Gab1 mediates hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated mitogenicity and morphogenesis in multipotent myeloid cells.
ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-stimulated mitogenesis, motogenesis and morphogenesis in various cell types begins with activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase and the recruitment of intracellular adaptors and kinase substrates. The adapter protein Gab1 is a critical effector and substrate of activated Met, mediating morphogenesis, among other activities, in epithelial cells. To define its role downstream of Met in hematopoietic cells, Gab1 was expressed in the HGF-responsive, Gab1-negative murine myeloid cell line 32D. Interestingly, the adhesion and motility of Gab1-expressing cells were significantly greater than parental cells, independent of growth factor treatment. Downstream of activated Met, Gab1 expression was specifically associated with rapid Shp-2 recruitment and activation, increased mitogenic potency, suppression of GATA-1 expression and concomitant upregulation of GATA-2 transcription. In addition to enhanced proliferation, continuous culture of Gab1-expressing 32D cells in HGF resulted in cell attachment, filopodia extension and phenotypic changes suggestive of monocytic differentiation. Our results suggest that in myeloid cells, Gab1 is likely to enhance HGF mitogenicity by coupling Met to Shp-2 and GATA-2 expression, thereby potentially contributing to normal myeloid differentiation as well as oncogenic transformation.
Project description:The GRB2-associated binder 1 (GAB1) docking/scaffold protein is a key mediator of the MET-tyrosine kinase receptor activated by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). Activated MET promotes recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of GAB1, which in turn recruits multiple proteins and mediates MET signaling leading to cell survival, motility, and morphogenesis. We previously reported that, without its ligand, MET is a functional caspase target during apoptosis, allowing the generation of a p40-MET fragment that amplifies apoptosis. In this study we established that GAB1 is also a functional caspase target by evidencing a caspase-cleaved p35-GAB1 fragment that contains the MET binding domain. GAB1 is cleaved by caspases before MET, and the resulting p35-GAB1 fragment is phosphorylated by MET upon HGF/SF binding and can interact with a subset of GAB1 partners, PI3K, and GRB2 but not with SHP2. This p35-GAB1 fragment favors cell survival by maintaining HGF/SF-induced MET activation of AKT and by hindering p40-MET pro-apoptotic function. These data demonstrate an anti-apoptotic role of caspase-cleaved GAB1 in HGF/SF-MET signaling.
Project description:Signaling by human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) via its cell surface receptor (MET) drives mitogenesis, motogenesis and morphogenesis in a wide spectrum of target cell types and embryologic, developmental and homeostatic contexts. Oncogenic pathway activation also contributes to tumorigenesis and cancer progression, including tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, in several prevalent malignancies. The HGF gene encodes full-length hHGF and two truncated isoforms known as NK1 and NK2. NK1 induces all three HGF activities at modestly reduced potency, whereas NK2 stimulates only motogenesis and enhances HGF-driven tumor metastasis in transgenic mice. Prior studies have shown that mouse HGF (mHGF) also binds with high affinity to human MET. Here we show that, like NK2, mHGF stimulates cell motility, invasion and spontaneous metastasis of PC3M human prostate adenocarcinoma cells in mice through human MET. To identify target genes and signaling pathways associated with motogenic and metastatic HGF signaling, i.e., the HGF invasive program, gene expression profiling was performed using PC3M cells treated with hHGF, NK2 or mHGF. Results obtained using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software showed significant overlap with networks and pathways involved in cell movement and metastasis. Interrogating The Cancer Genome Atlas project also identified a subset of 23 gene expression changes in PC3M with a strong tendency for co-occurrence in prostate cancer patients that were associated with significantly decreased disease-free survival.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the ligand for the Met receptor tyrosine kinase, induces epithelial cell dispersal, invasion, and morphogenesis, events that require remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The scaffold protein Gab1 is essential for these biological responses downstream from Met. We have identified p21-activated kinase 4 (Pak4) as a novel Gab1-interacting protein. We show that in response to HGF, Gab1 and Pak4 associate and colocalize at the cell periphery within lamellipodia. The association between Pak4 and Gab1 is dependent on Gab1 phosphorylation but independent of Pak4 kinase activity. The interaction is mediated through a region in Gab1, which displays no homology to known Gab1 interaction motifs and through the guanine exchange factor-interacting domain of Pak4. In response to HGF, Gab1 and Pak4 synergize to enhance epithelial cell dispersal, migration, and invasion, whereas knockdown of Pak4 attenuates these responses. A Gab1 mutant unable to recruit Pak4 fails to promote epithelial cell dispersal and an invasive morphogenic program in response to HGF, demonstrating a physiological requirement for Gab1-Pak4 association. These data demonstrate a novel association between Gab1 and Pak4 and identify Pak4 as a key integrator of cell migration and invasive growth downstream from the Met receptor.
Project description:A modifier variant can abrogate the risk of a monogenic disorder. DFNM1 is a locus on chromosome 1 encoding a dominant suppressor of human DFNB26 recessive, profound deafness. Here, we report that DFNB26 is associated with a substitution (p.Gly116Glu) in the pleckstrin homology domain of GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), an essential scaffold in the MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase/HGF (MET/HGF) pathway. A dominant substitution (p.Arg544Gln) of METTL13, encoding a predicted methyltransferase, is the DFNM1 suppressor of GAB1-associated deafness. In zebrafish, human METTL13 mRNA harboring the modifier allele rescued the GAB1-associated morphant phenotype. In mice, GAB1 and METTL13 colocalized in auditory sensory neurons, and METTL13 coimmunoprecipitated with GAB1 and SPRY2, indicating at least a tripartite complex. Expression of MET-signaling genes in human lymphoblastoid cells of individuals homozygous for p.Gly116Glu GAB1 revealed dysregulation of HGF, MET, SHP2, and SPRY2, all of which have reported variants associated with deafness. However, SPRY2 was not dysregulated in normal-hearing humans homozygous for both the GAB1 DFNB26 deafness variant and the dominant METTL13 deafness suppressor, indicating a plausible mechanism of suppression. Identification of METTL13-based modification of MET signaling offers a potential therapeutic strategy for a wide range of associated hearing disorders. Furthermore, MET signaling is essential for diverse functions in many tissues including the inner ear. Therefore, identification of the modifier of MET signaling is likely to have broad clinical implications.
Project description:MET is located on chromosome 7q31 and is a proto-oncogene that encodes for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. HGF, also known as scatter factor (SF), is the only known ligand for MET. MET is a master regulator of cell growth and division (mitogenesis), mobility (motogenesis), and differentiation (morphogenesis); it plays an important role in normal development and tissue regeneration. The HGF-MET axis is frequently dysregulated in cancer by MET gene amplification, translocation, and mutation, or by MET or HGF protein overexpression. MET dysregulation is associated with an increased propensity for metastatic disease and poor overall prognosis across multiple tumor types. Targeting the dysregulated HGF-MET pathway is an area of active research; a number of monoclonal antibodies to HGF and MET, as well as small molecule inhibitors of MET, are under development. This review summarizes the key biological features of the HGF-MET axis, its dysregulation in cancer, and the therapeutic agents targeting the HGF-MET axis, which are in development.
Project description:Dorsal ruffles are apical protrusions induced in response to many growth factors, yet their function is poorly understood. Here we report that downstream from the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), Met, dorsal ruffles function as both a localized signaling microdomain as well as a platform from which the Met RTK internalizes and traffics to a degradative compartment. In response to HGF, colonies of epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cells form dorsal ruffles for up to 20 min. Met is transcytosed from the basolateral membrane on Rab4 endosomes, to the apical surface where Met, as well as a Met substrate and scaffold protein, Gab1, localize to the dorsal ruffle membrane. This results in activation of downstream signaling proteins, as evidenced by localization of phospho-ERK1/2 to dorsal ruffles. As dorsal ruffles collapse, Met is internalized into EEA1- and Rab5-positive endosomes and is targeted for degradation through delivery to an Hrs-positive sorting compartment. Enhancing HGF-dependent dorsal ruffle formation, through overexpression of Gab1 or activated Pak1 kinase, promotes more efficient degradation of the Met RTK. Conversely, the ablation of dorsal ruffle formation, by pre-treatment with SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyabatostilbene-2',2-disulfonic acid) or expression of a Gab1 mutant, impairs Met degradation. Taken together, these data support a function for dorsal ruffles as a biologically relevant signaling microenvironment and a mechanism for Met receptor internalization and degradation.
Project description:Alectinib is a second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor that has sufficient clinical efficacy and satisfactory safety in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with or without brain metastasis. Alectinib has now become an important drug in the first-line treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC; however, resistance is almost inevitable. The increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its physiological receptor tyrosine kinase MET have been shown to be linked to acquired resistance to various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and this phenomenon has been observed in some ALK-positive NSCLC tumour tissues. In this study, we found that HGF levels in the culture supernatant of an ALK-positive cell line tended to increase with time and could be further increased by alectinib in a time-dependent manner. Exogenous or endogenous HGF did not cause resistance to the ALK/MET double-targeted small molecule inhibitor crizotinib, but it was an important cause of alectinib resistance. Furthermore, Gab1 was a key effector in the HGF/MET signal transduction pathway that mediated alectinib resistance. The antidiabetic drug metformin combined with alectinib overcame alectinib resistance triggered by HGF/MET through disrupting the complex between MET and Gab1, thereby inhibiting Gab1 phosphorylation and the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways. These results suggest that metformin combined with alectinib may be useful for overcoming alectinib resistance induced by the activation of the HGF/MET signalling pathway and improving the efficacy of alectinib.
Project description:We have shown previously that either Grb2- or Shc-mediated signaling from the oncogenic Met receptor Tpr-Met is sufficient to trigger cell cycle progression in Xenopus oocytes. However, direct binding of these adaptors to Tpr-Met is dispensable, implying that another Met binding partner mediates these responses. In this study, we show that overexpression of Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) promotes cell cycle progression when Tpr-Met is expressed at suboptimal levels. This response requires that Gab1 possess an intact Met-binding motif, the pleckstrin homology domain, and the binding sites for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, but not the Grb2 and CrkII/phospholipase Cgamma binding sites. Importantly, we establish that Gab1-mediated signals are critical for cell cycle transition promoted by the oncogenic Met and fibroblast growth factor receptors, but not by progesterone, the natural inducer of cell cycle transition in Xenopus oocytes. Moreover, Gab1 is essential for Tpr-Met-mediated morphological transformation and proliferation of fibroblasts. This study provides the first evidence that Gab1 is a key binding partner of the Met receptor for induction of cell cycle progression, proliferation, and oncogenic morphological transformation. This study identifies Gab1 and its associated signaling partners as potential therapeutic targets to impair proliferation or transformation of cancer cells in human malignancies harboring a deregulated Met receptor.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly invasive primary brain tumour, remains an incurable disease. Rho GTPases and their activators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), have central roles in GBM invasion. Anti-angiogenic therapies may stimulate GBM invasion via HGF/c-Met signalling. We aim to identify mediators of HGF-induced GBM invasion that may represent targets in a combination anti-angiogenic/anti-invasion therapeutic paradigm.Guanine nucleotide exchange factor expression was measured by microarray analysis and western blotting. Specific depletion of proteins was accomplished using siRNA. Cell invasion was determined using matrigel and brain slice assays. Cell proliferation and survival were monitored using sulforhodamine B and colony formation assays. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor and GTPase activities were determined using specific affinity precipitation assays.We found that expression of Dock7, a GEF, is elevated in human GBM tissue in comparison with non-neoplastic brain. We showed that Dock7 mediates serum- and HGF-induced glioblastoma cell invasion. We also showed that Dock7 co-immunoprecipitates with c-Met and that this interaction is enhanced upon HGF stimulation in a manner that is dependent on the adaptor protein Gab1. Dock7 and Gab1 also co-immunoprecipitate in an HGF-dependent manner. Furthermore, Gab1 is required for HGF-induced Dock7 and Rac1 activation and glioblastoma cell invasion.Dock7 mediates HGF-induced GBM invasion. Targeting Dock7 in GBM may inhibit c-MET-mediated invasion in tumours treated with anti-angiogenic regimens.
Project description:In epidermis, Ras can influence proliferation and differentiation; however, regulators of epidermal Ras function are not fully characterized, and Ras effects on growth and differentiation are controversial. EGF induced Ras activation in epidermal cells along with phosphorylation of the multisubstrate docking protein Gab1 and its binding to SHP-2. Expression of mutant Gab1Y627F deficient in SHP-2 binding or dominant-negative SHP-2C459S reduced basal levels of active Ras and downstream MAPK proteins and initiated differentiation. Differentiation triggered by both Gab1Y627F and SHP-2C459S could be blocked by coexpression of active Ras, consistent with Gab1 and SHP-2 action upstream of Ras in this process. To study the role of Gab1 and SHP-2 in tissue, we generated human epidermis overexpressing active Gab1 and SHP-2. Both proteins stimulated proliferation. In contrast, Gab1Y627F and SHP-2C459S inhibited epidermal proliferation and enhanced differentiation. Consistent with a role for Gab1 and SHP-2 in sustaining epidermal Ras/MAPK activity, Gab1-/- murine epidermis displayed lower levels of active Ras and MAPK with postnatal Gab1-/- epidermis, demonstrating the hypoplasia and enhanced differentiation seen previously with transgenic epidermal Ras blockade. These data provide support for a Ras role in promoting epidermal proliferation and opposing differentiation and indicate that Gab1 and SHP-2 promote the undifferentiated epidermal cell state by facilitating Ras/MAPK signaling.