Increased CD39 nucleotidase activity on microparticles from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a devastating disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, and in situ thrombosis. Circulating intravascular ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine activate purinergic cell signaling pathways and appear to induce many of the same pathologic processes that underlie IPAH. Extracellular dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP and AMP occurs primarily via CD39 (ENTPD1), an ectonucleotidase found on the surface of leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells. Microparticles are micron-sized phospholipid vesicles formed from the membranes of platelets and endothelial cells. OBJECTIVES:Studies here examine whether CD39 is an important microparticle surface nucleotidase, and whether patients with IPAH have altered microparticle-bound CD39 activity that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Kinetic parameters, inhibitor blocking experiments, and immunogold labeling with electron microscopy support the role of CD39 as a major nucleotidase on the surface of microparticles. Comparison of microparticle surface CD39 expression and nucleotidase activity in 10 patients with advanced IPAH and 10 healthy controls using flow cytometry and thin layer chromatograph demonstrate the following: 1) circulating platelet (CD39(+)CD31(+)CD42b(+)) and endothelial (CD39(+)CD31(+)CD42b(-)) microparticle subpopulations in patients with IPAH show increased CD39 expression; 2) microparticle ATPase and ADPase activity in patients with IPAH is increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:We demonstrate for the first time increased CD39 expression and function on circulating microparticles in patients with IPAH. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these findings identify an important trigger for the development of the disease, or reflect a physiologic response to IPAH.
Project description:Phosphohydrolysis of extracellular ATP and ADP is an essential step in purinergic signaling that regulates key pathophysiological processes, such as those linked to inflammation. Classically, this reaction has been known to occur in the pericellular milieu catalyzed by membrane bound cellular ecto-nucleotidases, which can be released in the form of both soluble ecto-enzymes as well as being associated with exosomes. Circulating ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase 1/CD39) and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) activities have been shown to be present in plasma. However, other ecto-nucleotidases have not been characterized in depth. An in vitro ADPase assay was developed to probe the ecto-enzymes responsible for the ecto-nucleotidase activity in human platelet-free plasma, in combination with various specific biochemical inhibitors. Identities of ecto-nucleotidases were further characterized by chromatography, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry of circulating exosomes. We noted that microparticle-bound E-NTPDases and soluble AK1 constitute the highest levels of ecto-nucleotidase activity in human plasma. All four cell membrane expressed E-NTPDases are also found in circulating microparticles in human plasma, inclusive of: CD39, NTPDase 2 (CD39L1), NTPDase 3 (CD39L3), and NTPDase 8. CD39 family members and other ecto-nucleotidases are found on distinct microparticle populations. A significant proportion of the microparticle-associated ecto-nucleotidase activity is sensitive to POM6, inferring the presence of NTPDases, either -2 or/and -3. We have refined ADPase assays of human plasma from healthy volunteers and have found that CD39, NTPDases 2, 3, and 8 to be associated with circulating microparticles, whereas soluble AK1 is present in human plasma. These ecto-enzymes constitute the bulk circulating ADPase activity, suggesting a broader implication of CD39 family and other ecto-enzymes in the regulation of extracellular nucleotide metabolism.
Project description:Platelet microparticles are a normal constituent of circulating blood. Several studies have demonstrated positive correlations between thrombotic states and platelet microparticle levels. Yet little is known about the processes by which platelet microparticles are generated in vivo. We now characterize microparticles derived directly from megakaryocytes. Video microscopy of live mouse megakaryocytes demonstrated that microparticles form as submicron beads along the lengths of slender, unbranched micropodia. These microparticles are CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. Megakaryocyte microparticle generation is resistant to inhibition of microtubule assembly, which is critical to platelet formation, and augmented by inhibition of actin polymerization. To determine whether circulating microparticles are derived primarily from activated platelets or megakaryocytes, we identified markers that distinguish between these 2 populations. CD62P and LAMP-1 were found only on mouse microparticles from activated platelets. In contrast, full-length filamin A was found in megakaryocyte-derived microparticles, but not microparticles from activated platelets. Circulating microparticles isolated from mice were CD62P(-), LAMP-1(-) and expressed full-length filamin A, indicating a megakaryocytic origin. Similarly, circulating microparticles isolated from healthy volunteers were CD62P(-) and expressed full-length filamin A. Cultured human megakaryocytes elaborated microparticles that were CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. These results indicate that direct production by megakaryocytes represents a physiologic means to generate circulating platelet microparticles.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Increasing evidence links COPD pathogenesis with pulmonary capillary apoptosis. We previously demonstrated that plasma levels of circulating microparticles released from endothelial cells (EMPs) due to apoptosis are elevated in smokers with normal spirometry but low diffusion capacity, that is, with early evidence of lung destruction. We hypothesised that pulmonary capillary apoptosis persists with the development of COPD and assessed its reversibility in healthy smokers and COPD smokers following smoking cessation. METHODS:Pulmonary function and high-resolution CT (HRCT) were assessed in 28 non-smokers, 61 healthy smokers and 49 COPD smokers; 17 healthy smokers and 18 COPD smokers quit smoking for 12?months following the baseline visit. Total EMP (CD42b-CD31+), pulmonary capillary EMP (CD42b-CD31+ACE+) and apoptotic EMP (CD42b-CD62E+/CD42b-CD31+) levels were quantified by flow cytometry. RESULTS:Compared with non-smokers, healthy smokers and COPD smokers had elevated levels of circulating EMPs due to active pulmonary capillary endothelial apoptosis. Levels remained elevated over 12?months in healthy smokers and COPD smokers who continued smoking, but returned to non-smoker levels in healthy smokers who quit. In contrast, levels remained significantly abnormal in COPD smokers who quit. CONCLUSIONS:Pulmonary capillary apoptosis is reversible in healthy smokers who quit, but continues to play a role in COPD pathogenesis in smokers who progressed to airflow obstruction despite smoking cessation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT00974064; NCT01776398.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiac stress leads to a dynamic increase of circulating microparticles (MPs) in healthy individuals that is diminished in individuals with vascular disease. The impact of coronary ischemia on circulating MP level is unknown. This study investigates the kinetics of circulating MPs during cardiac stress in patients with coronary artery stenosis. HYPOTHESIS:Patients with significant coronary stenosis show altered circulating MP levels after cardiac stress. METHODS:Eighty patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) on the day before coronary angiography. Before, immediately after, at 4 hours, and at 24 hours after DSE, blood was drawn to determine CD144+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs), CD14+ CD16+ monocyte-derived microparticles (MMPs), and CD31+ CD42b+ platelet microparticles. A significant stenosis was defined as stenosis diameter ?70% in a major native epicardial coronary artery with a diameter of ?2.5?mm. RESULTS:Significant coronary artery stenoses were found in 41 patients. In these patients, CD144+ -EMP and CD14+ CD16+ -MMP concentrations decreased immediately after DSE. Stimulation of target endothelial cells with sera from patients with significant coronary artery stenoses significantly augmented endothelial capacity to take up EMPs, but not MMPs, in vitro. Serum-induced enhancement of endothelial phosphatidylserine receptor expression was found as a potential mechanism of increased endothelial EMP uptake and subsequently reduced circulating EMP levels after cardiac stress. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac ischemia leads to reduced circulating MP levels under cardiac stress. Changes of endothelial MP uptake capacities could be one possible mechanism.
Project description:In a prospective observational study, we investigated whether patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had higher indices of endothelial damage and dysfunction than healthy controls and whether improved disease control was associated with improvement in these indices.Twenty-seven patients with active SLE (four or more American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria) and 22 age-matched controls were assessed. Endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD31+/annexin V+/CD42b-) were quantified using flow cytometry. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using automated edge-tracking software. Twenty-two patients had a second assessment at a median (IQR) of 20 (16, 22) weeks after initiating new immunosuppressive therapy.SLE patients had a median (IQR) baseline global British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Disease Activity Index (BILAG-2004) score of 14 (12, 22). CD31+/annexin V+/CD42b- EMPs were higher (157 548/ml (59 906, 272 643) vs 41 025(30 179, 98 082); p=0.003) and endothelial-dependent FMD was lower (1.63% (-1.22, 5.32) vs 5.40% (3.02, 8.57); p=0.05) in SLE patients than controls. CD31+/annexin V+/CD42b- EMPs correlated inversely with FMD (%) (r(2) -0.40; p=0.006). At follow-up, the median (IQR) change in global BILAG-2004 score was -11 (-18, -3). CD31+/annexin V+/CD42b- EMP levels were reduced (166 982/ml (59 906, 278 775 vs 55 655(29 475, 188 659; p=0.02) and FMD had improved (0.33% (-2.31, 4.1) vs 3.19% (0.98, 5.09); p=0.1) at the second visit.Active SLE is associated with evidence of increased endothelial damage and endothelial dysfunction, which improved with suppression of inflammation. Better control of active inflammatory disease may contribute to improved cardiovascular risk in patients with SLE.
Project description:Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent form of acquired valvular heart disease. AS is known to entail endothelial dysfunction caused by increased mechanical shear stress leading to elevated circulatory levels of microparticles. Endothelial and platelet microparticles (EMP and PMP) are small vesicles that originate from activated cells and thrombocytes. We sought to evaluate whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure would elicit effects on circulating EMP and PMP. 92 patients undergoing TAVI procedure for severe AS were included in this study. Samples were obtained at each visit before TAVI, 1 week post-procedure and at 1, 3 and after 6 months after TAVI and were evaluated using flow cytometry. A 12 month clinical follow-up was also performed. CD62E+ EMP concentration before TAVI was 21.11 % (±6.6 % SD) and declined to 20.99 % (±6.8 % SD) after 1 week, to 16.63 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 1 month, to 17.08 % (±4.6 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 3 months and to 15.94 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 6 months. CD31+/CD42b-, CD31+/Annexin+/- EMP remained unchanged. CD31+/CD41b+ PMP evidenced a slight, but statistically significant increase after TAVI and remained elevated during the entire follow-up. Apart from a procedure-related improvement in echocardiographic parameters, TAVI procedure led also to a decline in CD62E+ EMP. The reduction in pressure gradients with less hemodynamic shear stress seems also to have beneficially affected endothelial homeostasis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Thrombophilia is a major complication in preeclampsia, a disease associated with placental hypoxia and trophoblast inflammation. Preeclampsia women are known to have increased circulating microparticles that are procoagulant, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to understand the mechanism connecting placental hypoxia, circulating microparticles, and thrombophilia. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We analyzed protein markers on plasma microparticles from preeclampsia women and found that the increased circulating microparticles were mostly from endothelial cells. In proteomic studies, we identified HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1), a proinflammatory protein, as a key factor from hypoxic trophoblasts in stimulating microparticle production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Immunodepletion or inhibition of HMGB1 in the conditioned medium from hypoxic human trophoblasts abolished the endothelial microparticle-stimulating activity. Conversely, recombinant HMGB1 stimulated microparticle production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The microparticles from recombinant HMGB1-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells promoted blood coagulation and neutrophil activation in vitro. Injection of recombinant HMGB1 in pregnant mice increased plasma endothelial microparticles and promoted blood coagulation. In preeclampsia women, elevated placental HMGB1 expression was detected and high levels of plasma HMGB1 correlated with increased plasma endothelial microparticles. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that placental hypoxia-induced HMGB1 expression and release from trophoblasts are important mechanism underlying increased circulating endothelial microparticles and thrombophilia in preeclampsia.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that emphysema is associated with primary loss of pulmonary capillary endothelium. Plasma levels of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), small vesicles released from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells, are elevated in vascular-related disorders.To evaluate whether plasma EMP levels are elevated in smokers with early lung destruction as assessed by normal spirometry but reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dl(co)).Lung health was assessed by pulmonary function tests (PFTs: spirometry, total lung capacity, Dl(co)) and chest X-ray; smoking status was assessed by urine nicotine and cotinine. EMP levels (CD42b(-)CD31(+) microparticles) were quantified as activated or apoptotic. The initial cohort (n = 92) included healthy nonsmokers (normal PFTs), healthy smokers (normal PFTs), and smokers with early evidence of lung destruction (normal spirometry, low Dl(co)). Two prospective cohorts were then tested: a group similar to the initial cohort and an HIV1(+) cohort.Healthy smokers had mildly increased levels of EMPs. Strikingly, 95% of smokers with normal spirometry, low Dl(co) had increased EMPs, with reduced CD62(+)/CD31(+) ratios (P < 10(-4)) and elevated CD42b(-)CD31(+) annexin V(+) EMPs (P < 10(-4)), suggesting derivation from endothelial apoptosis. Most elevated EMPs were angiotensin-converting enzyme positive, suggesting derivation from pulmonary capillaries. Both prospective cohorts confirmed the initial cohort data.Plasma EMPs with apoptotic characteristics are elevated in smokers with normal spirometry but reduced Dl(co), consistent with the concept that emphysema is associated, in part, with capillary endothelium apoptosis, suggesting that the early development of emphysema might be monitored with plasma EMP levels.
Project description:Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and progenitor cells (PCs) are biological markers of endothelial function and endogenous repair capacity. The study was aimed to investigate whether COPD patients have an imbalance between EMPs to PCs compared to controls and to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke on these circulating markers.Circulating EMPs and PCs were determined by flow cytometry in 27 nonsmokers, 20 smokers and 61 COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow obstruction. We compared total EMPs (CD31+CD42b-), apoptotic if they co-expressed Annexin-V+ or activated if they co-expressed CD62E+, circulating PCs (CD34+CD133+CD45+) and the EMPs/PCs ratio between groups.COPD patients presented increased levels of total and apoptotic circulating EMPs, and an increased EMPs/PCs ratio, compared with nonsmokers. Women had less circulating PCs than men through all groups and those with COPD showed lower levels of PCs than both control groups. In smokers, circulating EMPs and PCs did not differ from nonsmokers, being the EMPs/PCs ratio in an intermediate position between COPD and nonsmokers.We conclude that COPD patients present an imbalance between endothelial damage and repair capacity that might explain the frequent concurrence of cardiovascular disorders. Factors related to the disease itself and gender, rather than cigarette smoking, may account for this imbalance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Activated endothelial cells release plasma membrane submicron vesicles expressing CD62E (E-selectin) into blood, known as endothelial microparticles (EMPs). We studied whether the levels of endothelial microparticles expressing CD62E(+), CD31(+)/Annexin-V(+), or CD31(+)/CD42(-) predict cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stroke history. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with stroke history at least 3 months prior to enrolment were recruited. Peripheral blood EMP levels were measured by flow cytometry. Major cardiovascular events and death were monitored for 36 months. Three hundred patients were enrolled, of which 298 completed the study according to protocol. Major cardiovascular events occurred in 29 patients (9.7%). Nine patients died, five from cardiovascular causes. Cumulative event-free survival rates were lower in patients with high levels of CD62E(+) microparticles. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, medications and stroke etiologic groups showed an association between a high CD62E(+) microparticle level and a risk of major cardiovascular events and hospitalization. Levels of other kinds of EMPs expressing CD31(+)/Annexin-V(+) or CD31(+)/CD42(-) markers were not predictive of cardiovascular outcomes. CONCLUSION: A high level of CD62E(+) microparticles is associated with cardiovascular events in patients with stroke history, suggesting that the systemic endothelial activation increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidities.