Neuroprotection by interleukin-6 is mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and antioxidative signaling in ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect in brain ischemic injury. However, its molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) by IL-6 in the reactive oxygen species defense system after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI).IL-6 was injected in mice before and after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Coimmunoprecipitation assays were performed for analysis of an IL-6R association after tFCI. Primary mouse cerebral cortical neurons were transfected with small interfering RNA probes targeted to IL-6R? or gp130 and were used for chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay, luciferase promoter assay, and cell viability assay. Reduction in infarct volumes by IL-6 was measured after tFCI.IL-6R was disrupted through a disassembly between IL-6R? and gp130 associated by protein oxidation after reperfusion after tFCI. This suppressed phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and finally induced neuronal cell death through a decrease in manganese-superoxide dismutase. However, IL-6 injections prevented disruption of IL-6R against reperfusion after tFCI, consequently restoring activity of STAT3 through recovery of the binding of STAT3 to gp130. Moreover, IL-6 injections restored the transcriptional activity of the manganese-superoxide dismutase promoter through recovery of the recruitment of STAT3 to the manganese-superoxide dismutase promoter and reduced infarct volume after tFCI.This study demonstrates that IL-6 has a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemic injury through IL-6R-mediated STAT3 activation and manganese-superoxide dismutase expression.
Project description:Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion increase superoxide anions (O(2)(*-)) in brain mitochondria. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD; SOD2), a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, scavenges superoxide radicals and its overexpression provides neuroprotection. However, the regulatory mechanism of Mn-SOD expression during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is still unclear. In this study, we identified the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a transcription factor of the mouse Mn-SOD gene, and elucidated the mechanism of O(2)(*-) overproduction after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). We found that Mn-SOD expression is significantly reduced by reperfusion in the cerebral ischemic brain. We also found that activated STAT3 is usually recruited into the mouse Mn-SOD promoter and upregulates transcription of the mouse Mn-SOD gene in the normal brain. However, at early postreperfusion periods after tFCI, STAT3 was rapidly downregulated, and its recruitment into the Mn-SOD promoter was completely blocked. In addition, transcriptional activity of the mouse Mn-SOD gene was significantly reduced by STAT3 inhibition in primary cortical neurons. Moreover, we found that STAT3 deactivated by reperfusion induces accumulation of O(2)(*-) in mitochondria. The loss of STAT3 activity induced neuronal cell death by reducing Mn-SOD expression. Using SOD2-/+ heterozygous knock-out mice, we found that Mn-SOD is a direct target of STAT3 in reperfusion-induced neuronal cell death. Our study demonstrates that STAT3 is a novel transcription factor of the mouse Mn-SOD gene and plays a crucial role as a neuroprotectant in regulating levels of reactive oxygen species in the mouse brain.
Project description:IL-6 activates T(H)17 cells and regulates the response of B lymphocytes and regulatory T cells. The IL-6 receptor and the membrane protein, glycoprotein 130 (gp130), form an active signaling complex that signals through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and other signaling molecules. Both the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and gp130 can be found in soluble forms that regulate the pathway.We measured IL-6 signaling components and IL-17 in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), and controls to assess the IL-6 pathway in CRS.IL-6, soluble IL-6R, soluble gp130 (sgp130), and IL-17 were measured in sinus tissue extracts and in nasal lavage fluid by either cytokine bead array or ELISA. phosphoSTAT3 (p-STAT3) was determined by Western blot and by immunohistochemistry.IL-6 protein was significantly (P < .001) increased in CRSwNP compared with CRSsNP and controls. Soluble IL-6R was also increased in nasal polyp compared with control tissue (P < .01). Despite elevated IL-6 and sIL-6R, IL-17A, E, and F were undetectable in the sinus tissue from most of the patients with CRS and controls. p-STAT3 levels were reduced in the polyp tissue, possibly indicating reduced activity of IL-6 in the tissue. sgp130 was elevated in CRSwNP compared with CRSsNP and controls.p-STAT3 levels are decreased in CRSwNP despite increased levels of IL-6 and sIL-6R and are associated with the absence of an IL-17 response. This may be a response to elevated levels of sgp130, a known inhibitor of IL-6 signaling. These results indicate that IL-6 and its signaling pathway may be altered in CRSwNP.
Project description:Studies indicate that elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels engage IL6R?-gp130 receptor complexes to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that is hyperactivated in many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Our previous HCS campaign identified several hits that selectively blocked IL-6-induced STAT3 activation. This study describes our investigation of the mechanism(s) of action of three of the four chemical series that progressed to lead activities: a triazolothiadiazine (864669), amino alcohol (856350), and an oxazole-piperazine (4248543). We demonstrated that all three blocked IL-6-induced upregulation of the cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL STAT3 target genes. None of the compounds exhibited direct binding interactions with STAT3 in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays; neither did they inhibit the recruitment and binding of a phospho-tyrosine-gp130 peptide to STAT3 in a fluorescence polarization assay. Furthermore, they exhibited little or no inhibition in a panel of 83 cancer-associated in vitro kinase profiling assays, including lack of inhibition of IL-6-induced Janus kinase (JAK 1, 2, and 3) activation. Further, 864669 and 4248543 selectively inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 activation but not that induced by oncostatin M (OSM). The compounds 864669 and 4248543 abrogated IL-6-induced phosphorylation of the gp130 signaling subunit (phospho-gp130Y905) of the IL-6-receptor complex in HNSCC cell lines which generate docking sites for the SH2 domains of STAT3. Our data indicate that 864669 and 4248543 block IL-6-induced STAT activation by interfering with the recruitment, assembly, or activation of the hexamer-activated IL-6/IL-6R?/gp130 signaling complex that occurs after IL-6 binding to IL-6R? subunits.
Project description:Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling is a crucial regulatory event important for many biological functions, such as inflammation and tissue regeneration. Accordingly, several pathological conditions are associated with dysregulated IL-6 activity, making it an attractive therapeutic target. For instance, blockade of IL-6 or its ?-receptor (IL-6R) by monoclonal antibodies has been successfully used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, based on different signaling modes, IL-6 function varies between pro- and anti-inflammatory activity, which is critical for therapeutic intervention. So far, three modes of IL-6 signaling have been described, the classic anti-inflammatory signaling, as well as pro-inflammatory trans-signaling, and trans-presentation. The IL-6/IL-6R complex requires an additional ?-receptor (gp130), which is expressed on almost all cells of the human body, to induce STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of signal transcription 3) phosphorylation and subsequent transcriptional regulation. In contrast, the IL-6R is expressed on a limited number of cells, including hepatocytes and immune cells. However, the proteolytic release of the IL-6R enables trans-signaling on cells expressing gp130 only. Here, we demonstrate a fourth possibility of IL-6 signaling that we termed joint reconstituted signaling (JRS). We show that IL-6R on extracellular vesicles (EVs) can also be transported to and fused with other cells that lack the IL-6R on their surface. Importantly, JRS via EVs induces delayed STAT3 phosphorylation compared to the well-established trans-signaling mode. EVs isolated from human serum were already shown to carry the IL-6R, and thus this new signaling mode should be considered with regard to signal intervention.
Project description:Although regulated ectodomain shedding affects a large panel of structurally and functionally unrelated proteins, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this process. Despite a lack of sequence similarities around cleavage sites, most proteins are shed in response to the stimulation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters. The signal-transducing receptor subunit gp130 is not a substrate of the regulated shedding machinery. We generated several chimaeric proteins of gp130 and the proteins tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R), which are known to be subject to shedding. By exchanging small peptide sequences of gp130 for cleavage-site peptides of TNF-alpha, TGF-alpha and IL-6R we showed that these short sequences conferred susceptibility to spontaneous and phorbol-ester-induced shedding of gp130. Importantly, these chimaeric gp130 proteins were functional, as shown by the phosphorylation of gp130 and the activation of signal transduction and activators of transcription 3 ('STAT3') on stimulation with cytokine. To investigate minimal requirements for shedding, truncated cleavage-site peptides of IL-6R were inserted into gp130. The resulting chimaeras were susceptible to shedding and showed the same cleavage pattern as observed in the chimaeras containing the complete IL-6R cleavage site. Surprisingly, we could also generate cleavable chimaeras by exchanging the juxtamembrane sequence of gp130 for the corresponding region of leukaemia inhibitory factor ('LIF') receptor, a protein that like gp130 is not subject to regulated or spontaneous shedding. Thus it seems that there is no minimal consensus shedding sequence. We speculate that structural changes allow the access of the protease to a membrane-proximal region, leading to shedding of the protein.
Project description:In murine models of Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and colon cancer, IL-6 (interleukin-6) signalling via the sIL-6R (soluble IL-6 receptor; termed IL-6 trans-signalling) has been shown to promote the pathology associated with these conditions. These detrimental activities can, however, be selectively blocked by soluble forms of the gp130 (glycoprotein 130) receptor. Although sgp130 (soluble gp130) therefore represents a viable therapeutic modality for the treatment of these conditions, the mass manufacture of such biologics is often expensive. The advent of molecular farming has, however, provided an extremely cost-effective strategy for the engineering of recombinant proteins. Here, we describe the expression and production of a biologically active sgp130 variant that is expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as an ELP (elastin-like peptide)-fusion protein (mini-gp130-ELP). Mini-gp130-ELP consists of the first three domains of gp130 (Ig-like domain and cytokine binding module) fused to 100 repeats of ELP. Expression of mini-gp130-ELP did not affect the growth rate or morphology of the transgenic plants, and purification was achieved using inverse transition cycling. This approach led to an overall yield of 141 microg of purified protein per g of fresh leaf weight. The purified mini-gp130-ELP specifically inhibited sIL-6R-mediated trans-signalling as measured by binding to the IL-6-sIL-6R complex and through its ability to block sIL-6R-mediated activation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation and proliferation in human hepatoma cells and murine pre-B-cells. Consequently, the present study validates the potential application of molecular farming in transgenic tobacco plants as a strategy for the expression and purification of therapeutically advantageous biologics such as sgp130.
Project description:The participation of a specific subset of B cells and how they are regulated in cancer is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the proportion of CD5(+) relative to interleukin-6 receptor ? (IL-6R?)-expressing B cells was greatly increased in tumors. CD5(+) B cells responded to IL-6 in the absence of IL-6R?. IL-6 directly bound to CD5, leading to activation of the transcription factor STAT3 via gp130 and its downstream kinase JAK2. STAT3 upregulated CD5 expression, thereby forming a feed-forward loop in the B cells. In mouse tumor models, CD5(+) but not CD5(-) B cells promoted tumor growth. CD5(+) B cells also showed activation of STAT3 in multiple types of human tumor tissues. Thus, our findings demonstrate a critical role of CD5(+) B cells in promoting cancer.
Project description:IL-6 classic signaling is linked to anti-inflammatory functions while the trans-signaling is associated with pro-inflammatory responses. Classic signaling is induced via membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) whereas trans-signaling requires prior binding of IL-6 to the soluble IL-6R. In both cases, association with the signal transducing gp130 receptor is compulsory. However, differences in the downstream signaling mechanisms of IL-6 classic- versus trans-signaling remains largely elusive.In this study, we used flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, ELISA and immuno-blotting techniques to investigate IL-6 classic and trans-signaling mechanisms in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).We show that both IL-6R and gp130 are expressed on the surface of human vascular endothelial cells, and that the expression is affected by pro-inflammatory stimuli. In contrast to IL-6 classic signaling, IL-6 trans-signaling induces the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) from human vascular endothelial cells. In addition, we reveal that the classic signaling induces activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway while trans-signaling also activates the PI3K/AKT and the MEK/ERK pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MCP-1 induction by IL-6 trans-signaling requires simultaneous activation of the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT pathways.Collectively, our study reports molecular differences in IL-6 classic- and trans-signaling in human vascular endothelial cells; and elucidates the pathways which mediate MCP-1 induction by IL-6 trans-signaling.
Project description:A number of secreted cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), are attractive targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. We have determined the solution structure of mouse IL-6 to assess the functional significance of apparent differences in the receptor interaction sites (IL-6R? and gp130) suggested by the fairly low degree of sequence similarity with human IL-6. Structure-based sequence alignment of mouse IL-6 and human IL-6 revealed surprising differences in the conservation of the two distinct gp130 binding sites (IIa and IIIa), which suggests a primacy for site III-mediated interactions in driving initial assembly of the IL-6/IL-6R?/gp130 ternary complex. This is further supported by a series of direct binding experiments, which clearly demonstrate a high affinity IL-6/IL-6R?-gp130 interaction via site III but only weak binding via site II. Collectively, our findings suggest a pathway for the evolution of the hexameric, IL-6/IL-6R?/gp130 signaling complex and strategies for therapeutic targeting. We propose that the signaling complex originally involved specific interactions between IL-6 and IL-6R? (site I) and between the D1 domain of gp130 and IL-6/IL-6R? (site III), with the later inclusion of interactions between the D2 and D3 domains of gp130 and IL-6/IL-6R? (site II) through serendipity. It seems likely that IL-6 signaling benefited from the evolution of a multipurpose, nonspecific protein interaction surface on gp130, now known as the cytokine binding homology region (site II contact surface), which fortuitously contributes to stabilization of the IL-6/IL-6R?/gp130 signaling complex.
Project description:The interleukin (IL)-6/glycoprotein (GP)130/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 pathway is emerging as a target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. IL-6 binds to IL-6R, forming a binary complex, which further combines with GP130 to transduce extracellular signaling by activating STAT3. Therefore, blocking the interaction between IL-6 and GP130 may inhibit the IL-6/GP130/STAT3 signaling pathway and its biological effects. It has been reported that bazedoxifene acetate (BAZ), a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, could inhibit IL-6/GP130 protein-protein interactions. Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, wound healing and colony formation assays were used to detect the effect of BAZ on liver cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis of cells was determined using the Annexin V-FITC detection kit. Mouse xenograft tumor models were utilized to evaluate the effect of BAZ in vivo. Our data showed that BAZ inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation (P-STAT3) and expression of STAT3 downstream genes, inducing apoptosis in liver cancer cells. BAZ inhibited P-STAT3 induced by IL-6, but not by leukemia inhibitory factor. BAZ inhibited P-STAT1 and P-STAT6 less significantly as elicited by interferon-α, interferon-γ and IL-4. In addition, pretreatment of BAZ impeded the translocation of STAT3 to nuclei induced by IL-6. BAZ inhibited cell viability, wound healing and colony formation in vitro. Furthermore, tumor growth in HEPG2 mouse xenografts were significantly inhibited by daily intragastric gavage of BAZ. Our results suggest that BAZ inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo, indicating another potential strategy for HCC prevention and therapy.