Regulation of ABCB1/PGP1-catalysed auxin transport by linker phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin is controlled by PIN- and ABCB/PGP-efflux catalysts. PIN polarity is regulated by the AGC protein kinase, PINOID (PID), while ABCB activity was shown to be dependent on interaction with the FKBP42, TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified PID as a valid partner in the interaction with TWD1. In-vitro and yeast expression analyses indicated that PID specifically modulates ABCB1-mediated auxin efflux in an action that is dependent on its kinase activity and that is reverted by quercetin binding and thus inhibition of PID autophosphorylation. Triple ABCB1/PID/TWD1 co-transfection in tobacco revealed that PID enhances ABCB1-mediated auxin efflux but blocks ABCB1 in the presence of TWD1. Phospho-proteomic analyses identified S634 as a key residue of the regulatory ABCB1 linker and a very likely target of PID phosphorylation that determines both transporter drug binding and activity. In summary, we provide evidence that PID phosphorylation has a dual, counter-active impact on ABCB1 activity that is coordinated by TWD1-PID interaction.
Project description:The plant hormone auxin must be transported throughout plants in a cell-to-cell manner to affect its various physiological functions. ABCB transporters are critical for this polar auxin distribution, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling their function is not fully understood. The auxin transport activity of ABCB1 was suggested to be regulated by a physical interaction with FKBP42/Twisted Dwarf1 (TWD1), a peptidylprolyl <i>cis-trans</i> isomerase (PPIase), but all attempts to demonstrate such a PPIase activity by TWD1 have failed so far. By using a structure-based approach, we identified several surface-exposed proline residues in the nucleotide binding domain and linker of Arabidopsis ABCB1, mutations of which do not alter ABCB1 protein stability or location but do affect its transport activity. P1008 is part of a conserved signature D/E-P motif that seems to be specific for <u>a</u>uxin-<u>t</u>ransporting <u>A</u>BCBs, which we now refer to as ATAs. Mutation of the acidic residue also abolishes auxin transport activity by ABCB1. All higher plant ABCBs for which auxin transport has been conclusively proven carry this conserved motif, underlining its predictive potential. Introduction of this D/E-P motif into malate importer, ABCB14, increases both its malate and its background auxin transport activity, suggesting that this motif has an impact on transport capacity. The D/E-P1008 motif is also important for ABCB1-TWD1 interactions and activation of ABCB1-mediated auxin transport by TWD1. In summary, our data imply a new function for TWD1 acting as a putative activator of ABCB-mediated auxin transport by <i>cis-trans</i> isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds.
Project description:The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.
Project description:Plant development and physiology are widely determined by the polar transport of the signaling molecule auxin. This process is controlled on the cellular efflux level catalyzed by members of the PIN (pin-formed) and ABCB (ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B)/P-glycoprotein family that can function independently and coordinately. In this study, we have identified by means of chemical genomics a novel auxin transport inhibitor (ATI), BUM (2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]benzoic acid), that efficiently blocks auxin-regulated plant physiology and development. In many respects, BUM resembles the functionality of the diagnostic ATI, 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA), but it has an IC(50) value that is roughly a factor 30 lower. Physiological analysis and binding assays identified ABCBs, primarily ABCB1, as key targets of BUM and NPA, whereas PIN proteins are apparently not directly affected. BUM is complementary to NPA by having distinct ABCB target spectra and impacts on basipetal polar auxin transport in the shoot and root. In comparison with the recently identified ATI, gravacin, it lacks interference with ABCB membrane trafficking. Individual modes or targets of action compared with NPA are reflected by apically shifted root influx maxima that might be the result of altered BUM binding preferences or affinities to the ABCB nucleotide binding folds. This qualifies BUM as a valuable tool for auxin research, allowing differentiation between ABCB- and PIN-mediated efflux systems. Besides its obvious application as a powerful weed herbicide, BUM is a bona fide human ABCB inhibitor with the potential to restrict multidrug resistance during chemotherapy.
Project description:The directional distribution of the phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development. Directional auxin transport is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. We have previously shown that efficient PIN1-mediated auxin efflux requires activation through phosphorylation at the four serines S1-S4 in Arabidopsis thaliana The Brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and the BFA-insensitive PINOID (PID) phosphorylate and activate PIN1 through phosphorylation at all four phosphosites. PID, but not D6PK, can also induce PIN1 polarity shifts, seemingly through phosphorylation at S1-S3. The differential effects of D6PK and PID on PIN1 polarity had so far been attributed to their differential phosphosite preference for the four PIN1 phosphosites. We have mapped PIN1 phosphorylation at S1-S4 in situ using phosphosite-specific antibodies. We detected phosphorylation at PIN1 phosphosites at the basal (rootward) as well as the apical (shootward) plasma membrane in different root cell types, in embryos, and shoot apical meristems. Thereby, PIN1 phosphorylation at all phosphosites generally followed the predominant PIN1 distribution but was not restricted to specific polar sides of the cells. PIN1 phosphorylation at the basal and apical plasma membrane was differentially sensitive to BFA treatments, suggesting the involvement of different protein kinases or trafficking mechanisms in PIN1 phosphorylation control. We conclude that phosphosite preferences are not sufficient to explain the differential effects of D6PK and PID on PIN1 polarity, and suggest that a more complex model is needed to explain the effects of PID.
Project description:The protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous and highly conserved enzyme, the activity of which is vital for eukaryotic cells. We recently demonstrated that CK2 modulates salicylic acid (SA) homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana, and that functional interplay between CK2 and SA sustains transcriptional expression of PIN-FORMED (PIN) genes. In this work, we show that CK2 also plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of PINOID (PID), an AGC protein kinase that modulates the apical/basal localization of auxin-efflux transporters. We show that PID transcription is up-regulated by auxin and by SA and that CK2 is involved in both pathways. On the one hand, CK2 activity is required for proteosome-dependent degradation of AXR3, a member of the AUX/IAA family of auxin transcriptional repressors that must be degraded to activate auxin-responsive gene expression. On the other hand, the role of CK2 in SA homeostasis and, indirectly, in SA-driven PID transcription, was confirmed by using Arabidopsis NahG transgenic plants, which cannot accumulate SA. In conclusion, our results evidence a role for CK2 as a functional link in the negative cross-talk between auxin- and SA-signaling.
Project description:Root gravitropism allows plants to establish root systems and its regulation depends on polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PINOID (PID) and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) act antagonistically on reversible phosphorylation of PINs. This regulates polar PIN distribution and auxin transport. Here we show that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1At regulates root gravitropism. Downregulation of Pin1At suppresses root agravitropic phenotypes of pp2aa and 35S:PID, while overexpression of Pin1At affects root gravitropic responses and enhances the pp2aa agravitropic phenotype. Pin1At also affects auxin transport and polar localization of PIN1 in stele cells, which is mediated by PID and PP2A. Furthermore, Pin1At catalyses the conformational change of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs of PIN1. Thus, Pin1At mediates the conformational dynamics of PIN1 and affects PID- and PP2A-mediated regulation of PIN1 polar localization, which correlates with the regulation of root gravitropism.
Project description:In plants many developmental processes are regulated by auxin and its directional transport. PINOID (PID) kinase helps to regulate this transport by influencing polar recruitment of PIN efflux proteins on the cellular membranes. We investigated how altered auxin levels affect leaf growth in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered <i>PID</i> expression levels were used to study the effect on auxin distribution and leaf development. Single knockouts showed small pleiotropic growth defects. Contrastingly, several leaf phenotypes related to changes in auxin concentrations and transcriptional activity were observed in <i>PID</i> overexpression (<i>PID<sup>OE</sup></i> ) lines. Unlike in the knockout lines, the leaves of <i>PID<sup>OE</sup></i> lines showed an elevation in total indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Accordingly, enhanced DR5-visualized auxin responses were detected, especially along the leaf margins. Kinematic analysis revealed that ectopic expression of <i>PID</i> negatively affects cell proliferation and expansion rates, yielding reduced cell numbers and small-sized cells in the <i>PID<sup>OE</sup></i> leaves. We used <i>PID<sup>OE</sup></i> lines as a tool to study auxin dose effects on leaf development and demonstrate that auxin, above a certain threshold, has a negative affect on leaf growth. RNA sequencing further showed how subtle <i>PID<sup>OE</sup></i> -related changes in auxin levels lead to transcriptional reprogramming of cellular processes.
Project description:Auxin is an essential regulator for plant development. To elucidate the mechanisms by which auxin regulates plant development, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant naked pins in yuc mutants 1 (npy1) that develops pin-like inflorescences and fails to initiate any flowers in yuc1 yuc4, a background that is defective in auxin biosynthesis. The phenotypes of npy1 yuc1 yuc4 triple mutants closely resemble those of Arabidopsis mutants pin-formed1 (pin1), pinoid (pid), and monopteros (mp), which are defective in either auxin transport or auxin signaling. NPY1 belongs to a large family of proteins and is homologous to NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3), a BTB/POZ protein that regulates phototropic responses along with the protein kinase PHOT1 (Phototropin 1). We demonstrate that NPY1 works with the protein kinase PID, which is homologous to PHOT1, to regulate auxin-mediated plant development. The npy1 pid double mutants fail to form any cotyledons, a phenotype that is also observed in yuc1 yuc4 pid triple mutants. Interestingly, both auxin-regulated organogenesis and phototropic responses require an auxin response factor (ARF). Disruption of ARF7/NPH4 leads to nonphototropic hypocotyls and arf5/mp forms pin-like inflorescences. Whereas the PHOT1/NPH3 pathway is regulated by light, our data suggest that the PID/NPY1 pathway may be regulated by auxin synthesized by the YUC flavin monooxygenases. Our findings put YUCs, PID, and NPY1 into a genetic framework for further dissecting the mechanisms of auxin action in plant development.
Project description:The phytohormone auxin is a major determinant and regulatory component important for plant development. Auxin transport between cells is mediated by a complex system of transporters such as AUX1/LAX, PIN, and ABCB proteins, and their localization and activity is thought to be influenced by phosphatases and kinases. Flavonols have been shown to alter auxin transport activity and changes in flavonol accumulation in the Arabidopsis thaliana rol1-2 mutant cause defects in auxin transport and seedling development. A new mutation in ROOTS CURL IN NPA 1 (RCN1), encoding a regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP2A, was found to suppress the growth defects of rol1-2 without changing the flavonol content. rol1-2 rcn1-3 double mutants show wild type-like auxin transport activity while levels of free auxin are not affected by rcn1-3. In the rol1-2 mutant, PIN2 shows a flavonol-induced basal-to-apical shift in polar localization which is reversed in the rol1-2 rcn1-3 to basal localization. In vivo analysis of PINOID action, a kinase known to influence PIN protein localization in a PP2A-antagonistic manner, revealed a negative impact of flavonols on PINOID activity. Together, these data suggest that flavonols affect auxin transport by modifying the antagonistic kinase/phosphatase equilibrium.
Project description:Activity of the serine-threonine protein kinase PINOID (PID) has been implicated in the asymmetrical localization of the membrane-associated PINFORMED (PIN) family of auxin transport facilitators. However, the means by which PID regulates PIN protein distribution is unknown. We have used recombinant PID protein to dissect the regulation of PID activity in vitro. We demonstrate that intramolecular PID autophosphorylation is required for the ability of PID to phosphorylate an exogenous substrate. PID-like mammalian AGC kinases act in a phosphorylation cascade initiated by the phospholipid-associated kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which binds to the C-terminal hydrophobic PDK1-interacting fragment (PIF) domain found in PDK1 substrates. We find that Arabidopsis PDK1 interacts with PID, and that transphosphorylation by PDK1 increases PID autophosphorylation. We show that a PID activation loop serine is required for PDK1-dependent PID phosphorylation. This activation is rapid and requires the PIF domain. Cell extracts from flowers and seedling shoots dramatically increase PID phosphorylation in a tissue-specific manner. A PID protein variant in which the PIF domain was mutated failed to be activated by the seedling shoot extracts. PID immunoprecipitated from Arabidopsis cells in which PDK1 expression was inhibited by RNAi showed a dramatic reduction in transphosphorylation of myelin basic protein substrate. These results indicate that AtPDK1 is a potent enhancer of PID activity and provide evidence that phospholipid signaling may play a role in the signaling processes controlling polar auxin transport.