composition. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets high in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to diets high in carbohydrates (CHO) or in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic risk factors in patients with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We systematically reviewed PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases and prior systematic reviews and meta-analyses to identify interventions assessing HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, or systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Meta-analyses were conducted using both fixed- and random-effects models to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI. RESULTS:We identified 24 studies totaling 1,460 participants comparing high-MUFA to high-CHO diets and 4 studies totaling 44 participants comparing high-MUFA to high-PUFA diets. When comparing high-MUFA to high-CHO diets, there were significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (WMD -0.57 mmol/L [95% CI -0.76, -0.39]), triglycerides (-0.31 mmol/L [-0.44, -0.18]), body weight (-1.56 kg [-2.89, -0.23]), and systolic blood pressure (-2.31 mmHg [-4.13, -0.49]) along with significant increases in HDL cholesterol (0.06 mmol/L [0.02, 0.10]). When high-MUFA diets were compared with high-PUFA diets, there was a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (-0.87 mmol/L [-1.67, -0.07]). All of the outcomes had low to medium levels of heterogeneity, ranging from 0.0 to 69.5% for diastolic blood pressure (Phet = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis provides evidence that consuming diets high in MUFA can improve metabolic risk factors among patients with T2D.
Project description:When compared with other ethnic groups, African ancestry individuals have lower triglycerides and higher High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, although the mechanisms for these differences remain unclear. A comprehensive array of factors potentially related to fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in African ancestry men was evaluated.Men (1,821) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of total body fat and quantitative computed tomography assessments of calf skeletal muscle adiposity [subcutaneous and intermuscular adipose tissue (AT), and muscle density as a measure of intra-muscular AT].Multivariable linear regression analysis identified age (-), total body fat (+), subcutaneous AT (-), fasting glucose (+), fasting insulin (+), diastolic blood pressure (+), and non-African ancestry (+) as independent correlates of triglycerides (all P < 0.05). Total body fat (+), intra-muscular AT (-), and diastolic blood pressure (+) were independent correlates of Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P < 0.001). Age (+), waist circumference (-), fasting insulin (-), physical activity (+), and alcohol intake (+) were independent correlates of HDL-C (all P < 0.05).A novel relationship between skeletal muscle adiposity and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in African ancestry men, independent of total and central adiposity was illuminated. In African ancestry populations, genetic factors are likely a significant determinant of triglycerides levels.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The rise in obesity has emphasised a focus on lifestyle and dietary habits. We aimed to address the debate between low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets and compare their effects on body weight, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), total cholesterol, and triglycerides in an adult population.<h4>Method</h4>Medline and Web of Science were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets up to September 2019. Three independent reviewers extracted data. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool. The meta-analysis was stratified by follow-up time using the random-effects models.<h4>Results</h4>This meta-analysis of 38 studies assessed a total of 6499 adults. At 6-12 months, pooled analyses of mean differences of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets favoured the low-carbohydrate diet for average weight change (mean difference -1.30 kg; 95% CI -2.02 to -0.57), HDL (0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08), and triglycerides (TG) (-0.10 mmol/L; -0.16 to -0.04), and favoured the low-fat diet for LDL (0.07 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.12) and total cholesterol (0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.18). Conclusion and Relevance: This meta-analysis suggests that low-carbohydrate diets are effective at improving weight loss, HDL and TG lipid profiles. However, this must be balanced with potential consequences of raised LDL and total cholesterol in the long-term.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To evaluate the effect of lifestyle modifications on metabolic syndrome (MetS) as assessed by its resolution and improved values for its components.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches were performed of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database from January 1966 to October 2011 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to the study objective. The included studies were RCTs restricted to the English language, with a follow-up period of 6 months or more, which reported overall resolution of MetS or values of MetS components (fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP)). Two investigators independently assessed study eligibility. The effect sizes were the relative proportion of patients with resolved MetS and mean differences in MetS component values from baseline to 1-year follow-up in a lifestyle-modification intervention (LMI) group versus a control (conventional lifestyle education or no treatment) group. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model.<h4>Results</h4>Eleven interventions in eight RCTs were used for the meta-analyses. The relative proportion of patients with resolved MetS in the intervention group was approximately 2.0 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.7) times greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (7 interventions, n = 2.839). LMI (5 interventions, n = 748) significantly reduced mean values for SBP by -6.4 mmHg (95% CI -9.7 to -3.2), DBP by -3.3 mmHg (95% CI -5.2 to -1.4), triglycerides by -12.0 mg/dl (95% CI -22.2 to -1.7), waist circumference by -2.7 cm (95% CI -4.6 to -0.9), and fasting blood glucose by -11.5 mg/dl (95% CI -22.4 to -0.6) (5 interventions), but reductions were not significant for HDL (1.3 mg/dl; 95% CI -0.6 to 3.1).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The LMI was effective in resolving MetS and reducing the severity of related abnormalities (fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, SBP and DBP, and triglycerides) in subjects with MetS.
Project description:Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) has been observed to be associated with lipids, kidney function, adiposity- and diabetes-related parameters. To assess the causal relationship of apoA-IV with these phenotypes, we conducted bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using publicly available summary-level datasets from GWAS consortia on apoA-IV concentrations (n?=?13,813), kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), n?=?133,413), lipid traits (HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, n?=?188,577), adiposity-related traits (body-mass-index (n?=?322,206), waist-hip-ratio (n?=?210,088)) and fasting glucose (n?=?133,010). Main analyses consisted in inverse-variance weighted and multivariable MR, whereas MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimation were used as sensitivity analyses. We found that eGFR is likely to be causal on apoA-IV concentrations (53 SNPs; causal effect estimate per 1-SD increase in eGFR?=?-0.39; 95% CI?=?[-0.54, -0.24]; p-value?=?2.4e-07). Triglyceride concentrations were also causally associated with apoA-IV concentrations (40 SNPs; causal effect estimate per 1-SD increase in triglycerides?=?-0.06; 95% CI?=?[-0.08, -0.04]; p-value?=?4.8e-07), independently of HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations (causal effect estimate from multivariable MR?=?-0.06; 95% CI?=?[-0.10, -0.02]; p-value?=?0.0014). Evaluating the inverse direction of causality revealed a possible causal association of apoA-IV on HDL-cholesterol (2 SNPs; causal effect estimate per one percent increase in apoA-IV?=?-0.40; 95% CI?=?[-0.60, -0.21]; p-value?=?5.5e-05).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Novel oils high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are an alternative to partially hydrogenated oils high in trans-unsaturated fatty acids. There is widespread use of high-MUFA oils across the food industry; however, limited knowledge of their cardiovascular impact exists. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the effects of diets containing canola oil, high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO), and a control oil blend (diet formulated to emulate a Western fat profile) on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins (apos), as secondary outcomes of the trial. METHODS:In a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, 3-period crossover, controlled feeding trial, men (n = 44) and women (n = 75) with a mean age of 44 y, mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) of 31.7, and an increased waist circumference plus ?1 metabolic syndrome criteria consumed prepared, weight-maintenance diets containing canola oil [17.5% MUFAs, 9.2% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 6.6% SFAs], HOCO (19.1% MUFAs, 7.0% PUFAs, 6.4% SFAs), or control oil (10.5% MUFAs, 10.0% PUFAs, 12.3% SFAs) for 6 wk with ?4-wk washouts. Fasting serum lipids were assessed at baseline and 6 wk. Diet effects were examined using a repeated measures mixed model. RESULTS:Compared with the control, canola and HOCO diets resulted in lower endpoint total cholesterol (TC; -4.2% and -3.4%; P < 0.0001), LDL cholesterol (-6.6% and -5.6%; P < 0.0001), apoB (-3.7% and -3.4%; P = 0.002), and non-HDL cholesterol (-4.5% and -4.0%; P = 0.001), with no differences between canola diets. The TC:HDL cholesterol and apoB:apoA1 ratios were lower after the HOCO diet than after the control diet (-3.7% and -3.4%, respectively). There were no diet effects on triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, or apoA1 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:HOCO, with increased MUFAs at the expense of decreased PUFAs, elicited beneficial effects on lipids and lipoproteins comparable to conventional canola oil and consistent with reduced cardiovascular disease risk in adults with central adiposity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02029833.
Project description:Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and poor lipid profile has been reported, representing a cardiovascular risk, the need to find new early detection markers is real. Waist circumference and markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia are not usually measured in medical review appointments. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between central adiposity and cardiovascular risk. This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 57 young males (age: 35.9 ± 10.85, BMI: 32.4 ± 6.08) recruited from community settings and allocated to non-obese or obese attending to their waist circumference. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were measured from plasma samples. Patients with at least 100 cm of waist circumference had significantly increased TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL-C. The three atherogenic ratios TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C were all optimal in non-obese patients. LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were significantly higher and over the limit when assessing for atherogenic dyslipidemia. The number of patients at risk for cardiovascular events increases 2.5 folds in obese compared to non-obese. Measurement of waist circumference could be adopted as a simpler valid alternative to BMI for health promotion, to alert those at risk of atherogenic dyslipidemia.